the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34
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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #591 - ἀποδίδωμι
- to deliver, to give away for one's own profit what is one's own, to sell
- to pay off, discharge what is due
- a debt, wages, tribute, taxes, produce due
- things promised under oath
- conjugal duty
- to render account
- to give back, restore
- to requite, recompense in a good or a bad sense
fut. -δώσω: aor. 1 ἀπέδωκα: aor. 2 ἀπέδων A.D. Synt. 276.9, shortened inf. ἀποδοῦν prob. in Hsch.: —
1. give up or back, restore, return, τινί τι Hom., etc.: esp. render what is due, pay, as debts, penalties, submission, honour, etc., τοκεῦσι θρέπτρα Il. 4.478; ἀ. τινὶ λώβην give him back his insuit, i.e. make atonement for it, ib. 9.387 (tm.); τὴν πλημμέλειαν LXX Numbers 5:7; εὖ ἔρδοντι κακὴν ἀ. ἀμοιβήν Thgn. 1263; ἀ. τὴν ὁμοίην τινί Hdt. 4.119; ἀμοιβάς Democr. 92; κακὸν ἀντ' ἀγαθοῦ Id. 93; ἀ. τὸ μόρσιμον pay the debt of fate, Pi. N. 7.44; τὸ χρέος Hdt. 2.136; τὸν ναῦλον Ar. Ra. 270; τὴν ζημίαν, τὴν καταδίκην, Th. 3.70, 5.50; τὴν φερνήν PEleph. 1.11 (iv B. C.); εὐχάς X. Mem. 2.2.10; ἀ. ὀπίσω ἐς Ἡρακλείδας τὴν ἀρχήν Hdt. 1.13, etc.; πόλεις ἀ. τοῖς παρακαταθεμένοις Aeschin. 3.85; ἀ. χάριτας Lys. 31.24; οὐκ ἐς χάριν ἀλλ' ἐς ὀφείλημα τὴν ἀρετ ὴν ἀ. Th. 2.40; ἀ. χάριν τινός Isoc. 6.73; [ τὴν πόλιν] ἀ. τοῖς ἐπιγιγνομένοις οἵανπερ παρὰ τῶν πατέρων παρελάβομεν X. HG 7.1.30: — Pass., ἔως κ' ἀπὸ πάντα δοθείη Od. 2.78; ἀ. μισθός, χάριτες, Ar. Eq. 1066, Th. 3.63.
2. assign, ταῖς γυναιξὶ μουσικὴν καὶ γυμναστικήν Pl. R. 456b; τὸ δίκαιον καὶ τὸ συμφέρον Arist. Rh. 1354b3, cf. 1356a15; τὸ πρὸς ἀλκὴν ὅπλον ἀ. ἡφύσις Id. GA 759b3, etc. refer to one, as belonging to his department, εἰς τοὺς κριτὰς τὴν κρίσιν Pl. Lg. 765b; ἀ. εἰς τὴν βουλὴν περὶ αὐτῶν refer their case to the Council, Isoc. 18.6, cf. Lys. 22.2, etc.
3. render, yield, of land, ἐπὶ διηκόσια ἀποδοῦναι (sc. καρπόν) yield fruit two hundred-fold, Hdt. 1.193; τἅλλα δ' ἅν τις καταβάλη ἀπέδωκεν ὀρθεῶς Men. Georg. 38; ἤν ἡ χώρη κατὰ λόγον ἐπιδιδοῖ ἐς ὕψος καὶ τὸ ὅμοιον ἀποδιδοῖ ἐς αὔξησιν renders, makes a like increase in extent, Hdt. 2.13: — hence perh. metaph., τὸ ἔργον ἀ. Arist. EN 1106a16; ἀ. δάκρυ E. HF 489.
4. concede, allow, c. inf., suffer or allow a person to do, ἀ. τισὶ αὐτονομεῖσθαι Th. 1.144, cf. 3.36; εἰ δὲ τοῖς μὲν.. ἐπιτάττειν ἀποδώσετε D. 2.30; ἀ. κολάζειν Id. 23.56; τῷ δικαστηρίῳ ἀποδίδοται τοῦ φόνου τὰς δίκας δικάζειν Lys. 1.30; ἀ. τινὶ ζητεῖν Arist. Pol. 1341b30, cf. Po. 1454b5; also οὔτε ἀπολογίας ἀποδοθείσης And. 4.3; ἐπειδὰν αὐτοῖς ὁ λόγος ἀποδοθῆ when right of speech is allowed them, Aeschin. 3.54.
