the First Week of Advent
Click here to join the effort!
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #398 - אָכַל
1) to eat, devour, burn up, feed
1a1) to eat (human subject)
1a2) to eat, devour (of beasts and birds)
1a3) to devour, consume (of fire)
1a4) to devour, slay (of sword)
1a5) to devour, consume, destroy (inanimate subjects i.e., pestilence, drought)
1a6) to devour (of oppression)
1b1) to be eaten (by men)
1b2) to be devoured, consumed (of fire)
1b3) to be wasted, destroyed (of flesh)
1c1) to cause to eat, feed with
1c2) to cause to devour
1d1) to feed
1d2) to cause to eat
1242) lk (כל KL) AC: Complete CO: Vessel AB: Whole: The pictograph k is a picture of the bent palm representing the bending or subduing of the will, the l is a picture of a shepherd staff or yoke. Combined these mean "tame for the yoke". An animal or land that is tamed has been worked and is complete and ready for use. Taming include; construction of holding pens, putting the soil to the plow, harvesting of crops, milk or meat. One eats once the harvest is complete. (eng: whole; cell; cellar)
Nf1) elk (כלה KLH) - Completion: Something that has been completed or made whole. This can be in a positive sense or negative such as in a failure. KJV (22): end, altogether, consume, consumption, consummation, determine, riddance - Strongs: H3617 (כָּלָה)
V) elk (כלה KLH) - Complete: To bring something to its completion. KJV (206): (vf: Paal, Pual, Piel) consume, end, finish, fail, accomplish, done, spend, determine, away, fulfill, faint, destroy, left, waste - Strongs: H3615 (כָּלָה)
V) lfk (כול KWL) - Sustain: To provide what is needed to make someone or something whole or complete. KJV (37): (vf: Paal, Pilpel) contain, feed, sustain, abide, nourish, hold, receive, victual, bear, comprehend - Strongs: H3557 (כּוּל)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Qal Perfect אָכַל Exodus 34:28 +; אָֽכְלָה Numbers 21:28 +; etc. Imperfect יאֹבַל Genesis 49:27 +; וַיּאֹ֫כַל Genesis 25:34 +; וַיּאֹכַ֑ל Genesis 3:6 +; יאֹכֵ֑ל Leviticus 21:22 +; אֹכַל Genesis 24:33 +; וָָֽאֹכַ֫ל Genesis 27:33; וְאֹכֵ֑ל Isaiah 44:19; וָָֽאֹבֵל Genesis 3:12,13; 3 plural יאֹכְלוּ Genesis 32:33 +; יאֹכֵ֑לוּ Deuteronomy 18:18 +; etc. (for יוֺכְלוּ Ezekiel 42:5 read יוצלו, יאצלוᵐ5 Ew Co); suffix יאֹכְלֶנּוּ Leviticus 7:6 +; תּאֹבַלְכֶם Isaiah 33:11, etc., probably also תְּאָכְלֵהוּ Job 20:26, either as secondary form from ׳תּאֹ (Ew§ 253 Di) or textual error (Ges§ 68. 1) > Pi`el, Thes Kö I, 389; or Po`el, Ki De MV; Imperative אֱכוֺל 1 Kings 18:41 +, etc.; Infinitive absolute אָכוֺל Genesis 2:16 +; construct אֲכֹל Numbers 26:10 2t.; לֶאֱכֹל Genesis 24:33 +; לְאָכְלָה Jeremiah 12:9; Participle אֹכֵל (אוֺכֵל) Genesis 39:6 +, אֹכֶלֶת Exodus 24:17 +, etc. —
1 eat, human subject Genesis 3:11,18 + often; mostly with accusative Exodus 16:35 +; also followed by מִןֿ ( eat of, — some of, — or from) Exodus 34:15; Ruth 2:14 +; followed by בְּ ( eat of or at) Exodus 12:43 f; absolute Deuteronomy 2:6 +; as act of worship Genesis 31:54 (compare Genesis 46:1) Exodus 18:12; Exodus 24:11; Exodus 34:15; Deuteronomy 12:7,18; Deuteronomy 14:23,26 +; compare of priests Exodus 29:32; Leviticus 10:13 +; compare אָבַל אֶלהֶֿהָרִים Ezekiel 18:6,11,15; Ezekiel 22:9 + Ezekiel 33:25 עַלהַֿדָּם Co עַלהֶֿהָרִים; (but RS Rel. Semitic i. 324 N would emend first 4by last); eat up, finish eating Genesis 43:2 (with בלה) 1 Kings 13:28 +; אָכַל לֶחֶם = take a meal Genesis 43:25; Exodus 2:20; 1 Samuel 20:24; Jeremiah 41:1 +; so ׳א alone