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Bible Dictionaries

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words


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A — 1: παράπτωμα

(Strong's #3900 — Noun Neuter — paraptoma — par-ap'-to-mah )

primarily "a false step, a blunder" (akin to parapipto, "to fall away," Hebrews 6:6 ), lit., "a fall beside," used ethically, denotes "a trespass," a deviation, from uprightness and truth, Matthew 6:14,15 (twice); 18:35, in some mss.; Mark 11:25,26; in Romans the RV substitutes "trespass" and "trespasses" for AV, "offense" and "offenses," Romans 4:25 , "for (i.e., because of) our trespasses;" Romans 5:15 (twice), where the trespass is that of Adam (in contrast to the free gift of righteousness, ver. 17, a contrast in the nature and the effects); Romans 5:16 , where "of many trespasses" expresses a contrast of quantity; the condemnation resulted from one "trespass," the free gift is "of (ek, expressing the origin, and throwing stress upon God's justifying grace in Christ) many trespasses;" Romans 5:17 , introducing contrast between legal effects and those of Divine grace; Romans 5:18 , where the RV, "through one trepass," is contrasted with "one act of righteousness;" this is important, the difference is not between one man's "trespass" and Christ's righteousness (as AV), but between two acts, that of Adam's "trespass" and the vicarious death of Christ; Romans 5:20 [(cp. TRANSGRESSION, B, No. 1 (d)]; in 2 Corinthians 5:19 , AV and RV, "trespasses;" in Ephesians 1:7 , RV, "trespasses" (AV, "sins"); in Ephesians 2:1 , RV, "(dead through your) trespasses," AV, "(dead in) trespasses;" Ephesians 2:5 , RV, "(dead through our) trespasses," AV, "(dead in) sins;" so Colossians 2:13 (1st part); in the 2nd part, AV and RV, "trespasses."

In Galatians 6:1 , RV, "(in any) trespass" (AV, "fault"), the reference is to "the works of the flesh" (Galatians 5:19 ), and the thought is that of the believer's being found off his guard, the "trespass" taking advantage of him; in James 5:16 , AV, "faults" (RV, "sins" translates the word hamartias, which is found in the best texts), auricular confession to a priest is not in view here or anywhere else in Scripture; the command is comprehensive, and speaks either of the acknowledgement of sin where one has wronged another, or of the unburdening of a troubled conscience to a godly brother whose prayers will be efficacious, or of open confession before the church.

In Romans 11:11,12 , the word is used of Israel's "fall," i.e., their deviation from obedience to God and from the fulfillment of His will (to be distinguished from the verb ptaio, "fall," in the 1st part of ver. 11, which indicates the impossibility of recovery). See FALL , A, No. 2.

B — 1: ἁμαρτάνω

(Strong's #264 — Verb — hamartano — ham-ar-tan'-o )

"to sin," is translated "to trespass," in the AV of Matthew 18:15; Luke 17:3,4 (RV, "to sin").

Note: For the different meanings of words describing sin, see SIN. Paraptoma, and hamartema ("a sinful deed") are closely associated, with regard to their primary meanings: parabasis seems to be a stronger term, as the breach of a known law (see TRANSGRESSION).

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Bibliography Information
Vines, W. E., M. A. Entry for 'Trespass'. Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words. 1940.

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