Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #3045 - יָדַע
1) to know
1a1) to know
1a1a) to know, learn to know
1a1b) to perceive
1a1c) to perceive and see, find out and discern
1a1d) to discriminate, distinguish
1a1e) to know by experience
1a1f) to recognise, admit, acknowledge, confess
1a1g) to consider
1a2) to know, be acquainted with
1a3) to know (a person carnally)
1a4) to know how, be skilful in
1a5) to have knowledge, be wise
1b1) to be made known, be or become known, be revealed
1b2) to make oneself known
1b3) to be perceived
1b4) to be instructed
1c) (Piel) to cause to know
1d) (Poal) to cause to know
1e1) to be known
1e2) known, one known, acquaintance (participle)
1f) (Hiphil) to make known, declare
1g) (Hophal) to be made known
1h) (Hithpael) to make oneself known, reveal oneself
1085) od (דאה DAh) AC: See CO: ? AB: Knowledge: The pictograph d is a picture of a door. The o is a picture of the eye. Through the eyes one experiences his world and learns from it. Combined these pictures mean "the door of the eye". The eye is the window into the mans very being. Experience is gained through visual observation. Knowledge is achieved through these experiences.
V) odi (ידאה YDAh) - Know: [Hebrew and Aramaic] KJV (994): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Hiphil, Hitpael, Hophal, Pual, Piel, Participle) know, known, knowledge, perceive, shew, tell, wist, understand, certainly, acknowledge, acquaintance, consider, declare, teach - Strongs: H3045 (יָדַע), H3046 (יְדַע)
Jeff Brenner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
יָדַע fut. יֵדַע, once יְיֵדַע (see Lehrg. 389), inf. absol. יָדוֹעַ, constr. דַּעַת, obviously corresponding to the Gr. εἶδον, οἶδα, to see; and hence, to perceive, to acquire knowledge, to know, to be acquainted. It includes the action of knowing both as commencing, das Kennenlernen, Erfahren, and as completed, das Kennen, Wiffen, Weifefehn. (The root is very widely extended in the Indo-Germanic languages, in the signification both of seeing and knowing; as Sanscr. wid, budh; Zend. weedem; Gr. εἴδω, ἴδω, οἶδα, δαέω; Lat. video; Goth. vitan; Engl. weet [Qu. to wit]; Germ. weten, wiffen, weife; and so also in the Sclavonic tongues, as the Polish, widze, to see; Bohem. wedeti, to see.) The original signification is found in the following examples, Exodus 2:4, “and his sister stood afar off לְדֵעָה מַה יֵּעָשֶׂה לוֹ to see what would happen to him.” 1 Samuel 22:3. Also, Isaiah 6:9, רְאוּ רָאוֹ וְאַל תֵּדָעוּ “seeing ye shall see, and not perceive” (in the other member is, hearing ye shall hear, and not understand). These examples may be added to the primary signification of seeing: Deuteronomy 34:10, אֲשֶׁר יְדָעוֹ יְיָ פָּנִים אֶל פָּנִים (in the same connection elsewhere רָאָה Genesis 32:31; Judges 6:22; 2 Kings 14:8, 11 2 Kings 14:11); Ecclesiastes 6:4 יָדַע שְׁלוֹם פּ׳ Esther 2:11, i.q. רָאָה שְׁלוֹם פּ׳ Genesis 37:14. Sometimes יָדַע to see, to observe with the eyes, is opposed to what we hear or observe with our ears. Isaiah 40:21, הֲלֹא תֵדְעוּ אִם לֹא תִשְׁמָעוּ “have ye not seen? have ye not heard?” Ver. 28 Isaiah 40:28, 44:18, לֹא יָֽדְעוּ וְלֹא יָבִינוּ “they see not, they do not understand, for their eyes are besmeared that they may not see, and that their hearts may not understand;” where יָדַע is applied to the eyes, just as הִשְׂכִּיל to the heart or mind. יָדַע then signifies that which results from seeing, unless any one be devoid of senses and mind, or has his understanding shut up. The following are its specific applications
(1) to know, to perceive, to be aware of (wahrnehmen, gewahr werden), whether by the eyes (Isaiah 6:9), or by the touch, Genesis 19:33 often by the mind, and hence to understand, Judges 13:21 with the addition of עִם לֵבָב Deuteronomy 8:5. Followed by בְּ of the thing through which any thing is understood, Genesis 15:8, בַּמָּה אֵדַע “whence shall I understand?” Genesis 24:14; Exodus 7:17.