Genesis 43:16; 1 Samuel 20:5 +; לֶחֶם׳א = eat, get food Genesis 3:19; 2 Kings 4:8 +; Amos 7:12 (i.e. spend one's life) compare Ecclesiastes 5:16; ׳ל׳לֹא א i.e. fast 1 Samuel 28:20; 1 Samuel 30:12; Ezra 10:6 compare Daniel 10:3; figurative אֶתבְּֿשָׂרוֺ׳א Ecclesiastes 4:5 (i.e. waste away); eat words Jeremiah 15:16 (i.e. eagerly receive); of adultery, Proverbs 30:20 אָֽכְלָה וּמָֽחֲתָה מִּ֑יהָ וְאָֽמְרָה לֹאֿ פָעַלְתִּי אָֽוֶן׃; eat (taste) good fortune, בַּטּוֺב׳א Job 21:25; לְמִּיאָבְלוֺ according to his eating, i.e. according to his needs in eating Exodus 12:4; Exodus 16:16,18 also Exodus 16:21; compare Job 20:21 & below אָכְלָה; אָכַל הַמְּרִי 2 Kings 19:29; Amos 9:14, of peaceful enjoyment of results of labour; figurative of receiving consequences of action, good or bad Proverbs 1:31; Proverbs 18:21; Hosea 10:13 compare וַיּאֹכַל גַּםאָֿכוֺל אֶתכַּֿסְמֵּנוּ Genesis 31:15i.e. he has reaped all the benefit, compare Hosea 7:9; figurative of mourner, אֵפֶר כַּלֶּחֶם אָכָ֑לְתִּי Psalm 102:10 (compare Psalm 80:6 Hiph`il, & Assyrian akâl al âkul, bikîtum kurmatî = food I ate not, weeping (was) my refreshment Hpt ASKT 166f. Obsev. 1. 21,22Zim BP 34. 42); of gods, partaking of sacrifices Deuteronomy 32:38; figurative = destroy Deuteronomy 7:16 (compare Numbers 14:9); compare Jeremiah 10:25; Jeremiah 30:16; Jeremiah 50:7; Hosea 7:7.
2 of beasts, birds, etc., eat, devour; Genesis 37:20,33; Genesis 40:17,19; 1 Kings 13:28; 1 Kings 14:11; 1 Kings 16:4; 1 Kings 21:23,24; Hosea 2:14 +; specifically of locusts Joel 1:4; Joel 2:25; 2 Chronicles 7:13 compare Amos 4:9; moth Job 13:28; flies Psalm 78:45; worms Deuteronomy 28:39; also Ezekiel 19:3,6 (of Israel under figure of lion), compare Jeremiah 50:7,17; Jeremiah 51:34; also Hosea 13:8 (of ׳י under fig, of lion), Ezekiel 22:25 (נֶפֶשׁ אָכָ֑לוּ, of false prophets under figure of lion).
3 figurative of fire, devour, consume Leviticus 6:3 (followed by 2accusative consume offering to ashes) Nahum 3:13; Isaiah 5:24 (in simile), particular of fire from ׳י Leviticus 10:2; Leviticus 16:25; Judges 9:15 f 1 Kings 18:38; 2 Kings 1:10,12,14; 2 Chronicles 7:1; compare Amos 1:4,7,10,12,14; Amos 2:2,5; Amos 5:6 +; Deuteronomy 5:22 of fire at Sinai; of ׳י as fire (in judgment) Deuteronomy 4:24 אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵשׁ אֹכְלָה הוּא׳כִּי י; compare Deuteronomy 9:3; Isaiah 10:17 ("" בּער) Isaiah 30:27,30; Isaiah 33:14 ("" מוֺקְדֵי עוֺלָם).
4 of sword, devour, slay Deuteronomy 32:42; 2 Samuel 22:26; 2 Samuel 11:25; 2 Samuel 18:8; Hosea 11:6; Jeremiah 2:30; Jeremiah 12:12; compare of devastation of land Isaiah 1:7; Jeremiah 8:16.
5 in Genl. devour, consume, destroy (inanimate subject) of drought Genesis 31:40; of pestilence Ezekiel 7:15; of woods 2 Samuel 18:8; compare Leviticus 26:38 וְאָֽכְלָה אֶתְכֶם אֶרֶץאֹיְבֵיכֶם; of הַבּשֶׁת Jeremiah 3:24 (see בּשֶׁת).
6 figurative of oppression, devour the poor, etc. Proverbs 30:14; Habakkuk 3:14 compare Psalm 14:4; of bitter enmity לֶאֱכֹל אֶתבְּֿשָׂרִי Psalm 27:2. (compare Job 19:22).
Niph`al Perfect וְנֶאֱבַל consecutive Exodus 22:5 Imperfect יֵאָכֵל Genesis 6:21 +; וַיֵּאָכֵ֫ל Numbers 12:12, etc.; Infinitive absolute הֵאָבֹל Leviticus 7:18; Leviticus 19:7; Participle feminine נֶאֱכֶ֫לֶת Leviticus 11:47; —
1 be eaten by man Exodus 12:46; Exodus 13:3,7; Exodus 21:28; Exodus 29:34; Leviticus 6:9; Leviticus 6:16; Leviticus 6:19; Leviticus 6:23; Leviticus 7:6,15,16 (twice in verse); Leviticus 7:18; Leviticus 11:41; Leviticus 19:6; Leviticus 19:7; Leviticus 19:23; