the Fifth Week of Lent
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #1097 - γινώσκω
- to learn to know, come to know, get a knowledge of perceive, feel
- to become known
- to know, understand, perceive, have knowledge of
- to understand
- to know
- Jewish idiom for sexual intercourse between a man and a woman
- to become acquainted with, to know
γινώσκω (Attic γιγνώσκω, see γίνομαι at the beginning; from ΓΝΟΩ, as βιβρώσκω from ΒΡΟΩ); (imperfect ἐγίνωσκον); future γνώσομαι; 2 aorist ἔγνων (from ΓΝΩΜΙ), imperative γνῶθι, γνώτω, subjunctive γνῷ (3 person singular γνοῖ, Mark 5:43; Mark 9:30; Luke 19:15 L T Tr WH, for R G γνῷ (Buttmann, p. 46 (40); cf. δίδωμι at the beginning)), infinitive γνῶναι, participle γνούς; perfect ἔγνωκα (John 17:7; 3 person plural ἔγνωκαν for ἐγνωκασι, see references in γίνομαι at the beginning); pluperfect ἐγνώκειν; passive (present 3 person singular γινώσκεται (Mark 13:28 Tr marginal reading)); perfect ἐγνωσμαι; 1 aorist ἐγνώσθην; future γνωσθήσομαί; in Greek writings from Homer down; the Sept. for יָדַע ; Latinnosco,novi (i. e.gnosco, gnovi);
1. to learn to know, come to know, get a knowledge of; passive to become known: with the accusative, Matthew 22:18; Mark 5:43; Acts 21:34; 1 Corinthians 4:19; 2 Corinthians 2:4; Colossians 4:8; 1 Thessalonians 3:5, etc. Passive, Matthew 10:26; Acts 9:24; Philippians 4:5, etc.; (impersonally, γινώσκεται, Mark 13:28 Tr marginal reading T 2, 7); τί ἐκ τίνος, Matthew 12:33; Luke 6:44; 1 John 4:6; τινα or τί ἐν τίνι, to find a sign in a thing by which to know, to recognize in or by something, Luke 24:35; John 13:35; 1 John 4:2; κατά τί γνώσομαι τοῦτο, the truth of this promise, Luke 1:18 (Genesis 15:8); περί τῆς διδαχῆς, John 7:17. often the object is not added, but is readily understood from what precedes: Matthew 9:30; Matthew 12:15 (the consultation held by the Pharisees); Mark 7:24 (he would have no one know that he was present): Mark 9:30; Romans 10:19, etc.; followed by ὅτι, Matthew 21:45; John 4:1; John 5:6; John 12:9, etc.; followed by the interrogative τί, Matthew 6:3; Luke 16:4; ἀπό τίνος to learn from one, Mark 15:45. with the accusative of person to recognize as worthy of intimacy and love, to own; so those whom God has judged worthy of the blessings of the gospel are said ὑπό τοῦ Θεοῦ γινώσκεσθαι, 1 Corinthians 8:3; Galatians 4:9 (on both cf. Winers Grammar, § 39, 3 Note 2; Buttmann, 55 (48)); negatively, in the sentence of Christ οὐδέποτε ἔγνων ὑμᾶς, I never knew you, never had any acquaintance with you, Matthew 7:23. to perceive, feel: ἔγνω τῷ σώματι, ὅτι etc. Mark 5:29; ἔγνων δύναμιν ἐξελθοῦσαν ἀπ' ἐμοῦ, Luke 8:46.
2. to know, understand, perceive, have knowledge of;
a. to understand: with the accusative, τά λεγόμενα, Luke 18:34; ἅ ἀναγινώσκεις, Acts 8:30; followed by ὅτι, Matthew 21:45; John 8:27; 2 Corinthians 13:6; Galatians 3:7; James 2:20; followed by interrog, τί, John 10:6; John 13:12, 28; ὁ κατεργάζομαι οὐ γινώσκω I do not understand what I am doing, my conduct is inexplicable to me, Romans 7:15.
