Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

John 18:33

Therefore Pilate entered again into the Praetorium, and summoned Jesus and said to Him, "Are You the King of the Jews?"
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Indictments;   Jesus, the Christ;   Pilate, Pontius;   Pleading;   Pretorium;   Prisoners;   Thompson Chain Reference - Courts;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Courts of Justice;   Prophecies Respecting Christ;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Pretorium;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Confession;   King;   Messiah;   Rome;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Persecution;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Judgment Hall;   Pilate, Pontius;   Praetorium;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Judgment Hall;   Paul;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Archaeology and Biblical Study;   Roman Law;   Trial of Jesus;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - King;   Pilate;   Praetorium;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Hall;   Judgment-Hall;   Names and Titles of Christ;   Palace;   Palace ;   Pilate;   Praetorium;   Questions and Answers;   Trial of Jesus;   Worldliness (2);   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Judgement-Hall;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Judgment hall;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Judgment Hall;   Praeto'rium;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Judgment Hall;   Palace;   Pilate, Pontius;   Praetorium;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Art thou the king of the Jews? - St. Luke says, expressly, Luke 23:2, that when the Jews brought him to Pilate they began to accuse him as a rebel, who said he was king of the Jews, and forbade the people to pay tribute to Caesar. It was in consequence of this accusation that Pilate asked the question mentioned in the text.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on John 18:33". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/john-18.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Art thou the King of the Jews? - This was after they had accused him of perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, Luke 23:2-3.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on John 18:33". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/john-18.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

Pilate therefore entered again into the Praetorium, and called Jesus, and said unto him, Art thou the King of the Jews? Jesus answered, Sayest thou this of thyself, or did others tell it thee concerning me? Pilate answered, Am I a Jew? Thine own nation and the chief priests delivered thee unto me: what hast thou done?

From this, it is clear that the chief priests had charged Jesus with wanting to be a secular king over Israel, a charge they knew to be false, their motives being inspired by no other consideration than political expediency; for they fancied that Pilate would believe their false charge. Pilate did have the grace to ask Jesus plainly about it.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on John 18:33". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/john-18.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall again,.... Where he went at first, but the Jews refusing to come in thither to him, he came out to them; and now they speaking out more plainly, that he was guilty of a crime deserving of death; as that he set up himself as a king, in opposition to Caesar, and taught the people not to pay tribute to him; he goes into the "praetorium" again, and called Jesus; beckoned, or sent for him; or ordered him to come in thither to him, that he might alone, and the more freely, converse with him; which Jesus did, paying no regard to the superstitious observances of the Jews:

and said unto him, art thou the king of the Jews? This he might say, from a rumour that was generally spread, that there was such a person to come, and was born; and by many it was thought, that Jesus was he; and particularly from the charge of the Jews against him, which though not here expressed, is elsewhere; see Luke 23:2. Wherefore Pilate was the more solicitous about the matter, on account of Caesar, and lest he should be charged with dilatoriness and negligence in this affair: some read these words not by way of question, but affirmation, "thou art the king of the Jews"; which method he might make use of, the more easily to get it out of him, whether he was or not: and to this reading, Christ's answer in the next verse seems best to agree.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on John 18:33". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/john-18.html. 1999.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Again (παλινpalin). Back into the palace where Pilate was before.

Called (επωνησενephōnēsen). First aorist active indicative of πωνεωphōneō Jesus was already inside the court (John 18:28). Pilate now summoned him to his presence since he saw that he had to handle the case. The charge that Jesus claimed to be a king compelled him to do so (Luke 23:2).

Art thou the King of the Jews?
(συ ει ο βασιλευς των Ιουδαιωνsu ei ho basileus tōn Ioudaiōn). This was the vital problem and each of the Gospels has the question (Mark 15:2; Matthew 27:1; Luke 23:3; John 18:33), though Luke alone (Luke 23:2) gives the specific accusation.

Thou
(συsu). Emphatic. Jesus did claim to be the spiritual king of Israel as Nathanael said (John 1:49) and as the ecstatic crowd hailed him on the Triumphal Entry (John 12:13), but the Sanhedrin wish Pilate to understand this in a civil sense as a rival of Caesar as some of the Jews wanted Jesus to be (John 6:15) and as the Pharisees expected the Messiah to be.

