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Bible Encyclopedias

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature

Mede

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(Hebrews Maday', מָדִי, a word of Indian origin, meaning, according to Gesenius, Thes. Hebrews p. 768, the middle country, from its position, as in Polybius, v. 44; Auth. Vers. "Medes," "Media," "Madai," Genesis 10:2; 2 Kings 17:6; 2 Kings 18:11; 1 Chronicles 1:5; Esther 1:3; Esther 1:14; Esther 1:18-19; Esther 10:2; Isaiah 13:17; Isaiah 21:2; Jeremiah 25:25; Jeremiah 51:11; Jeremiah 51:28; Daniel 8:20; Daniel 9:1; also Madi', מָדַי, "Mede," Daniel 11:1; Chald. Maday', מָדִי "Mede," "Medes," Ezra 6:2; Daniel 5:28; Daniel 6:8; Daniel 6:12; Daniel 6:15; and Madaah', מָדָאָה "Me, "Median," or Madaa', מָדָיֹא, Daniel 5:31; Gr. Μῆδος ), the ethnographic title of a Median, or inhabitant of Media; the same of that of MADAI (See MADAI) [q.v.]. The Hebrew form, "which occurs in Genesis 10:2, among the list of the sons of Japhet, has been commonly regarded as a personal appellation; and most commentators call Madai the third son of Japhet, and the progenitor of the Medes. But it is extremely doubtful whether, in the mind of the writer of Genesis 10, the term Madai was regarded as representing a person. That the genealogies in the chapter are to some extent ethnic is universally allowed, and may be seen even in our Authorized Version (Genesis 10:16-18). As Gomer, Magog, Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, which are conjoined in Genesis 10:2 with Madai, are elsewhere in Scripture always ethnic and not personal appellatives (Ezekiel 27:13; Ezekiel 38:6; Ezekiel 39:6; Daniel 8:21; Joel 3:6; Psalms 120:5; Isaiah 66:19, etc.), so it is probable that they stand for nations rather than persons here. In. that case no one would regard Madai as a person; and we must remember that it is the exact word used elsewhere throughout Scripture for the well-known nation of the Medes. Probably, therefore, all that the writer intends to assert in Genesis 10:2 is that the Medes, as well as the Gomerites, Greeks, Tibareni, Moschi, etc., descended from Japhet. Modern science has found that, both in physical type and in language, the Medes belong to that family of the human race which embraces the Cymry and the GrecoRomnans" (see Prichard's Phys. Hist. of Mankind, 4:650; chap. x, § 2-4; and comp. the article on MEDIA). For " Darius the Mede," (See DARIUS).'

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Bibliography Information
McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Mede'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/tce/m/mede.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.

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