5. ἀ. τινά with an Adj., render or make so and so, like ἀποδείκνυμι, ἀ. τὴν τέρψιν βεβαιοτέραν Isoc. 1.46; τέλειον ἀ. τὸ τέκνον Arist. GA 733b1; δεῖ τὰς ἐνεργείας ποιὰς ἀ. Id. EN 1103b22; μετριωτέραν τὴν ὑπερηφανίαν D.H. 7.16. exhibit, display, τὴν ὑπάρχουσαν ἀρετήν And. 1.109; ἀ. τὴν ἰδίαν μορφήν render, express it, Arist. Po. 1454b10; ἀ. φαντασίαν τινός present appearance of, Phld. Ir. p.71 W., al.
6. deliver over, give up, e.g. as a slave, E. Cyc. 239; ἀ. τὸν μιαρὸν τῶ χρόνῳ φῆναι Antipho 4.4.11.
7. ἀ. ἐπιστολήν deliver a letter, Th. 7.10, cf. E. IT 745.
8. ἀ. τὸν ἀγῶνα ὀρθῶς καὶ καλῶς bring it to a conclusion, Lycurg. 149.
9. λόγον ἀ. render an account, D. 27.48: — Pass., μαρτυρίαι ἀ. Test. ap. D. 18.137.
10. ἀ. ὅρκον, v. ὅρκος.
11. give an account or definition of a thing, explain it, E. Or. 150; ἀ. τί ἐστί τι Arist. Cat. 2b8, cf. 1a10, Metaph. 1040b30, al.; ἑπομένως τούτοις ἀ. τὴν ψυχήν Id. de.An. 405a4, cf. Ph. 194b34, al.; also, use by way of definition, ὁ μὲν τὴν ὕλην ἀποδίδωσιν, ὁ δὲ τὸ εἶδος Id. de An. 403b1; simply, define, τὸν ἄνθρωπον S.E. M. 7.272; expound, Phld. D. 3.14, cf. Epicur. Nat. 14.3, 119G., 143 G.; render, interpret one word by another, ἀ. τὴν κοτύλην ἄλεισον Ath. 11.479c; explain, interpret, τὸ φωνὴν αἵματος βοᾶν Ph. 1.209: — Pass., βέλτιον ἀποδοθήσεται Epicur. Ephesians 1 P. 15 U.; ἀκριβεστέρως ἀποδοθήσεται A.D. Synt. 45.21; ἀ. τι πρός τι use with reference to, Olymp. in Mete. 281.10, cf. Sch. Ar. Pl. 538.
12. attach or append, make dependent upon, τί τινι or εἴς τι Hero Aut. 24.5, 6, 2.
13. ἀ. τί τινος assign a property to a thing, Arist. Top. 128b28.
1. return, recur, Id. GA 722a8, HA 585b32.
2. Rhet. and Gramm., introduce a clause answering to the πρότασις, Id. Rh. 1407a20; διὰ μακροῦ ἀ. D.H. Dem. 9, etc.; cf. ἀπόδοσις 11.2; οὐκ ἀποδίδωσι τὸ ἐπεί has no apodosis, Sch. Od. 3.103; esp. in similes, complete the comparison, Arist. Rh. 1413a11.
3. in Tactics, turn back to face the enemy, εἰς ὀρθόν Ascl. Tact. 10.12, etc.