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on John 18:33". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/john-18.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Art thou ( σὺ εἷ )

Thou is emphatic. Thou, the despised malefactor.

King of the Jews

The civil title. The theocratic title, king of Israel (John 1:49; John 12:13) is addressed to Jesus on the cross (Matthew 27:42; Mark 15:32) in mockery.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on John 18:33". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/john-18.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

The Fourfold Gospel

Pilate therefore entered again into the Praetorium, and called Jesus1, and said unto him, Art thou the King of the Jews2?

  1. Pilate therefore entered again into the Praetorium, and called Jesus. See .

  2. And said unto him, Art thou the King of the Jews? See .

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website. These files were made available by Mr. Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.
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J. W. McGarvey and Philip Y. Pendleton. "Commentary on John 18:33". "The Fourfold Gospel". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tfg/john-18.html. Standard Publishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1914.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

Опять вошел. Вероятно, было сказано и многое другое, о чем Евангелист умалчивает, и что вполне можно вывести из рассказов других священнописателей. Но наш повествователь больше всего настаивает на следующем: Пилат усердно размышлял, справедливо ли Христос был привлечен к суду? Народ, когда возникает смута, и поступать может только как смутьян. Итак, Он вошел в преторию, и целью его было освободить Христа. Сам же Христос, дабы быть послушным Отцу, согласен подвергнуться осуждению. И здесь кроется причина, почему Он столь немногословен в Своих ответах. Имея перед Собой милостивого судью, охотно к Нему прислушивавшегося, Христос мог бы легко защитить Свое дело; но Он думает о том, зачем пришел в этот мир, и к чему сейчас призывает Его Отец. Посему Он добровольно молчит, не пытаясь избежать смерти.

Ты Царь Иудейский? Пилат никогда бы не задал вопрос о царстве, если бы иудеи не обвинили Христа в этом преступлении. И Пилат поднимает этот самый острый для присутствующих вопрос, дабы, разрешив его, полностью оправдать невиновного. Ответ же Христа клонит к тому, что в этом обвинении нет ни тени правды. Он содержит в себе косвенное опровержение. Христос как бы говорит: Против Меня выдвигается смешное обвинение, в котором Меня нельзя подозревать ничуть. Пилат плохо воспринял встречный вопрос Христа о том, почему он Его в этом подозревает. Итак, он в негодовании попрекает Христа и говорит, что все выпавшее Ему зло происходит от Его же собственного народа. Я, – говорит Пилат, – сижу здесь в качестве судьи. А обвиняют Тебя твои же собственные соотечественники. Значит, у Тебя нет повода впутывать меня в ваши разногласия. Мне и другим римлянам подобает следить за общественным спокойствием. Так что вы сами доставляете себе хлопоты. И я против воли вынужден в них участвовать.

 

 

 

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on John 18:33". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/john-18.html. 1840-57.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

33 Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall again, and called Jesus, and said unto him, Art thou the King of the Jews?

Ver. 33. Entered into the judgment hall again] For without, among the people, there was nothing but clamour and confusion; much like to that regnum Cyclopum, ubi ουδεις ουδεν ουδενος ακουει. Pilate therefore retires himself into the palace, that he might more sedately set himself to sift the business.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on John 18:33". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/john-18.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

John 18:33. Then Pilate entered, &c.— The expression used by the Jews in their accusation of our Lord, Luke 23:2. Saying, that he himself is Christ a King, may no doubt refer to the acknowledgment which Jesus made before the council of his being the Messiah. Nevertheless, to account for Pilate's asking our Lord whether he assumed the title of the king of the Jews, we must suppose, that the priests explained their accusation by telling him, that Jesus had travelled incessantly through the country, and every where gave himself out for the Messiah; and that even during his trial before them, he had been so presumptuous as to assume that dignity in open court. Without some information of this kind, the governor would hardly have put the question to Jesus, no prisoner being obliged to accuse himself. See on John 18:37. We are not to expect the sacred historian to enter into every minute particular of the trial.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on John 18:33". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/john-18.html. 1801-1803.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

Observe here, 1. Pilate's ensnaring question, Art thou the King of the Jews? How jealous are great men of Jesus Christ, and how afraid are they of his kingdom, power, and authority, as if it would be prejudicial to their authority and power in the world; which was far enough from Christ's thoughts!

