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Bible Dictionaries

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words

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A — 1: κριτής

(Strong's #2923 — Noun Masculine — krites — kree-tace' )

"a judge" (from krino, see B, No. 1), is used (a) of God, Hebrews 12:23 , where the order in the original is "to a Judge who is God of all;" this is really the significance; it suggests that He who is the Judge of His people is at the same time their God; that is the order in Hebrews 10:30; the word is also used of God in James 4:12 , RV; (b) of Christ, Acts 10:42; 2 Timothy 4:8; James 5:9; (c) of a ruler in Israel in the times of the Judges, Acts 13:20; (d) of a Roman procurator, Acts 24:10; (e) of those whose conduct provides a standard of "judging," Matthew 12:27; Luke 11:19; (f) in the forensic sense, of one who tries and decides a case, Matthew 5:25 (twice); Luke 12:14 (some mss. have No. 2 here); Luke 12:58 (twice); 18:2; 18:6 (lit., "the judge of unrighteousness," expressing subjectively his character); Acts 18:15; (g) of one who passes, or arrogates to himself, judgment on anything, James 2:4 (see the RV); 4:11.

A — 2: δικαστής

(Strong's #1348 — Noun Masculine — dikastes — dik-as-tace' )

denotes "a judge" (from dike, "right, a judicial hearing, justice;" akin to dikazo, "to judge"), Acts 7:27,35; some mss. have it in Luke 12:14 (see No. 1); while dikastes is a forensic term, krites "gives prominence to the mental process" (Thayer). At Athens the dikastes acted as a juryman, the krites being the presiding "judge."

B — 1: κρίνω

(Strong's #2919 — Verb — krino — kree'-no )

primarily denotes "to separate, select, choose;" hence, "to determine," and so "to judge, pronounce judgment." "The uses of this verb in the NT may be analyzed as follows: (a) to assume the office of a judge, Matthew 7:1; John 3:17; (b) to undergo process of trial, John 3:18; 16:11; 18:31; James 2:12; (c) to give sentence, Acts 15:19; 16:4; 21:25; (d) to condemn, John 12:48; Acts 13:27; Romans 2:27; (e) to execute judgment upon, 2 Thessalonians 2:12; Acts 7:7; (f) to be involved in a lawsuit, whether as plaintiff, Matthew 5:40; 1 Corinthians 6:1; or as defendant, Acts 23:6; (g) to administer affairs, to govern, Matthew 19:28; cp. Judges 3:10; (h) to form an opinion, Luke 7:43; John 7:24; Acts 4:19; Romans 14:5; (i) to make a resolve, Acts 3:13; 20:16; 1 Corinthians 2:2 " * [* From Notes on Thessalonians by Hogg and Vine, p. 267.] See CALL , No. 13, CONCLUDE, CONDEMN, DECREE, DETERMINE, ESTEEM, LAW (go to), ORDAIN, SENTENCE, THINK.

Note: In Acts 21:25 , the RV has "giving judgment" (AV, "concluded"); see JUDGMENT , Note (5).

B — 2: ἀνακρίνω

(Strong's #350 — Verb — anakrino — an-ak-ree'-no )

"to examine, investigate, question" (ana, "up," and No. 1), is rendered "judged" in 1 Corinthians 2:14 , RV (AV, "are ... discerned;" RV marg., "examined"), said of the things of the Spirit of God; in 1 Corinthians 2:15 , "judgeth" (RV marg., "examineth"), said of the exercise of a discerning "judgment" of all things as to their true value, by one who is spiritual; in the same verse, "is judged (of no man)," RV marg., "examined," i.e., the merely natural mind cannot estimate the motives of the spiritual; in 1 Corinthians 4:3 , "I should be judged," i.e., as to examining and passing sentence on the fulfillment or nonfulfillment of the Apostle's stewardship; so in the same verse, "I judge (not mine own self)," and in 1 Corinthians 4:4 "(he that) judgeth (me is the Lord);" in 1 Corinthians 14:24 , "he is judged (of all)," i.e., the light of the heart-searching testimony of the assembly probes the conscience of the unregenerate, sifting him judicailly. See ASK , No. 7, DISCERN, A, No. 1.

B — 3: διακρίνω

(Strong's #1252 — Verb — diakrino — dee-ak-ree'-no )

denotes "to separate throughout" (dia, and No. 1), "discriminate, discern," and hence, "to decide, to judge" (also "to contend, to hesitate, to doubt"); it is rendered "to judge" in 1 Corinthians 6:5 , in the sense of arbitrating; in 1 Corinthians 11:31 (1st part), the RV has "(if we) discerned (ourselves)," AV "(if we would) judge" (krino, No. 1, is used in the 2nd part); so in 1 Corinthians 14:29 , RV, "discern" (AV, "judge"). See DECIDE , A, DISCERN , A. No. 2.

Notes: (1) In 1 Corinthians 6:2 (last clause) "to judge" represents the noun kriterion, which denotes "a tribunal, a law court," and the meaning thus is "are ye unworthy of sitting upon tribunals of least importance?" (see RV marg.), i.e., to "judge" matters of smallest importance. Some would render it "cases," but there is no clear instance elsewhere of this meaning. See JUDGMENT SEAT. (2) In Hebrews 11:11 , the verb hegeomai, "to consider, think, account," is rendered "she judged (Him faithful)," AV (RV, "she counted"). See COUNT , No. 2.

Bibliography Information
Vines, W. E., M. A. Entry for 'Judge'. Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words. https://www.studylight.org/​dictionaries/​eng/​ved/​j/judge.html. 1940.
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