4. Medic. in Pass., to be evacuated, σὺν τοῖς περιττώμασιν Dsc. 4.82.
III Med., give away of one's own will, sell, Ar. Av. 585, Hdt. 1.70, etc.; ἀ. τι ἐς τὴν Ἑλλάδα take to Greece and sell it there, Id. 2.56: c. gen. pretii, Ar. Ach. 830, Pax 1237; οὐκ ἄν ἀπεδόμην πολλοῦ τὰς ἐλπίδας Pl. Phd. 98b; ἀ. τῆς ἀξίας, τοῦ εὑρίσκοντος, sell for its worth, for what it will fetch, Aeschin. 1.96; ὅταν τις οἰκέτην πονηρὸν πωλῆ (= offer for sale) καὶ ἀποδῶται τοῦ εὑρόντος X. Mem. 2.5.5, cf. Thphr. Char. 15.4; διδοῦσι [τὰς νέας] πενταδράχμους ἀποδόμενοι Hdt. 6.89; ἀ. εἰσαγγελίαν sell, i.e. take a bribe to forgo, the information, D. 25.47; οἱ δραχμῆς ἄν ἀποδόμενοι τὴν πόλιν X. HG 2.3.48; at Athens, esp. farm out the public taxes, D. 20.60, opp. ὠνέομαι: metaph., οἷον πρὸς ἄργυρον τὴν δόξαν τὰς ψυχάς Jul. Or. 1.42b: — Act. and Med. are distinguished in Lex ap. And. 1.97 πάντα ἀποδόμενος τὰ ἡμίσεα ἀποδώσω τῷ ἀποκτείναντι: but Act. is used in med. sense in Th. 6.62 (s.v.l.), cf. Foed.Delph.Pell. 2 A 22, and possibly in E. Cyc. 239, Ar. Ra. 1235: Med. for Act. in Antipho Fr. 54: — Pass., to be sold, Hsch.
ἀποδίδωμι, present participle neuter ἀποδιδοῦν (from the form ἀποδιδόω, Revelation 22:2, where T Tr WH marginal reading ἀποδιδούς (see WH's Appendix, p. 167)); imperfect 3 person plural ἀπεδίδουν (for the more common ἀπεδίδοσαν, Acts 4:33; cf. Winer's Grammar, § 14, 1 c.); future ἀποδώσω; 1 aorist ἀπέδωκα; 2 aorist ἀπεδων, imperative ἀπόδος, subjunctive 3 person singular ἀποδῷ and in 1 Thessalonians 5:15 Tdf. ἀποδοι (see δίδωμι), optative 3 person singular ἀποδῴη (or rather, ἀποδῴη; for ἀποδῴη is a subjunctive form) (2 Timothy 4:14, for ἀποδοιη, cf. Winers Grammar, § 14, 1 g.; Buttmann, 46 (40); yet L T Tr WH ἀποδώσει); passive, 1 aorist infinitive ἀποδοθῆναι; middle, 2 aorist ἀπεδομην, 3 person singular ἀπέδοτο (Hebrews 12:16, where L WH ἀπέδετο; cf. Buttmann, 47 (41); Delitzsch on Hebrew, p. 632 note; (WHs Appendix, p. 167)); a common verb in Greek writings from Homer down, and the N. T. does not deviate at all from their use of it; properly, to put away by giving, to give up, give over (German abgeben (cf. Winer's De verb. comp. etc. Part iv., p. 12f who regards ἀπό as denoting to give from some reserved store, or to give over something which might have been retained, or to lay off some burden of debt or duty; cf. Cope on Aristotle, rhet. 1, 1, 7));
1. to deliver, relinquish what is one's own: τό σῶμα τοῦ Ἰησοῦ, Matthew 27:58; hence, in middle to give away for one's own profit what is one's own, i. e. to sell (Winer's Grammar, 253 (238)): τί, Acts 5:8; Hebrews 12:16; τινα, Acts 7:9 (often in this sense in Greek writings, especially the Attic, from Herodotus 1, 70 down; in the Sept. for מָכַר, Genesis 25:33 etc.; Baruch 6:27 (i. e. Epistle Jer.) (28)).