Observe, 2. The wisdom and caution of our Saviour's answer: he neither affirms nor denies. Though whenever we speak, we are bound to speak the truth, yet we are not bound at all times to speak the whole truth.

Christ tells him therefore, that, upon the supposition that he was a king, yet his kingdom was no earthly, but a spiritual kingdom; he was no temporal king, to rule over his subjects with temporal power and worldly pomp; but a spiritual king, in and over his church only, to order the affairs and look after the government thereof.

Learn hence, that Christ as God hath an universal kingdom of power and providence even over the highest of men, and as a Mediator hath a spritual kingdom in and over his church.

2. That it is a clear evidence that Christ's kingdom is spiritual inasmuch as it is not carried on by violence and force of arms, as worldly kingdoms are, but by spiritual means and methods: If my kingdom were of this world, my servants would fight for me: but now is my kingdom not from hence.

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Burkitt, William. "Commentary on John 18:33". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/john-18.html. 1700-1703.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

33.] This question probably arose out of what Pilate had previously heard, not from any charge to this effect being made between our John 18:31; John 18:34. Had such a charge been made, our Lord’s question John 18:34 would be unnatural.

Pilate summoned Jesus in, who had been as yet outside with the Jews. This was the formal reception of the case before him;—as the Roman soldiers must now have formally taken charge of Jesus, as servants of the Roman authorities: having previously, when granted by Pilate to the Chief Priests, acted as their police.

The judgments of the Romans were always public and sub dio, see ch. John 19:13;—but the enquiries and examinations might be private. In this case Pilate appears to have wished to obtain an account from Jesus apart from the clamours of the chief priests and the mob.

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Alford, Henry. "Commentary on John 18:33". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/john-18.html. 1863-1878.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

John 18:33. σὺ εἶ βασιλεὺς τῶν ἰουδαίων; art Thou the King of the Jews?) John brings before us Pilate, with changeable mind, always pressing upon this point.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on John 18:33". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/john-18.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall again, the ordinary place of judicature, from whence we read before he went out, in civility to the Jews, whose superstition (as we before heard) kept them from going there during the festival. He called Jesus to him privately, and asks him, if he owned himself to be the

King of the Jews? The confessing of which (for without doubt they had suggested some such thing to Pilate, and could not prove it) had brought Christ under Pilate’s power, he being governor for the Romans, and so concerned to inquire upon any that pretended to any regal power over that conquered people.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on John 18:33". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/john-18.html. 1685.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

Art thou the King of the Jews? this question was put in consequence of the Jews having charged him with pretending to be a king, which they said was rebellion against Caesar. Luke 23:2; John 19:12.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on John 18:33". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/john-18.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

33.Entered into the judgment hall—While the multitude is in the front area, facing Pilate at his threshold, Jesus has been sent into the hall. Pilate was, therefore, alternately with Jesus within, and with the multitude without.

Art thou—This question presupposes, as the other Evangelists state that Jesus had treasonably claimed to be a king. It is to be noted that Luke makes Jesus declare himself a king without explanation, and yet makes Pilate clear him of fault. His account alone would be liable to the charge brought by rationalistic commentators against it, of being mysterious. John, in the present chapter, interposes the explanation, by which it is shown that Jesus so defined his royalty as to exculpate him from all fault in the eyes of Pilate. Pilate asks the present question in a tone of the utmost seriousness, as if to learn both what Jesus claimed to be, and what he was.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on John 18:33". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/john-18.html. 1874-1909.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘Pilate therefore entered again into the Praetorium and called Jesus and said to Him, “Are you the king of the Jews?” ’

This statement demonstrates that more had been said than John has revealed. But this after all is what we would expect. What is therefore clear is that the Judaisers had pointed out that their bringing Him to Pilate was on the basis that He had been claiming to be the King of the Jews (compare Luke 23:2). They hoped that that was something that would make Pilate sit up, for they knew that he would be aware, vaguely, of the Jewish idea of a King Messiah who would remove the Romans. And to claim royal authority without Roman permission was a serious matter. So Pilate put the question, ‘are you the king of the Jews?’ in order to see what reaction he would receive so that he could judge for himself. No doubt he expected a ranting reply or sullen silence from this bound sad-looking figure.

