Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #0834 - אֲשֶׁר
1) (relative participle)
1a) which, who
1b) that which
2a) that (in object clause)
2e) conditional if
1480) rs (סהר ShR) AC: Tie CO: Cord AB: ?: The pictograph s is a picture of the teeth representing pressure, the r is a picture of the head representing the top or beginning. Combined these mean "press the beginning". Ropes and cords were usually made of bark strips such as from the cedar or from the sinew (tendon) of an animal. The rope is made by twisting two fibers together. A single fiber is attached to a fixed point (top) , and the two ends of the fiber are brought together. One fiber is twisted in a clockwise direction and wrapped over the other fiber in counter clockwise direction. The second fiber is then twisted in clockwise direction then wrapped around the first fiber in a counter clockwise direction. The process is repeated through the length of the rope. The twisting of the fibers in opposite directions causes the fibers to lock (press) onto each other making a stronger rope. The rope is used to tightly secure or support something, such as a load to a cart or the poles of the tent.
efjm/f ) nfiris (סהיריונ ShYRYWN) - Harness: An armor made from tightly wound cords of leather. KJV (11): habergeon, coat, harness, breastplate, brigadine - Strongs: H5630 (סִרְיוֹן), H8302 (שִׁרְיֹנָה)
Nm) rsa (אסהר AShR) - I. Happy:One who is happy is one whose life is lived straightly. II. Which:Or who, what or that. As a rope attaches two objects together, this word links the action of the sentence to the one doing the action. [The short form " s " is used as a prefix meaning "who" or "which"] KJV (156): blessed, happy, which, wherewith, because, when, soon, as, that, until much, whosoever, whom, whose - Strongs: H834 (אֲשֶׁר), H835 (אֶשֶׁר)
Nm) ras (סהאר ShAR) - I. Remnant:What is left behind. II. Kin:A near relative of another tribe. KJV (54): flesh, kinswoman, food, near, nigh, kin, body, kinsman, remnant, rest, residue, other - Strongs: H7605 (שְׁאָר), H7606 (שְׁאָר), H7607 (שְׁאֵר)
V) ers (סהרה ShRH) - Loose: To untie something or to let something go. [Hebrew and Aramaic] KJV (9): (vf: Paal, Piel) loose, dissolve, dwell, began - Strongs: H8271 (שְׁרָא), H8281 (שָׁרָה), H8293 (שֵׁרוּת)
V) rfs (סהור ShWR) - I. Caravan:To travel as a group of merchants with loads. II. See:[Unknown connection to root] KJV (18): (vf: Paal, Participle) went, sing, behold, see, look, observe, wait, regard, perceive - Strongs: H7788 (שׁוּר), H7789 (שׁוּר)
Nm) rfs (סהור ShWR) - I. Ox:Used for pulling heavy loads. [Hebrew and Aramaic] II. Wall:As tied around a city. [Hebrew and Aramaic] III. Enemy:As one who is to be tied up. KJV (93): ox, bullock, cow, bull, enemy, wall - Strongs: H7790 (שׁוּר), H7791 (שׁוּרָה), H7792 (שׁוּר), H7794 (שׁוֹר), H8450 (תּוֹר)
L) rsi (יסהר YShR) AC: ? CO: Cord AB: ?: A tight rope is straight. A righteous one is one who is straight and firmly holds up truth just as the cord is straight and firmly holds the wall of the tent upright.