(2) to get to know, to discover, whether by seeing (see Exodus 2:4; 1 Samuel 22:3) or by hearing, Genesis 9:24; Deuteronomy 11:2; Nehemiah 13:10 or, to know by experience, to experience, Job 5:25; Ecclesiastes 8:5. So often in threatenings (Germ. du wirft es fchon gewahr werden, erfahren, fühlen; Lat. tu ipse videbis, senties). Hosea 9:7, יֵדְעוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל “Israel shall see.” Job 21:19, יְשַׁלֵּם אֵלָיו וְיֵדַע “(God) recompenses him that he may see.” Exodus 6:7, “and ye shall know that I am Jehovah your God.” Ezekiel 6:7, 7:5, 17 Ezekiel 7:17, 11:7 Isaiah 5:19, 9:8 Psalms 14:4. (In the Koran the expression is of frequent occurrence, سوف يعلمون then shall they understand, e.g. xxvi. 48; see Schult. Opp. Min. ad. Job 21:19.)
(3) to know, to become acquainted with any one (kennen lernen), Deuteronomy 9:24 any thing (as a country), Numbers 14:31. Often put by a euphemism for sexual intercourse.
(a) of a man; to know a woman, i.e. to lie with her, Genesis 4:17, 25 1 Samuel 1:19, etc.; also as applied to crimes against nature, Genesis 19:5. (Verbs of knowing are frequently employed for this euphemism in other languages, both oriental and occidental; see Syr. ܚܟܰܡ, Arab. راى, عرف, Eth. አእመረ፡ Greek γινώσκω, see Fesselii Adv. S. ii. 14; Pfochenius, De Purit. Styli N. Test. page 10; Lat. cognosco, Justin, v. 2; and thus Italian and French conoscere, connoître, although these have perhaps been borrowed from the phraseology of the Holy Scripture.)
(b) of a woman, יָֽדְעָה אִישׁ “to have lain with man,” Genesis 19:8; Judges 11:39 more fully יָֽדְעָה אִישׁ לְמִשְׁכַּב זָכָר Numbers 31:17. Compare Ovid., Heroid., vi. 133, “turpiter illa virum cognovit adultera virgo.”
(4) to know, to be acquainted with any one, with acc. of person, Genesis 29:5; Isaiah 1:3 of the thing, Genesis 30:29. יָדַע בְּשֵׁם to know by name, Exodus 33:12, 17 Exodus 33:17יָדַע פָּנִים אֶל פָּנִים to know face to face, Deuteronomy 34:10. Part. act. plur. יֹדְעִים “those who know me,” my acquaintances (meine Bekannten), Job 19:13. Part. Pass. יָדוּעַ known, followed by לְ Deuteronomy 1:13, “men יְדֻעִים לְשִׁבְטֵיכֶם who are known to your tribes,” without the dative, verse 15. Isaiah 53:3, יְדוּעַ חֹלִי “known to sickness,” i.e. bekannt, vertraut mit Krankheit, for the prose expression יָדוּעַ לָחֳלִי, according to others, known by sickness, as being remarkable for suffering sicknesses and calamities; an especial example of a man afflicted with calamities. (Compare Syr. ܝܺܕܝܺܥܐܳ known, illustrious.)
