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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #0398 - אָכַל
1) to eat, devour, burn up, feed
1a1) to eat (human subject)
1a2) to eat, devour (of beasts and birds)
1a3) to devour, consume (of fire)
1a4) to devour, slay (of sword)
1a5) to devour, consume, destroy (inanimate subjects i.e., pestilence, drought)
1a6) to devour (of oppression)
1b1) to be eaten (by men)
1b2) to be devoured, consumed (of fire)
1b3) to be wasted, destroyed (of flesh)
1c1) to cause to eat, feed with
1c2) to cause to devour
1d1) to feed
1d2) to cause to eat
1242) lk (כל KL) AC: Complete CO: Vessel AB: Whole: The pictograph k is a picture of the bent palm representing the bending or subduing of the will, the l is a picture of a shepherd staff or yoke. Combined these mean "tame for the yoke". An animal or land that is tamed has been worked and is complete and ready for use. Taming include; construction of holding pens, putting the soil to the plow, harvesting of crops, milk or meat. One eats once the harvest is complete. (eng: whole; cell; cellar)
Nf1) elk (כלה KLH) - Completion: Something that has been completed or made whole. This can be in a positive sense or negative such as in a failure. KJV (22): end, altogether, consume, consumption, consummation, determine, riddance - Strongs: H3617 (כָּלָה)
V) elk (כלה KLH) - Complete: To bring something to its completion. KJV (206): (vf: Paal, Pual, Piel) consume, end, finish, fail, accomplish, done, spend, determine, away, fulfill, faint, destroy, left, waste - Strongs: H3615 (כָּלָה)
V) lfk (כול KWL) - Sustain: To provide what is needed to make someone or something whole or complete. KJV (37): (vf: Paal, Pilpel) contain, feed, sustain, abide, nourish, hold, receive, victual, bear, comprehend - Strongs: H3557 (כּוּל)
Jeff Brenner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
אָכַל inf. const. אֲכֹלּ, with pref. לֶאֱכֹל, בֶּאֱכֹלּ, with suff. אֲכָלְךָ, אָכְלוֹ, fut. יאֹכַל, in pause יאֹכֵל, once יוֹכְלוּ, Ezekiel 42:5.
(1) to eat, to devour (kindred root is כָּלָה). It is put absolutely, Deuteronomy 27:7; 1 Samuel 9:13 more often with an acc. of the food, rarely followed by לְ Lam. 4:5 בְּ -Ex. 12:4345 ; Leviticus 22:11, and מִן Leviticus 7:21, 25:22 Numbers 15:19 comp. ἐσθίειν τινός. It is used not only (and that very frequently) of men, but also of beasts, Isaiah 11:7 whence הָאֹכֵל Judges 14:14, the eater, in Samson’s enigma, is the lion (compare اَلاكلُ). The following phrases should also be noticed:
(a) to eat a land, a field, a vine, is used for to eat its produce or fruit, Genesis 3:17; Isaiah 1:7, 36:16 (comp. 37:30 ).
(b) to devour sacrifices, is said of idols, a phrase taken from lectisternia, Deuteronomy 32:38; Ezekiel 16:20.
(c) אָכַל לֶחֶם is to take food, 1 Kings 21:7; Psalms 102:5 and when לֹא is added, not to take food, to fast, 1 Samuel 28:20, 30:12 the former is especially, to take a meal, to dine or sup, to feast, Genesis 31:54, 43:16 Jeremiah 41:1, 52:33 comp. φαγεῖν ἄρτον, Lu. 14:1. Sometimes אָכַל לֶתֶם is simply to live, Amos 7:12.
(d) אָכַל לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה is used of sacrificial banquets held at the temple, Deuteronomy 12:7, 18 Deuteronomy 12:18, 14:23 Exodus 18:12.
(e) to devour any one’s flesh, Psalms 27:2, used of cruel and fierce enemies who thirst for one’s blood. Different from this is
(f) to eat one’s own flesh, Ecclesiastes 4:5, of a foolish person devoured by envy. Compare Hom. Il. vi. 202: ὃν θυμὸν κατέδων.