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on John 18:33". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/john-18.html. 2013.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

The Jews" accusations motivated Pilate"s question. He asked Jesus if He was claiming to be the King of the Jews. Messianic expectation was running high in Jesus" day, and many people were saying that Jesus was the Messiah. The Jewish leaders had charged Jesus with claiming to be this king ( Luke 23:2). Now Pilate wanted to hear if Jesus Himself claimed to be this king.

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on John 18:33". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/john-18.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

John 18:33. Pilate therefore entered again into the palace, and called Jesus, and said unto him. Art thou the King of the Jews? The emphasis of the question is remarkable. The word ‘thou’ stands in the original at the head of the sentence, as if Pilate would say: ‘Thou,—thou so humbled, despised, handed over to me as a malefactor,—art thou the King of the Jews?’ Pilate may not embrace the idea, but he at least thinks the question worthy of being asked. We may notice already that grouping of his materials by which the Evangelist would impress on us the folly as well as the sin of the Jews. Boasting of their superiority to the heathen governor, looking upon him as a ‘sinner’ and reprobate, they yet at this moment fall behind him in spiritual vision. They treat the claim of royal dignity on the part of Jesus as blasphemy. Pilate asks, ‘Can it be true?’ The charge leading to the question, omitted by John as not necessary to his purpose, is given in Luke 23:2.

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on John 18:33". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/john-18.html. 1879-90.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

John 18:33. Pilate, being thus compelled to undertake the case, withdraws within the Praetorium to conduct it apart from their prejudices and clamours. He calls Jesus and says to Him, ; How did Pilate know that this was the against Jesus? John omits the information given in Luke 23:2 that the Sanhedrists definitely laid this accusation. And the answer of Jesus implies that He had not heard this accusation made in Pilate’s presence. The probability therefore is that Pilate had privately obtained information regarding the prisoner. There is some contempt as well as surprise in Pilate’s . “Art Thou,” whose appearance so belies it, “the king of the Jews?”

 

 

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on John 18:33". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/john-18.html. 1897-1910.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

called. Greek. phoneo. See John 18:27.

the King, &c. This shows the malicious charge the Jews had made.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on John 18:33". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/john-18.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall again, and called Jesus, and said unto him, Art thou the King of the Jews?

Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall ('the Praetorium') again, and called Jesus, and said unto him, Art thou the King of the Jews?

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on John 18:33". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/john-18.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(33) Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall again, and called Jesus.—Better, Pilate therefore entered into the Prœtorium (or palace) again, and called Jesus. (Comp. John 18:28.) This was practically a private investigation, for the Jews could not enter the palace (John 18:28). (Comp. John 19:13.)

Art thou the King of the Jews?—Comp. Note on Matthew 27:11; Luke 23:2-3. Pilate, of course, knew of the charge brought against Him when he gave permission for the Roman cohort to apprehend Him.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on John 18:33". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/john-18.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall again, and called Jesus, and said unto him, Art thou the King of the Jews?
and said
37; Matthew 27:11; Mark 15:2; Luke 23:3,4; 1 Timothy 6:13
the king
1:49; 12:13,15; 19:3,19-22; Psalms 2:6-12; Isaiah 9:6,7; Jeremiah 23:5; Zephaniah 3:15; Zechariah 9:9; Luke 19:38-40; Acts 2:34-36
Reciprocal: Matthew 27:27 - common hall;  John 18:28 - unto;  John 18:39 - I release;  John 19:12 - thou art;  Acts 7:1 - Are

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on John 18:33". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/john-18.html.

Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

Ver. 33. "Then Pilate entered into the judgment-hall again, and called Jesus, and said unto Him, Art thou the King of the Jews?"

Pilate had set the alternative before the Jews, either to bring a formal accusation against Jesus, or to judge Him according to their own law. They declined the latter; and we may suppose they adopted the former. St John, who brings the matter down to the point when the accusation must come forward, but does not record it, points back as certainly as if he said so to his predecessors. We find what is here presupposed in Luke 23:2, the words of which are strictly applicable here: "They began to accuse Him, saying. We found this fellow forbidding to give tribute to Cesar, saying that he himself is Christ a king." With these last words are connected the recurring question of Pilate to Jesus, "Art thou the King of the Jews?" St Luke records only two words as to what followed the question: Jesus answered, "Thou sayest it." St John gives the transaction fully.