(5) to know, to have a knowledge of any thing, with an acc. like יָדַע בִּינָה (see בִּינָה ), יָדַע דַּעַת to know knowledge (to have knowledge, understanding), Proverbs 17:27, etc.; followed by the prepos. בְּ (German um etwas wiffen), Genesis 19:33, 35 Genesis 19:35; 1 Samuel 22:15; Jeremiah 38:24 עַל Job 37:16 followed by the naked inf. Jeremiah 1:6; 1 Samuel 16:18 by a gerund, Ecclesiastes 4:13, 10:15 Eccl. 4:17, “they know not לַעֲשׂוֹת רַע that they do evil;” like the Germ. fie glauben nicht übel daran zu thun; by a finite verb, Job 32:22, לֹא יָדַעְתִּי אֲכַנֶּה “I know not how to flatter;” 23:3 1 Samuel 16:16; Nehemiah 10:29 conj. כִּי Genesis 3:5 also by a whole sentence, Genesis 43:22, “we do not know מִי שָׂם who put,” etc. Also the accusative of the object may be altogether omitted, as after verbs of calling. Song of Solomon 1:8, אִם לֹא תֵדְעִי לָךְ as in Lat. si nescis, wenn du es nicht weißt; לָךְ is here redundant, as Job 5:27. Specially the phrases are to be noticed
(a) מִי יוֹדֵעַ “who knows;” followed by a fut., 2 Samuel 12:22; Joel 2:14; Jonah 3:9 more fully מִי יֹדֵעַ אִם Esther 4:14, “who knows whether,” i.q. Lat. nescio an, haud scio an, for fortasse (comp. אִם B. 2). As to Proverbs 24:22, see No. 6.
(b) יָדַע טוֹב וָרָע “to know good and evil;” Genesis 3:5, 22 i.e. to be prudent, to be wise, [no one who really believes in the fall of man can admit this explanation], whence עֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע ib. 2:17, “the tree of wisdom [knowledge].” On this account little children are said not to know good and evil, Deuteronomy 1:39 compare Isaiah 7:15 and also decrepit old men, who have, as it were, sunk into second childhood, 2 Samuel 19:36. See Hom., Od., xviii. 223, οἶδα ἕκαστα, ἐσθλά τε καὶ χέρεια, παρὸς δέ τε νήπιος ἦα.
(6) to foresee, to expect any thing. Psalms 35:8, “let destruction come upon him לֹא יֵדַע not expecting it,” i.e. unexpected. Job 9:5, “(God) removes mountains,” לֹא יָדָעוּ (properly) “they expect it not,” unexpectedly, suddenly. (Kor. xvi. 28, “God overthrows them ولا يشعرون not expecting it.” Lokm. Fab. 28.) Song of Solomon 6:12 לֹא יָדַעְתִּי נַפְשִׁי שָׂמַתְנִי “I knew not,” i.e. “when I did not expect, my soul made me,” etc.; Jeremiah 50:24. So מִי יֹדֵעַ who foresees? i.e. no one knows, or foresees, for suddenly, unexpectedly, Proverbs 24:22 parall. פִּתְאֹם.
(7) Often used of the will, to turn the mind to something, to care for, to see about. Germ. nach etwas fehen. Genesis 39:6, לֹא יָדַע מְאוּמָה “he took care of none of his things;” Proverbs 9:13, 27:23 Job 9:21 (opp. to מָאַס). Job 34:4, נֵדְעָה בֵנֵינוּ מַה־טּוֹב “let us see to it amongst ourselves what is good?” i.e. let us attend to it, let us investigate. In the other hemistich נִבְחֲרָה. Followed by בְּ Job 35:15, לֹא יָדַע בַּפַּשׁ “he does not regard iniquity.” Specially used
(a) of God as caring for men; Psalms 144:3; Nehemiah 1:7 followed by מִן Amos 3:2, “you only have I known (especially cared for) of all the nations of the earth.” Genesis 18:19, יְדַעְתִּיו לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר יְצַוֶּה “him (Abraham) have I known (cared for, chosen) that he may command,” etc. Compare Psalms 1:6.
(b) of men regarding or worshipping God. Hosea 8:2, 13:4 Psalms 36:11, 9:11, יֹדְעֵי שְׁמֶךָ “those who know (regard or worship) thy name.” Job 18:21, לֹא יָדַע אֵל (אֲשֶׁר) “who regards not God,” an atheist, 1 Samuel 2:12.