b. to know: τό θέλημα, Luke 12:47; τάς καρδίας, Luke 16:15; τόν μή γνόντα ἁμαρτίαν ignorant of sin, i. e. not conscious of having committed it, 2 Corinthians 5:21; ἐπιστολή γινωσκομένη καί ἀναγινωσκομένη, 2 Corinthians 3:2; τινα, to know one, his person, character, mind, plans: John 1:48 (
3. by a Hebraistic euphemism (cf. Winer's Grammar, 18), found also in Greek writings from the Alexandrian age down, γινώσκω is used of the carnal connection of male and female,rem cum aliquo oraliqua habere (cf. our have a (criminal) intimacy with): of a husband, Matthew 1:25; of the woman, Luke 1:34; (Genesis 4:1, 17; Genesis 19:8; 1 Samuel 1:19, etc.; Judith 16:22; Callimachus (
II. In particular γινώσκω, to become acquainted with, to know, is employed in the N. T. of the knowledge of God and Christ, and of the things relating to them or proceeding from them;
a. τόν Θεόν, the one, true God, in contrast with the polytheism of the Gentiles: Romans 1:21; Galatians 4:9; also τόν μόνον ἀληθινόν Θεόν, John 17:3 cf. 1 John 5:20; τόν Θεόν, the nature and will of God, in contrast with the false wisdom of both Jews and Gentiles, 1 Corinthians 1:21; τόν πατέρα, the nature of God the Father, especially the holy will and affection by which he aims to sanctify and redeem men through Christ, John 8:55; John 16:3; 1 John 2:3f, 14 (
b. Χριστόν, his blessings, Philippians 3:10; in Χριστόν ἐγνωκέναι κατά σάρκα, 2 Corinthians 5:16, Paul speaks of that knowledge of Christ which he had before his conversion, and by which he knew him merely in the form of a servant, and therefore had not yet seen in him the Son of God. According to John's usage, γινώσκειν, ἐγνωκέναι Χριστόν denotes to come to know, to know, his Messianic dignity (John 17:3; John 6:69); his divinity (τόν ἀπ' ἀρχῆς, 1 John 2:13f cf. John 1:10), his consummate kindness toward us, and the benefits redounding to us from fellowship with him (in Christ's words γινώσκομαι ὑπό τῶν ἐμῶν, John 10:14 (according to the critical texts γινώσκουσιν με τά ἐμά)); his love of God (John 14:31); his sinless holiness (1 John 3:6). John unites πιστεύειν and γινώσκειν, at one time putting πιστεύειν first: John 6:69 (cf. Schaff's Lange or Meyer at the passage); but at another time γινώσκειν: John 10:38 (according to R G, for which L T Tr WH read ἵνα γνῶτε καί γινώσκητε (R. V. know and understand)); John 17:8 (L brackets καί ἔγνωσαν); 1 John 4:16 (the love of God).
c. γνῶναι ... τά τοῦ πνεύματος the things which proceed from the Spirit, 1 Corinthians 2:14; τό πνεῦμα τῆς ἀληθείας καί τό πνεῦμα τῆς πλάνης, 1 John 4:6; τά μυστήρια τῆς βασιλείας τῶν οὐρανῶν, Matthew 13:11; τήν ἀλήθειαν, John 8:32; 2 John 1:1; absolutely, of the knowledge of divine things, 1 Corinthians 13:12; of the knowledge of things lawful for a Christian, 1 Corinthians 8:2. [SYNONYMS: γινώσκειν, εἰδέναι, ἐπίστασθαί, συνιέναι: In classic usage (cf. Schmidt, chapter 13), γινώσκειν, distinguished from the rest by its original inchoative force, denotes a discriminating apprehension of external impressions, a knowledge grounded in personal experience. εἰδέναι, literally, 'to have seen with the mind's eye,' signifies a clear and purely mental perception, in contrast both to conjecture and to knowledge derived from others. ἐπίστασθαί primarily expresses the knowledge obtained by proximity to the thing known (cf. our understand, German verstehen); then knowledge viewed as the result of prolonged practice, in opposition to the process of learning on the one hand, and to the uncertain knowledge of a dilettante on the other. συνιέναι implies native insight, the soul's capacity of itself not only to lay hold of the phenomena