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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #1921 - ἐπιγινώσκω
- to become thoroughly acquainted with, to know thoroughly
- to know accurately, know well
- to know
- to recognise
- by sight, hearing, of certain signs, to perceive who a person is
- to know i.e. to perceive
- to know i.e. to find out, ascertain
- to know i.e. to understand
- to recognise
From G1909 and G1097
ἐπιγινώσκω; (imperfect ἐπεγίνωσκον); future ἐπιγνώσομαι; 2 aorist ἐπέγνων; perfect ἐπέγνωκα; (passive, present ἐπιγνώσκομαι; 1 aorist ἐπεγνώσθην); ἐπί denotes mental direction toward, application to, that which is known); in the Sept. chiefly for יָדַע and נִכַּר, הִכִּיר;
1. to become thoroughly acquainted with, to know thoroughly; to know accurately, know well (see references under the word ἐπίγνωσις, at the beginning): 1 Corinthians 13:12 (where γινώσκω ἐκ μέρους and ἐπιγινώσκω, i. e. to know thoroughly, know well, divine things, are contrasted (Winer's Grammar, § 39, 3 N. 2)); with an accusative of the thing, Luke 1:4; 2 Corinthians 1:13; τήν χάριν τοῦ Θεοῦ, Colossians 1:6; τήν ἀλήθειαν, 1 Timothy 4:3; τήν ὁδόν τῆς δικαιοσύνης, 2 Peter 2:21 (cf. Buttmann, 305 (262)); τό δικαίωμα τοῦ Θεοῦ, Romans 1:32; τί followed by ὅτι (by the familiar attraction (Winers Grammar, 626 (581); Buttmann, 376 (322); some bring this example under 2 a. in the sense of acknowledge)), 1 Corinthians 14:37; τινα, one's character, will, deeds, deserts, etc., 1 Corinthians 16:18; 2 Corinthians 1:14; (passive opposed to ἀγνωύμενοι, 2 Corinthians 6:9); τινα ἀπό τίνος (the genitive of a thing), Matthew 7:16, 20 (Lachmann ἐκ) ("a Gallicis armis atque insignibus cognoscere," for the more common ex, Caesar b. g. 1, 22, 2 (cf. Buttmann, 324 (278f); Winer's Grammar, 372 (348))); by attraction τινα, ὅτι etc. 2 Corinthians 13:5; ἐπιγινώσκει τόν υἱόν, τόν πατέρα, Matthew 11:27.
2. universally, to know;
a. to recognize: τινα, i. e. by sight, hearing, or certain signs, to perceive who a person is, Matthew 14:35; Mark 6:54; Luke 24:16, 31; Mark 6:33 (R T, but G WH marginal reading without the accusative); by attraction, τινα, ὅτι, Acts 3:10; Acts 4:13; τινα, his rank and authority, Matthew 17:12; with the accusative of the thing, to recognize a thing to be what it really is: τήν φωνήν τοῦ Πέτρου, Acts 12:14 τήν γῆν, Acts 27:39.
b. to know equivalent to to perceive: τί, Luke 5:22; ἐν ἑαυτῷ, followed by the accusative of the thing with a participle (Buttmann, 301 (258)), Mark 5:30; followed by ὅτι, Luke 1:22; τῷ πνεύματι followed by ὅτι, Mark 2:8.
c. to know i. e. to find out, ascertain: namely, αὐτό, Acts 9:30; followed by ὅτι, Luke 7:37; Luke 23:7; Acts 19:34; Acts 22:29; Acts 24:11 L T Tr WH;
d. to know i. e. to understand: Acts 25:10. (From Homer down.)
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ἐπι -γινώσκω ,
"directive" of γινώσκω (AR, Eph., 249), as in cl.;
1. to observe, perceive, discern, recognize;
(a) absol.: Acts 25:10, 1 Corinthians 13:12; seq. ὅτι , Luke 1:22; τ . πνεύματι , seq. ὅτι , Mark 2:8;
(b) c. acc rei: Luke 1:4; Luke 5:22, Acts 12:14; Acts 27:39, Romans 1:32, 2 Corinthians 1:13, Colossians 1:6, 1 Timothy 4:3; ἐν ἐαυτῷ , Mark 5:30; seq. ὅτι , 1 Corinthians 14:37;
(c) c. acc pers.: Matthew 11:27; Matthew 14:36; Matthew 17:12, Mark 6:33 (T, αὐτούς , but LTr., WH, R, omit the prop., and LTr., WH, txt., read ἔγνωσαν ), Mark 6:54 Luke 24:16; Luke 24:31, 1 Corinthians 16:18, 2 Corinthians 1:14; seq. ἀπό , c. gen. rei, Matthew 7:16; Matthew 7:20; seq. ὅτι , Acts 3:10; Acts 4:13, 2 Corinthians 13:5; pass., 1 Corinthians 13:12; opp. to ἀγνοούμενοι , 2 Corinthians 6:9.