(g) עֲנִיִּים, אָכַל הָעָם to eat up, to devour a people, the poor, used of princes who consume the wealth of a people, oppressing and impoverishing them, Psalms 14:4; Proverbs 30:14; Habakkuk 3:14. Comp. δημοβόρος βασιλεύς (Iliad i. 231). Similar is to eat the flesh of a people, Micah 3:3. In other places, to eat is i.q. to destroy by war and slaughter, Hosea 7:7; Isaiah 9:11; Deuteronomy 7:16; Jeremiah 10:25, 30:16 50:7, 17 Jeremiah 50:17, 51:34. Comp. Jdt_5:24.
(h) to eat any one’s words, is to receive them eagerly, Gr. φαγεῖν ῥήματα, dicta devorare (Plaut. Asin. iii. 3, 59). Jeremiah 15:16, נִמְצְאוּ דְבָרֶיךָ וָאֹכְלֵם “thy words were found, and I did eat them,” i.e. I eagerly devoured them, made them my own. (Compare on Carm. Samarit. iv. 16.) Hence is the vision to be explained of the roll given to the prophet to be eaten, Ezekiel 2:8, 3:1, seq.; Revelation 10:9 10. [But the vision presents an actual eating.]
(2) to devour, to consume, often used of inanimate things, as of fire, Numbers 16:35, 21:28 26:10 Job 1:16, etc.; followed by בְּ Zechariah 11:1 (comp. ignis edax, Virg. Æn. ii. 758. πάντας πῦρ ἐσθίει, Il. xxiii. 182); of the sword, 2 Samuel 2:26, 18:8 Deuteronomy 32:42 of famine and pestilence, Ezekiel 7:15 of fatal disease, Job 18:13 of the anger of God, Exodus 15:7 of a curse, Isaiah 24:6 of heat and cold, Genesis 31:40 of too much longing and desire, Psalms 69:10.
(3) to enjoy any thing, as good fortune, Job 21:25 the fruit of good or evil actions, sexual pleasures, Proverbs 30:20 (comp. 9:17 et vesci voluptatibus, Cic. Fin. 5:20).
(4) perhaps, to taste, to have the sense of taste, Deuteronomy 4:28.
(5) to diminish, to lessen, to take from, Ezekiel 42:5, “the upper chambers were shorter, כִּי יוֹכְלוּ אַתִּיקִים מֵהֵנָּה for the beams or columns took away from them,” i.e. occupied their place.
Niphal נֶאֱכַל, fut. יֵאָכֵל to be eaten, Exodus 12:46, 13:3, 7; also, to be fit to be eaten, to be fit for food, Genesis 6:21. Metaph. to be consumed by fire, Zechariah 9:4.
Piel אִבֵּל i.q. Kal, like the Arab. أَكَّلَ to eat up, to consume. Job 20:26, תְּאָכְלֵהוּ אֵשׁ (read t’aµchleµhu) “fire shall consume him,” for תְּאַכְּלֵהוּ. Dagesh forte excluded is compensated by the long vowel Kametz. Some copies however read תְּאַכְלֵהוּ. Comp. Lehrg. § 72, note 2, p. 251.
Pual, to be consumed, by fire, Nehemiah 2:3, 13 by the sword, Isaiah 1:20.
Hiphil הֶאֱכִיל, fut. יַאֲכִיל, once 1 pers. אוֹכִיל (Hosea 11:4), inf. חָכִיל for הַאֲכִיל (Eze. 21:33 ) to cause to consume, to devour (of the sword, Eze. 21:33 ), specially to give to eat, to feed, construed with two accus., one of the person, the other of the thing. Exodus 16:32; Numbers 11:18; Deuteronomy 8:16; Isaiah 49:26 with מִן of the food, Ps. 81:17.
Besides the derivatives which immediately follow, see אֲכִילָה, מַאֲכָל.
the Week of Proper 20 / Ordinary 25