of the outer world through the senses, but by combination (σύν and ἰέναι) to arrive at their underlying laws. Hence, συνιέναι may mark an antithesis to sense-perception; whereas γινώσκειν marks an advance upon it. As applied e. g. to a work of literature, γινώσκειν expresses an acquaintance with it; ἐπίστασθαί the knowledge of its contents; συνιέναι the understanding of it, a comprehension of its meaning. γινώσκειν and εἰδέναι most readily come into contrast with each other; if εἰδέναι and ἐπίστασθαί are contrasted, the former refers more to natural, the latter to acquired knowledge. In the N. T., as might be expected, these distinctions are somewhat less sharply marked. Such passages as John 1:26, 31, 48 (
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(= γιγν -: v. previous word G1096. So also vulgar Attic, in Inscr., v. Thumb, MGV, 207),
[in LXX chiefly for H3045;]
to be taking in knowledge, come to know, recognize, perceive, understand; in past tenses to know, realize; pass., to become known: c. acc, Matthew 22:18, Mark 5:43, Colossians 4:8, 1 Thessalonians 3:5, al. Pass., Matthew 10:26, Philippians 4:5, al.; seq. ὅτι , Matthew 21:45, John 4:1, al.; τί Matthew 6:3; ἀπό , Mark 15:45; ὅ , Romans 7:15; τ . λεγόμενα , Luke 18:34; τ . θέλημα , Luke 12:47; τ . καρδίας , Luke 16:15; c. acc pers., of recognition by God, 1 Corinthians 8:3, Galatians 4:9; by Christ, neg., Matthew 7:23; freq. of the knowledge of divine things, of God and Christ; τ . θεόν , Romans 1:21, Galatians 4:9; Τ . πατέρα , John 8:55; τ . κύριον , Hebrews 8:11 (LXX); νοῦν κυρίου , Romans 11:34; Χριστόν , John 17:3, 1 John 3:6; τὰ τοῦ πνεύματος , 1 Corinthians 2:14; τ . πνεύμα , 1 John 4:6; τ . ἀλήθειαν , John 8:32; of Christ's knowledge of the Father (ἐπιγ .), Matthew 11:27 (Dalman, Words, 282 ff.). In Hellenistic writers [LXX for Heb. H3045, Galatians 4:1, al.], of sexual intercourse, to know carnally: Matthew 1:25, Luke 1:34 (Cremer, 153).
SYN.: γ ., to know by observation and experience is thus prop. disting. from οἶδα , to know by reflection (a mental process, based on intuition or information); cf. also ἐφίστημι , συνίημι . (Cf. ἀνα -, δια -, ἐπι -, κατα -, προ -γινώσκω .)
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For γ . followed by ὅτι , see P Par 47.14 (c. B.C. 153) (= Selections, p. 22) γίνωσ (l. γίνωσκε ) ὅτι πιράσεται ὁ δ ̣ρ ̣απέ [τη ]ς μὴ ἀφῖναι ἡμᾶς ἐ ̣[πὶ τ ]ῶν τόπων ἶναι , ";know that the runaway will try not to allow us to remain on the spot,"; ib. 49.33 (B.C. 164–58) γίνωσκε σαφῶς ὅτι , ἐὰν ἀναβῶ κἀγὼ προσκυνῆσαι , πρός σε οὐ μ [ὴ ] ἐπέλθω . In ib. 32.5 (B.C. 162) γινώσκετε . . . μὴ ἐσχολα [κέν ]αι με , we have the acc. and inf. : so ib. 44.4 (B.C. 153) γίνωσκέ με πεπορεῦσθαι εἰς κτλ . For the common epistolary phrase γινώσκειν σε θέλω ὅτι , see P Oxy IV. 743.27 (B.C. 2) ὥστ᾽ ἂν τοῦτό σε θέλω γεινώσκειν , ὅτι ἐγὼ αὐτῶι διαστολὰς δεδώκειν , BGU III. 846.5 (ii/A.D.) γεινώσκειν σαι θέλω , ὅτι ̣ οὐχ [ἥλπ ]ιζον , ὅτι ἀναβένις εἰς τὴν μητρόπολιν , ";I wish you to know that I had no hope that you would come up to the metropolis,"; ib. I. 27.4 (ii/A.D.) γινώσκειν σε θέλω ὅτει εἰς γῆν ἐλήλυθα τῇ ϛ ̄- τοῦ Ἐπεὶφ μηνός , ";I wish you to know that I arrived at land on the 6th of the month Epeiph,"; P Grenf II. 73.6 (late iii/A.D.), P Lond 417.5 (c. A.D. 346) (= II. p. 299), P Giss I. II.4 (A.D. 118), P Lond 973b.7 (iii/A.D.) (= III. p. 213), al. It will be noticed that the phrase does not come into regular use till early ii/A.D., which accounts for the NT showing a phrase (οὐ θέλω ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν in Paul) with the same meaning but with form not yet crystallized.