2. to pay off, discharge, what is due (because a debt, like a burden, is thrown off, ἀπό, by being paid): a debt (German abtragen), Matthew 5:26; Matthew 18:25-30, 34; Luke 7:42; Luke 10:35; Luke 12:59; wages, Matthew 20:8; tribute and other dues to the government, Matthew 22:21; Mark 12:17; Luke 20:25; Romans 13:7; produce due, Matthew 21:41; Hebrews 12:11; Revelation 22:2; ὅρκους things promised under oath, Matthew 5:33, cf. Numbers 30:3 (εὐχήν a vow, Deuteronomy 23:21, etc.); conjugal duty, 1 Corinthians 7:3; ἀμοιβάς grateful requitals, 1 Timothy 5:4; λόγον to render account: Matthew 12:36; Luke 16:2; Acts 19:40; Romans 14:12 L text Tr text; Hebrews 13:17; 1 Peter 4:5; μαρτύριον, to give testimony (as something officially due), Acts 4:33. Hence,
3. to give back, restore: Luke 4:20; (
4. to requite, recompense, in a good or a bad sense: Matthew 6:4, 6, 18; Matthew 16:27; Romans 2:6; 2 Tim. 4:(
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ἀπο -δίδωμι ,
to give up or back, restore, return: Matthew 27:58, Luke 4:20; Luke 9:42; Luke 19:8; esp. of wages, debts, oaths, etc. (MM, s.v.), to render what is due, to pay (Deiss., LAE, 334 f.): absol., Matthew 18:25; Matthew 18:28, Luke 7:42. c. acc, Matthew 5:26; Matthew 18:29-30; Matthew 18:34; Matthew 20:8; Matthew 21:41; Matthew 22:21, Mark 12:17, Luke 10:35; Luke 12:59; Luke 20:25, Romans 13:7, Hebrews 12:11, Revelation 22:2; ὅρκους , Matthew 5:33 (cf. Numbers 30:3, Deuteronomy 23:21 al.); of conjugal duty, τ . ὀφειλήν , 1 Corinthians 7:3; ἀμοιβάς , 1 Timothy 5:4; μαρτύριον , to give (as in duty bound) testimony, Acts 4:33; λόγον , to render account, Matthew 12:36, Luke 16:2, Acts 19:40, Hebrews 13:17, 1 Peter 4:5; hence of requital, recompense, both in good and bad sense, Matthew 6:4; Matthew 6:6; Matthew 6:18; Matthew 16:27, Romans 2:6, 2 Timothy 4:8; 2 Timothy 4:14 Revelation 18:6; Revelation 22:12; κακὸν ἀντὶ κακοῦ , Romans 12:17, 1 Thessalonians 5:15, 1 Peter 3:9. Mid., to give up of one's own, hence to sell (fr. Hdt. on): c. acc rei, Acts 5:8, Hebrews 12:16; c. acc pers., Acts 7:9 (cf. ἀνταποδίδωμι ) .†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
It is unnecessary to illustrate at length this very common verb, the uses of which are on familiar lines. Thus ἀπόδος τῷ δεῖνι is the direction on the back of a letter, e.g. P Oxy II. 293.20 (A.D. 27) ἀπόδο (ς) παρὰ Διον [υσίου ] Διδύμῃ τῆι ἀδε [λφῇ ]; see also Wilcken Archiv v. p. 238 for the use of ἀπόδος to denote the transmission of an official document. Similarly the verb is the appropriate one everywhere for the ";paying"; of a debt, or ";restoring"; of a due of any kind—P Eleph 1.11 (B.C. 311–0) (= Selections, p. 3) of a dowry, Ἡρακλείδης Δημητρίαι τὴμ φερνὴν ἣν προσηνέγκατο (δραχμὰς) Α ̄, an observance due to the gods P Giss I. 27.10 (ii/A.D.) ἵνα. . . τοῖς θεοῖς τὰς ὀφειλομένα [ς ] σ ̣πονδὰς ἀποδῶ, rent ib. 46.4 (Hadrian) τὰ [ἐ ]κ ̣φόρια οὐκ ̣ ἀπέδοσαν, P Oxy I. 37ii. 8 (A.D. 49) (= Selections, p. 51) of wages for services that have not been fully rendered, ἀποδοῦσαν αὐτὴν ὃ εἴληφεν ἀργύριον, and ib. II. 269.5 (A.D. 57) of a loan of money, ἃς ἀποδώσω σοι τῇ τριακάδι τοῦ Κα [ισαρεί ]ου μηνός. In P Grenf I. 43.7 ff. (ii/B.C.) [α ]ὐτοῦ δὲ μηδ᾽ ἀποδεδωκότος ἡμῖν μ [ηδ ]ε ̣̣ ἵππον μηδὲ τὴν πορείαν αὐτῆς ἐπ [ιδε ]δωκότος, we have two compounds well distinguished. For some notes on its flexion see under δίδωμι. The middle ἀποδόσθαι ";sell"; (Acts 5:8 etc.) may be illustrated from P Tor I. 1iv. 22 (B.C. 116) (= Chrest. II. p. 34), vi. 24 (p. 36) etc. Cf. MGr ἀποδίδω.
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