2. to discover, ascertain, determine: Acts 9:30; seq. ὅτι , Luke 7:37; Luke 23:7, Acts 19:34; Acts 22:29; Acts 24:11; Acts 28:1; c. acc rei, seq. quæst., Acts 23:28; δι᾿ ἣν αἰτίαν , Acts 22:24; παρά , c. gen. pers., seq. περ , c. gen. rei, Acts 24:8; τ . ὁδὸν τῆς δικαιοσύνης , 2 Peter 2:21 (cf. Lft., Col., 136; Cremer, 159; M, Pr., 113; AR, Eph., 248 ff.).†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Dean Robinson’s careful study of this verb in Eph. p. 248 ff., in which he comes to the conclusion that the verb denotes not so much fuller or more perfect knowing, as knowing arrived at by the attention being directed to (ἐπί) a particular person or object, is on the whole borne out by the evidence of the papyri. Thus one of the letters in the Gemellus correspondence, P Fay 112.14 (A.D. 99), has—ἐπ ̣ι ̣γνοθι εἰ ἐσκάφη ὡ τῆς Διονυσιάδος ἐλαιών, ";find out whether the olive-yard at Dionysias was dug,"; while another letter in the same collection in a similar context has the simplex—ib. 110.16 (A.D. 94) γνῶθι εἰ πεπότισται ὁ [ἐ ]λαιὼν δυσὶ ὕδασι : cf. Matthew 11:27 with Luke 10:22. See also P Tebt II. 297.9 (c. A.D. 123) where, in the account of legal proceedings concerning the purchase of a priestly office, the advocate, after recalling a report that the office ought to be sold, proceeds—τ ̣ο ̣υ ̣̑το ἐπιγνοὺς ὁ συνηγορούμενος ἐνέτυχε Τε ̣[ι ]μοκράτει, ";on learning this my client appealed to Timocrates";; and an application for division of property in the same volume, 319.11 (A.D. 248) ἔδοξεν δὲ νῦν αὐτοῖς ταύτας δι [αιρή ]σασθαι ἐπὶ τῷ ἕκαστον αὐτῶν ἐπιγεινώσκειν τ [ὸ ] ἴδιον μ [έρος, ";they have now decided to divide these (sc. arourae) on the understanding that each should distinguish his own share"; (Edd.). Other examples where no intensive force can be claimed for the ἐπι —are P Oxy IX. 1188.16 (A.D. 13) ἐπιγνοὺς τὴν διάθε (σιν) καὶ ἐπιθεὶς τὴν ἐπ᾽ ἀλη (θείας) ἀξίαν προσφώνη (σον), ";after learning their condition and adding the true value furnish a report"; (Ed.), with reference to the purchase of logs, ib. VI. 930.14 (ii/iii A.D.) ἐμέλησε δέ μοι πέμψαι καὶ πυθέσθαι περὶ τῆς ὑγίας σου καὶ ἐπιγνῶναι τί ἀναγεινώσκεις, ";I took care to send and ask about your health and learn what you are reading"; (Edd.), ib. 932.8 (late ii/A.D.) ἐὰν δύνῃ ἀναβῆναι ἵνα ἐπιγνοῖς τὸν ὄνον, ";if you can go up to find out the ass, do so"; (Edd.) (for this omitted apodosis cf. Luke 19:42, 2 Thessalonians 2:3 f.), P Cairo Preis 48.3 (ii/A.D.) ἐπιγνοὺς ἐξ ἧς μοι ἔγραψας ἐπιστολῆς, ὅτι ἔρρωσαι, ἥσθην, ἀδελφέ, and Preisigke 4630.12 (ii/A.D.) καὶ γὰρ λείαν δακνόμεθα ἕως ἂν ἐπιγνῶμεν πῶς τὸν πόδα ἔχεις. In BGU IV. 1139.13 (B.C. 5) the writer has deleted ἐπιγνούς and inserted συνιδών above the line. P Lond 354.23 (c. B.C. 10) (= II. p. 165) ἐπιγνόντα ἀκρειβῶς ἕκαστα shows the force of the verb strengthened by means of an adverb : cf. Acts 25:10.
It may be added that the vernacular is rich in ἐπι - compounds of the kind Dean Robinson describes : cf. e. g. P Lips I. 37.23 (A.D. 389) ἡμιθανῆ αὐτὸν [πο ]ι ̣ήσαντες ὡς κα [ὶ ] φαν ̣ε ̣[ρ ]ά ἐστιν τὰ προσφωνηθέντα ῢ ̣̣π ̣ο ̣, τῶν ἐπιθεωρησάντων τὰ πλήγματα, ";by those who inspected the blows,"; and P Tebt II. 406.24 (inventory of property—c. A.D. 266) καὶ ὧν ἐπικρατῖ δούλων, ";and the slaves he owns.";
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