(8) absol. to be knowing, or wise, Psalms 73:22; Isaiah 44:9, 18 Isaiah 44:18, 45:20 56:10. Part. יֹדְעִים i.q. חֲכָמִים Job 31:2; Ecclesiastes 9:11. Hence דַּעַת wisdom, or knowledge, which see.
(1) to be, or to become known, of persons, Psalms 76:2; Proverbs 31:23 of things, Exodus 2:14; Leviticus 4:14; Psalms 9:17. Followed by לְ of the person to whom any thing is known, 1 Samuel 6:3; Ruth 3:3; Esther 2:22. Genesis 41:21, וְלֹא נוֹדַע כִּי־בָאוּ אֶל־קִרְבֶּנָה “nor was it known (did it appear) that they had entered (been swallowed) into their bowels (belly).”
(2) pass. of Hiph. No. 2, to be taught by experience, i.e. to be punished, comp. Kal No. 2. Proverbs 10:9, מְעַקֵּשׁ דְּדְּרָכָיו יִוָּדֵעַ “he who perverts his ways (acts perversely) shall be made to know,” be taught, i.e. be punished. Jeremiah 31:19, אַחֲרֵי הִוָּֽדְעִי “after I was instructed.” Well rendered by Luther, nachdem ich gewißigt bin.
Piel, causat. to make to know, to shew anything to any one; with two accusatives, Job 38:12.
Pual, part. מְיֻדָּע known, with suff. מְיֻדָּעִי my acquaintance, Psalms 31:12, 55:14 88:9, 19 Ps8 8:19. Fem. something known. Isaiah 12:5 כתיב.
Poel יוֹדַע i.q. Piel, to shew, with acc. of pers. 1 Samuel 21:3. But should it not be read הוֹדַעְתִּי instead of יוֹדַעְתִּי?
Hiphil הוֹדִיעַ (imp. הוֹדַע
(1) to cause some one to know something, to shew something to some one,
(a) followed by two acc. Genesis 41:39; Exodus 33:12, 13 Exodus 33:13; Ezekiel 20:11, 22:2. Used in threatening, 1 Samuel 14:12, נוֹרִיעַ אֶתְכֶם דָּבָר “we will shew you this thing.”
(b) followed by acc. of the thing, and dat. of pers. Exodus 18:20; Deuteronomy 4:9; Psalms 145:12; Nehemiah 9:14.
(c) followed by an acc. of pers. and an entire sentence, Joshua 4:22; 1 Kings 1:27.
(d) followed by an acc. of the thing, Psalms 77:15, 98:2 Job 26:3.
(2) to teach, to acquaint, followed by acc. of pers. Job 38:3, 40:7 42:4 dat. Proverbs 9:9 specially, by experience, to teach any one by punishing, to punish. Compare Kal No. 2. Judges 8:16, “(he took) the thorns of the wilderness and threshing instruments וַיֹּדַע בָּהֶם אֵת אַנְשֵׁי סֻכּוֹת and with them he taught the men of Succoth;” i.e. crushed them with iron threshing instruments laid upon thorns (see דּוּשׁ ). LXX. Vulg. ἠλόησεν, contrivit, from the Hebrew וַיָּרֹעַ, which seems to me more suitable to the context than the common reading.
Hophal הוֹדַע to be made known. Leviticus 4:23, 28. Part. מוּדַעַת Isaiah 12:5 קרי.
Hithpael הִתְוַדַּע to make one’s self known, Genesis 45:1 to reveal one’s self, Numbers 12:6 followed by אֶל.
Derivatives יִדְעֹנִי, דֵּעַ, דֵּעָה, דַּעַת, מַדַּע, מַדּוּעַ, מוֹדַע, מוֹדַעַת, and the pr.n. יָדָע, יְדַעְיָה, יַדּוּעַ, יְדִיעֲאֵל.
the Third Sunday of Lent