V) rsi (יסהר YShR) - I. Straight:To be in a straight line, path or thought. II. Remnant:[df: rty] KJV (134): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Hiphil, Pual, Piel, Participle) please, straight, direct, right, well, fit, good, meet, upright, remain, leave, rest, remainder, remnant, reserve, residue, plenteous, behind, excel, preserve - Strongs: H3474 (יָשַׁר), H3498 (יָתַר)
Nm ) rsi (יסהר YShR) - I. Cord:The cord of the bow. [df: rty]II. Straight:A straight line, path or thought. III. Remnant:[df: rty] KJV (220): cord, string, right, upright, righteous, straight, convenient, equity, just, meet, well, rest, remnant, residue, leave, excellency, exceeding, excellent, plentifully - Strongs: H3477 (יָשָׁר), H3499 (יֶתֶר)
km) rsim (מיסהר MYShR) - I. Cord: II. Straight:What is straight. [df: rtym] KJV (28): cord, string, equity, uprightly, uprightness, right, agreement, aright, equal, sweetly - Strongs: H4339 (מֵישָׁרִים), H4340 (מֵיתָר)
Jeff Brenner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
אֲשֶׁר (A) relat. pron. of both genders and numbers, who, which, that. (In the later Hebrew, and in the Rabbinic, is used the shorter form שֶׁ·, שְׁ; [“which was elsewhere used only by the Phœnicians;”] in the other cognate languages the relative takes its forms from the demonstrative זֶה, viz. Ch. דִּי, דְּ, Syr. ܕ, Samar., Arab. الذى, i.q. הַלָּזֶּה, Eth. ዘ፡ who, compare ዝ፡ this. As to the origin, see the note.) The varied use of the relative belongs in full to syntax, the following remarks only are here given.
(1) Before the relative, the pronoun he, she, it, is often omitted, e.g. Numbers 22:6, וַאֲשֶׁר תָּאֹר “and he whom thou cursest;” Ruth 2:2; Exodus 4:12; Joshua 2:10. The same pronoun has also to be supplied whenever prepositions are prefixed to the relative, לַאֲשֶׁר “to him who,” Genesis 43:16 “to those who,” Genesis 47:24 אֶת־אֲשֶׁר “him who,” “that which;” מֵאֲשֶׁר “from those who,” Isaiah 47:13. Sometimes the omitted pronoun applies to place, as אֶל־אֲשֶׁר “to that place which,” Exodus 32:34 בַּאֲשֶׁר “where” pr. “in that (place) which,” Ruth 1:17 Lehrg. § 198.
(2) אֲשֶׁר is often merely the sign of relation, which serves to give to substantives, adverbs, and pronouns, a relative power, as אֲשֶׁר אֶת־עָפָר “which dust,” Genesis 13:16 אֲשֶׁר אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶה “which field,” Genesis 49:30 אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם where (from שָׁם there), אֲשֶׁר מִשָּׁם whence (from מִשָּׁם thence), אֲשֶׁר לוֹ to whom (from לוֹ to him), אֲשֶׁר בּוֹ in whom, אֲשֶׁר מִמֶּנּוּ from whom, אֲשֶׁר לְשֹׁנוֹ whose tongue, Deuteronomy 28:49, and this is the regular way in Hebrew of expressing the oblique cases of the relative (Lehrg. p. 743), with the exception of a few examples which, as far as I know, have been noticed by no one, viz. בַּאֲשֶׁר, Isaiah 47:12, for אֲשֶׁר בָּהֶם (Targ. בְּהוֹן-דְּ, Syr. ܒܗܘܽܢ-ܕ), and עִם אֲשֶׁר Genesis 31:32, for אֲשֶׁר עִמּוֹ with whom.
(3) אֲשֶׁר לְ is used as a circumlocution of the genitive (like the Talmudic שֶׁל), especially where many genitives depend upon one governing noun, and in the later Hebrew, as 1 Samuel 21:8, אַבִּיר הָרֹעִים אֲשֶׁר לְשָׁאוּל “the chief of the herdsmen of Saul;” Song of Solomon 1:1, שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים אֲשֶׁר לִשְׁלֹמֹה “the song of songs of Solomon.” See Lehrg. p. 672, 673.
(4) In the later Hebrew אֲשֶׁר is sometimes redundant, like the Aram. דִּי, דְּ e.g. Esther 1:12, דְּבַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר בְּיַד הַסָּרִיסִים, compare verse 13, where אֲשֶׁר is omitted. Comp. 2 Samuel 9:8. See below under the word דִּי.
