Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #1093 - γῆ
- arable land
- the ground, the earth as a standing place
- the main land as opposed to the sea or water
- the earth as a whole
- the earth as opposed to the heavens
- the inhabited earth, the abode of men and animals
- a country, land enclosed within fixed boundaries, a tract of land, territory, region
occasionally in Hom., freq. in Hes., and the only form in Att. Prose for γαῖα: dual γαῖν A. Pers. 736: pl. rare, γαῖ Arist. Pr. 934b9, γέαι SIG 279.40 (Zelea), etc., AP 9.430 (Crin.): gen. γεῶν Hdt. 4.198, GDI 5755.14 (Mylasa); γῶν BGU 993 iii 10 (ii B. C.): acc. γέας [ Democr. ] 299, SIG 46.3 (Halic.), γᾶς PTeb. 6.31 (ii B. C.), Str. 2.5.26; Cypr. ζᾶς Inscr.Cypr. 135.30 H.: dat. pl. γέαις prob. in CIG 2693f9 (Mylasa), LW 415.9 (ibid.): —
1. earth (including land and sea, Sapph. Supp. 5.2) opp. heaven, or land opp. sea, Γῆ τε καὶ Ἠέλιος καὶ Ἐρινύες Il. 19.259, cf. 3.104; τίς γῆ; Od. 13.233; γῆς περίοδοι Hdt. 4.36, Arist. Mete. 362b12, title of work by Hecat.: personified, Il. l.c., A. Th. 69, Pers. 629, etc.; κατὰ γῆν on land, by land, opp. ναυσί, Th. 1.18; opp. ἐκ θαλάσσης, Id. 2.81; κατὰ γῆν στέλλεσθαι X. An. 5.6.5, etc.; ἐπὶ γῆς on earth, opp. νέρθε, S. OT 416; κατὰ γῆς below the earth, A. Ch. 377, 475, etc.; κάτω γῆς S. OT 968; ὑπὸ γῆς Id. Fr. 572; γᾶς ὑπένερθε Pi. Fr. 292: gen. with local Adverbs, ἵνα γῆς E. Andr. 168; ποῦ, ποῖ, ὅποι γ., S. OT 108, Ph. 1211, El. 922; ὅπου γ. Ar. Av. 9.
2. earth, as an element, Xenoph. 27, Anaxag. 4, Pl. Prt. 320d, Lg. 889b, Arist. Metaph. 989a5, Cael. 306a18, etc. γῆν καὶ ὕδωρ αἰτεῖν, as tokens of submission, Hdt. 5.18, Lycurg. 71; γῆν καὶ ὕδωρ διδόναι Hdt. 5.18, al.
1. land, country, καὶ γῆν καὶ πόλιν A. Eu. 993; γῆν πρὸ γῆς ἐλαύνεσθαι, διώκειν, from land to land, Id. Pr. 682, Ar. Ach. 235; ἡ ἁγία γῆ LXX Wi. 12.3; one's native land, Tyrt. 12.33, Thgn. 1213, A. Supp. 890 (lyr.), S. OC 441, E. Ph. 1090; freq. omitted with art., ἐκ τῆς ἐμαυτοῦ (sc. γῆς) δραπέτας Id. Heracl. 140, etc.
2. freq. in Trag., city, αὐτός τε καὶ γῆ δορὶ πεσοῦσ' Ἑλληνικῷ Id. Tr. 868.
1. the earth or ground as tilled, ἄροτον γῆς S. OT 270; γᾶ φθίνουσα ib. 665, etc.; τὴν γῆν ἐργάζεσθαι, θεραπεύειν, till the ground, Pl. R. 420e, X. Oec. 5.12; τὰ ἐκ τῆς γῆς φυόμενα Id. Mem. 4.3.10.
2. estate, farm, γῆν πρίασθαι Lys. 32.23; ἐπὶ γῇ δανείζειν lend on mortgage, D. 36.6. of particular kinds of earth or minerals, e.g. fuller's earth. Thphr. Char. 10.14, cf. Gal. 12.168; Κιμωλία γ. Ar. Ra. 712, cf. Hp. Mul. 2.189.
γῆ , γῆς , ἡ ,
1. the earth, world: Luke 21:35, Acts 1:8, Hebrews 11:13, Revelation 3:10, al.; opp. to οὐρινός , Matthew 5:18; Matthew 11:25, Mark 13:27, al.
(a) opp. to sea or water: Mark 4:1, Luke 5:3, John 6:21, al.;
(b) as subject to cultivation: Matthew 13:5, Mark 4:8, Luke 13:7, Hebrews 6:7, al.;
(c) the ground: Matthew 10:29, Mark 8:6, Luke 24:5, John 8:6, al.;
(d) a region, country: Luke 4:25, Romans 9:28, James 5:17; γῆ Ἰσραήλ , Matthew 2:20-21; Χαλδαίων , Acts 7:4; ἡ Ἰουδαία γῆ , John 3:22; c. gen. pers., Acts 7:3.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
The rare plural forms of this word which are found in the LXX may be illustrated from the Ptolemaic papyri of ii/B.C., e.g. BGU III. 993iii. 10 (B.C. 128–7) γῶν τε καὶ οὶκιῶν , P Tor I. 1ii. 10 (B.C. 116) ἕνεκεν τοῦ καὶ τῶν γῶν μὴ μετεσχηκέναι αὐτήν , P Tebt I. 6.31 (B.C. 140–39) γᾶς τε καὶ ἕτερα : see Thackeray Gr. i. p. 143. In MGr, beside ἡ γῆ , we have the indeclinable ἡ γῆς , τῆς γῆς , etc. : see Thumb Handbook, p. 57. The familiar Biblical ἐπὶ γῆς appears in P Ryl II. 87.8 (early iii/A.D.) ὁ αὐτὸς ὁριοδείκτης ἐπέδειξα ἐπι ̣̣ γῆς (restored from l..2), ";I the said surveyor have verified it on the spot"; : the editors suggest that ἐπὶ γῆς should be read in P Thead 54.9 and 55.6. It may be observed that γῆ in papyri is regularly ";land"; in small or moderate quantities, a sense never found in NT, where γῆ is always antithetic to sky or sea, or denotes a district or country. The LXX and papyri, in their use which makes a plural possible, can go back to Ionic of v/B.C. : cf. Syll II.3 γέας καὶ οἰκίας , ib. 154.40 (a century later) δημόσιοι γέαι . Of course the antithesis of Οὐρανός and Γαῖα is older still, as is that illustrated by the formula κατὰ γῆν καὶ κατὰ θάλασσαν .
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
the Second Week of Lent