On the progressive displacement of the old participial object clause after γινώτκειν and other verbs of ";knowing,"; see Proleg. p. 229. To the instances of γινώσκειν with partic. add P Oxy VIII. 1118.7 (i/ii A.D.) ὅπ ]ως . . . γεινώσκωσι ἐμβαδεύσον [τά μ ]ε εἰς τὰ ὑπ [ο ]τεθειμένα καὶ καθέξον [τα κτλ . (other future participles), ";that they may know that I shall enter on the mortgaged property,"; etc. (Ed.).
Grimm’s ";Hebraistic euphemism"; in Matthew 1:25 is rather surprising when chronicled in the same breath with ";Grk writ. fr. the Alexandrian age down"; : coincidence of idiom between two entirely different languages is common enough. This use is found earliest in Menander : see this and other references in B. D. Durham, Vocabulary of Menander (Princeton, 1913), p. 51.
Some miscellaneous uses may be noted. P Tebt II. 279 (B.C. 231), a contract for the engagement of a nurse, ends ἔγν ̣ωκεν Σποννῆσις Ωρου Φανήσει Νεχθύριος . The editors translate ";made (?) between Sponnesis, daughter of Horus, and Phanesis, son of Nechthuris,"; but regard ἔγνωκεν as ";very difficult."; In the same collection, 289.5 (A.D. 23), we find a strategus, in demanding from a subordinate a supplementary report of tax-payments, writing οὕτως γὰρ γνώσομαι πότερον ἐπὶ τόπων σε ἐάσω πράττοντά τι , ";for I shall thus know whether I shall leave you in employment where you are"; (Edd.). In the passive we may quote P Oxy X. 1252 verso.33 (A.D. 288–95) γνωσθέντα ὀφείλειν λοιπὸν μῆνα τ ̣η ̣̑ς εὐθη [νιαρχείας , ";from whom, it was ascertained, a month more of his superintendence of provision was due"; (Edd.), P Giss I. 48.9 (A.D. 202–3) ἐγνώσθη τὰ κατὰ χρόνους δοθέντα ἐπιθέματα . . . παρεγράφη : we may suppose the writer was meaning to finish with a participle, and so did not insert ὅτι after ἐγνώσθη . The perfect passive appears in the (classical) sense ";determined"; in Syll 929.84 (B.C. 139 ?) ἐγνωσμένων τῶν καθόλου πραγμάτων ὑπὸ Ῥωμαίων .
For the forms of the verb, see Proleg. pp. 55, 193. The older Attic γιγνώσκω occurs fairly often in the new uncial W, and in Atticising documents among papyri and inscrr., as does γίγνομαι . For the aor. subj. γνοῖ , cf. P Oxy VI. 932.8 (late ii/A.D.) ἵνα ἐπιγνοῖς , ib. VII. 1062.13 f. (ii/A.D.) ἵνα αὐτὴν ἀναγνοῖς νήφων καὶ σαυτοῦ καταγνοῖς , P Giss I. 79iii. 8 (c. A.D. 117) ἵν᾽ ἐπ ̣ιγνοῖ σε σπουδά [σαι , and from new literature, P Oxy III. 413.160 (ii/A.D.—a mime) νῦν τοῦ γέροντ (ος ) ἐνκρατὴς θέλω γενέσ (θαι ) πρίν τι τούτ (ων ) ἐπιγνοῖ .
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Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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