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Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature
(מִחֲנֶה, machaneh', an encampment, whether of troops or nomades, especially of the Israelites in the desert; hence also put for troops or a company itself; once מִהֲנוֹת, machanoth', camps, i.e. place of encampment, 2 Kings 6:8; παρεμβολή, Hebrews 13:11; Hebrews 13:13;Revelation 20:9; elsewhere "castle"). Of the Jewish system of encampmentthe Mosaic books have left a detailed description. From the period of the sojourn in the wilderness to the crossing of the Jordan the twelve tribes were formed into four great armies, encamping in as many fronts, or forming a square, with a great space in the rear, where the tabernacle of the Lord was placed, surrounded by the tribe of Levi and the bodies of carriers, etc., by the stalls of the cattle and the baggage: the four fronts faced the cardinal points while the march was eastward, but, as Judah continued to lead the van, it follows that, when the Jordan was to be crossed, the direction became westward, and therefore the general arrangement, so far as the cardinal points were concerned, was reversed. It does not appear that, during this time, Israel ever had lines of defense thrown up; but in after ages, when only single armies came into the field, it is probable that the castral disposition was not invariably quadrangular;and, from the many position is indicated on the crests of steep mountains, the fronts were clearly adapted to the ground and to the space which it was necessary to occupy. The rear of such positions, or the square camps in the plain, appear from the marginal reading of 1 Samuel 17:20; 1 Samuel 26:5, to have been enclosed with a line ‘ of carts or chariots, which, from the remotest period, was a practice among all the nomad nations of the north. (D'Aquine, Le Camp des Israelites, Par. 1623, 1624.) For a more general treatment of the subject, from a military point of view, (See ENCAMPE).
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McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Camp'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/tce/c/camp.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.