(B) It becomes a conjunction like the Hebrew כִּי, Aram. דִּי, ܕ, Ethiop. ዘ፡ Gr. ὅτι, Lat. quod, Germ. daß, fo (which latter word had also in the ancient language, a relative power, as in Ulphilas, sa, so, thata, who, which). Its various significations, almost all of which are found in כִּי, are
(1) quod, that, after verbs of seeing, hearing, knowing (Exodus 11:7); finding (Ecclesiastes 7:29); saying (Esther 3:4); confessing (Leviticus 5:5); swearing (1 Kings 22:16), etc.; also after nouns of a like power, Isaiah 38:7; Ecclesiastes 5:4. How the neuter relative is used with this power may be seen by the following examples; Joshua 2:10, שָׁמַעְנוּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־הוֹבִישׁ יְהֹוָה אֶת־מֵי יַם־סוּף “we have heard that which Jehovah dried up, the waters of the Red sea;” 1 Samuel 24:11, 19 1 Samuel 24:19; 2 Samuel 11:20; 2 Kings 8:12; Deuteronomy 29:15; Isaiah 38:7, “let this be for a sign to thee which” (that), etc. Comp. No. 11.
(2) ut, that, in order that, indicating design and purpose, followed by a future; Deuteronomy 4:40, “and his statutes which I command thee this day, observe diligently, אֲשֶׁר יִיטַב לְךָ וּלְבָנֶיךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ that it may be well with thee and thy children after thee;” Deuteronomy 6:3; Ruth 3:1; Genesis 11:7, 22:14 2 Kings 9:37; Psalms 144:12. Also after a verb of asking, Daniel 1:8. More fully, לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר in order that (see מַעַן ); once אֶת־אֲשֶׁר Ezekiel 36:27. It is
(3) causal because that, because, followed by a pret., Genesis 30:18, 31:49 34:27 Joshua 4:7, 22:31 1 Kings 15:5; Ecclesiastes 4:9 rarely by a future, when used of an uncertain thing, 1 Kings 8:33 (comp. 2 Chronicles 6:24, where for it there is כִּי). More fully תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר, יַעַן אֲשֶׁר; see No.11. [“Like כִּי it is also put at the beginning of an answer, assigning a reason where one has been demanded; 1 Samuel 15:19, ‘wherefore then didst not thou obey the voice of the Lord, but didst fly upon the spoil …? 20, And Saul said unto Samuel because that (אֲשֶׁר) I have obeyed the voice of the Lord, … and have brought Agag … and have utterly destroyed the Amalekites,’ i.e. because in doing as I have done, I have obeyed (I think) the divine command. Vulgate ‘imo audivi vocem Domini.’ ” Ges. add.] Sometimes it may be more suitably rendered nam, for, Deuteronomy 3:24 (LXX., Vulg., Syr.). Here belongs אֲשֶׁר לָמָּה Daniel 1:10 (compare שַׁלָּמָה Song of Solomon 1:7); prop. nam quare? for why? wherefore? hence, i.q. ne, lest, Syr. ܕܰܠܡܐܳ; see under מָה.
(4) conditional, if (compare Germ. fo du geheft). Leviticus 4:22 (comp. אִם verses, 27 ); Deuteronomy 11:27 (comp. אִם verse 28 Deuteronomy 11:28); 18:22 1 Kings 8:31 (comp. 2 Chronicles 6:22); Ch. 6:29 followed by a future, Genesis 30:38; Isaiah 31:4; Joshua 4:21. Rarely it is concessive, etsi, although (Germ. fo auch, for wenn auch), Ecclesiastes 8:12.
(5) at what time, when, quum, ὅτε, followed by a pret., Deuteronomy 11:6, “when the earth opened its mouth;” 1 Kings 8:9; Psalms 139:15; 2 Chronicles 35:20, אֲשֶׁר הֵכִין יאֹשִׁיָּה אֶת־הַבַּיִת “when Josiah had repaired the temple” (compare Syr. ܕ; Mark 11:3; Matthew 26:54, 28:1 ).