Pilate repairs with Jesus into the praetorium, to avoid being disturbed in the investigation by the uproar of the Jews, the θόρυβος peculiar to them. Matthew 27:24; Acts 21:34 ("And when he could not know the certainty for the tumult, θόρυβον, he commanded him to be carried into the castle"). The ἐφώνησε suggests that Jesus had hitherto stood outside the praetorium, otherwise Pilate would have needed only to go in to Him. For an illustration of the "called," we may refer to the "commanded him to be carried into the castle" in the passage just quoted. That the calling might take place through the instrumentality of others, is evident from ch. John 11:28. It appears that St John, who did not depart from Jesus, followed Him into the palace: there was no prohibition which hindered the Jews from entering; they had refused to enter only for a reason that had no force to him. The exact report which St John gives of the proceedings within the praetorium, leads to the conclusion that he was present at these proceedings. The publicity of all Roman legal procedures allowed no man to be excluded who was disposed to witness these proceedings.

As the Jews were under the necessity of bringing forward a formal charge, they could not limit themselves to the offence which had led to His condemnation in the council—that of assuming to be the Son of God; this had no force whatever in a Roman forum. It was necessary that they should have a political offence to urge; and the fact that Jesus had arrogated royal dignity, gave them some assistance in this matter. Lampe is wrong in asserting that Jesus only in consequence of the Jewish charge vindicated to Himself a kingdom. The entrance of Jesus into Jerusalem had for its end the enforcement of His kingly authority, and He exhibits Himself as a King in Matthew 20:20; Matthew 20:23; Matthew 25:34; Matthew 25:40. The word of the malefactor, "Lord, remember me when Thou comest in Thy kingdom," shows that Jesus had earlier represented Himself as a King. The royal prerogative was inseparable from the Messianic. But the Jews degraded the kingly authority of Jesus into a lower sphere. They charged Him with political sedition, and thus, like Potiphar's wife, laid upon Him their own sins. But Pilate knew with whom he had to do, and gave our Lord opportunity to defend Himself against the charge.

The Thou beginning the sentence certainly intimates a contrast between the appearance of Jesus and the idea of kingly dignity; but Lampe observes, in opposition to those who think that Pilate spoke in a tone of mockery, that Pilate was from the beginning seized by a holy awe, of Jesus, which effectually restrained every movement of scorn, and impelled him fundamentally to investigate the Saviour's cause, and bring His innocence to light.

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Bibliographical Information
Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on John 18:33". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/john-18.html.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

33.Then Pilate went again into the hall. It is probable that many things were said on both sides, which the Evangelist passes over; and this conclusion might be readily drawn from the other Evangelists. But John dwells chiefly on a single point, that Pilate made a laborious inquiry whether Christ was justly or unjustly accused. In the presence of the people, who were inflamed with sedition, nothing could be done but in a riotous manner. He therefore goes again into the hall; and, indeed, his intention is to acquit Christ, but Christ himself, in order that he may obey his Father, presents himself to be condemned; and this is the reason why he is so sparing in his replies. Having a judge who was favorable, and who would willingly have lent an ear to him, it was not difficult for him to plead his cause; but he considers for what purpose he came down into the world, and to what he is now called by the Father. Of his own accord, therefore, he refrains from speaking, that he may not escape from death.

Art thou the King of the Jews? It would never have struck Pilate’s mind to put this question about the kingdom, if this charge had not been brought against Christ by the Jews. Now, Pilate takes up what was more offensive than all the rest, that, having disposed of it, he may acquit the prisoner. The tendency of Christ’s answer is to show that there is no ground for that accusation; and thus it contains an indirect refutation; as if he had said, “It is absurd to bring that charge against me, fbr not even the slightest suspicion of it can fall upon me.”

Pilate appears to have taken amiss that Christ asked him why he suspected him of such a crime; (153) and, therefore, he angrily reproaches him, that all the evil comes from his own nation. “I sit here as a judge,” says he; “it is not foreigners, but your own countrymen, who accuse you. There is no reason, therefore, why you should involve me in your quarrels. You would be allowed by me and by the Romans to live at peace; but you raise disturbances among yourselves, and I am reluctantly compelled to bear a part in them.”

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Bibliographical Information
Calvin, John. "Commentary on John 18:33". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/john-18.html. 1840-57.