(6) where, ubi, οὗ for אֲשֶׁר שָׁם. Numbers 20:13; Psalms 95:9; Isaiah 64:10 and for אֲשֶׁר שָׁמָּה whither, whithersoever, Numbers 13:27; Psalms 84:4; Isaiah 55:11. (Comp. Syr. ܕ; Hebrews 3:9 for οὗ.)
(7) i.q. כַּאֲשֶׁר as, like as (fo wie), in protasis, Exodus 14:13 (LXX. ὃν τρόπον); 1 Kings 8:24. Followed by כֵּן Jeremiah 33:22. Also how, in what way, Job 37:17, “(knowest thou) אֲשֶׁר בְּגָדֶיךָ חַמִּים in what way thy garments become warm?”
(8) As a sign of apodosis, like כִּי No. 6, Germ. fo, then, so. Preceded by אִם Isaiah 8:20, אִם לֹא יאֹמְרוּ כַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לוֹ שַׁחַר “if they speak not according to this word, then there is to them no dawn.” Like כִּי and וְ (see Lehrg. 723), it is put also when there precedes a nominative absolute; 2 Samuel 2:4, “the men of Jabesh-Gilead אֲשֶׁר קָֽבְרוּ אֶת־שָׁאוּל (they) buried Saul;” and with other absolute cases, especially when denoting time and place. Zechariah 8:23, בַּיָּמִים הַהֵמָּה אֲשֶׁר יַחֲזִיקוּ “in those days then they shall take hold,” Germ. in jenen Tagen, da ergreifen, etc. Deuteronomy 1:31, בַּמִּדְבָּר אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתָ “in the desert, there thou sawest;” compare 2 Samuel 14:15, וְעַתָּה אֲשֶׁר בָּאתִי Germ. und nun, fo bin ich gekommen (Ch. כְּעַן דְּ).
(This usage of this particle has been altogether denied, and it has been stated to be entirely foreign to it, by Ewald in Heb. Gramm. p.650, who appears to have overlooked the particles כִּי, ܕ, דְּ, German fo, of altogether the same origin and signification; nor should he have given the passage in Isaiah without regard to the context, “let us turn to the law, so may they say, in whom there is no dawn,” i.e. those who despair. Also ellipsis of the words let there be, there are, is unsuitable, which is brought forward in other examples, as Zechariah 8:23; 2 Samuel 2:4.)
(9) It is prefixed to a direct citation of something said, like כִּי No. 7, דִּי, ὅτι. 1 Samuel 15:19, לָמָּה לֹא שָׁמַעְתָּ בְּקוֹל יְהֹוָה “why hast thou not hearkened to the voice of Jehovah? 20, And Saul said to Samuel; אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַעְתִּי בְּקוֹל יְהֹוָה Vulg. imo audivi vocem Domini, yea I have hearkened to the voice of Jehovah.” [But see above, No.3.] It seems to be strongly affirmative and even intensifying the sentence. There are also other examples in which
(10) it appears to mark gradation, yea, even, for the more full עַד אֲשֶׁר until that, ὧδε ὅτι, fogar. Job 5:5, אֲשֶׁר קְצִירוֹ רָעֵב יאֹכֵל “yea even his own harvest the hungry man eateth.” In the other member אֶל־מִצִּנִּים יִקָּחֵהוּ “not his posterity only (ver. Job 5:4), but he himself is threatened with destruction;” compare Job 9:15, 19:27 Psalms 8:2, 10:6.
(11) Prepositions to which it is joined are converted into conjunctions, as אַחַר אֲשֶׁר afterwards, עַד אֲשֶׁר until that, לְבַד מֵאֲשֶׁר besides that (Esther 4:11), לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר in order that, תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר, בַּעֲבוּר אֲשֶׁר, עַל אֲשֶׁר, עַל דְּבַר אֲשֶׁר, יַעַן אֲשֶׁר, מֵאֲשֶׁר, כְּפִי אֲשֶׁר, מִפְּנֵי אֲשֶׁר, עֵקֶב אֲשֶׁר in that, because; compare Lehrg. p.636. Once אֲשֶׁר is prefixed, אֲשֶׁר עַל כֵּן Job 34:27, i.q. עַל כֵּן אֲשֶׁר and כִּי עַל כֵּן because that, because.
It is compounded with prefixes
(1) where, wheresoever, Ruth 1:17; Judges 5:27, 17:9 followed by שָׁם there, Job 39:30. Fully בַּאֲשֶׁר־שָׁם Genesis 21:17, and בִּמְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר שָׁם 2 Samuel 15:21. The same sense maybe retained, 1 Samuel 23:13 Ki. 8:1, where it is commonly rendered whither, whithersoever, for אֲשֶׁר שָׁמָּה.
(2) in that, because, i.q. Syr. ܒܰܕ Genesis 39:9, 23 Genesis 39:23.
(3) בַּאֲשֶׁר לְ on account of, where it assumes the nature of a preposition, Jonah 1:8. Contractedly is used בְּשֶׁל Jonah 1:7, 12 Jonah 1:12. Both these answer to the Syriac ܒܕܝܺܠ on account of.
II. כַּאֲשֶׁר see under כְּ.
III. מֵאֲשֶׁר in that, Isaiah 43:4.
Note.-I have given some conjectures as to the origin of the relative in Thes. p. 165, referring it to the root אָשַׁר; Ewald, on the other hand, p. 647, regards אֲשֶׁר as i.q. אסר and as denoting conjunction. Now after a more extended comparison with the Indo-Germanic languages, it appears that it should be differently regarded. For, שַׁ·שֶׁ·אֲשֶׁר, שְׁ, equally with the other relative pronouns (see above, letter A), seem to have had anciently a demonstrative power, which is expressed in the languages both Phœnicio-Shemitic and Indo-Germanic, both by the letters d, or t, which may be called demonstrative (Deutelaut), especially sibilated and aspirated, and also by a mere sibilant and a mere aspiration, to which is commonly added a simple vowel, and sometimes, besides, a final consonant (1, n, r, s, t). Comp. a) דָּא, דִּי, דְּ, τό, Goth. tho, the, and with an added consonant; Sanscr. tad, Goth. that; Anglo-Sax. thœre (who), Swed. ther; der; Ch. דֵּן, דֵּךְ; τῆνος: also with a prefixed vowel אֵת (which see), אֹת, αὐτός: b) זֶה, זוֹ, זוּ, Arab. ذو, ذى, ذا, Eth. ዘ፡ c) Sanscr. sas, sa (tad); Goth. sa, so (that) = ὁ, ἡ, τὸ, Germ. fie, fo (quœ), Engl. she, Hebr. שֶׁ·שְׁ, אֲשֶׁר; d) הוּא, הִיא, هو, هى, Hebr. and Ch. הֵן, ܐܶܢ, הַךְ ; אִם art. הַל, أَلْ, (אֵלֶּה) אֵל, Engl. and lower Germ. he, Swed. and Iceland. aer, Germ. er, es, Lat. is, id.-These words might easily be added to and enlarged, compare under the word אֵת No. I. The forms beginning with a sibilant, as (א)שֶׁר, are given under letter (c), ר is added at the end in the correlatives der (thære, ther), er, mer. Therefore, as far as origin is concerned, the prefix שׁ· appears to be an older form than אשׁר; although it must be acknowledged that in the monuments of the Hebrew tongue which we have, the fuller form appears to be the more ancient, and the shorter almost peculiar to the later books. As to the signification, it appears to be an error to regard it (as I did myself in the larger Lex. first ed.) as primarily having the power of mere relation (see A, 2), for in all languages, relatives are taken from demonstratives (sometimes from interrogatives), with a slight change; see above letter A), also Arab. الذى.
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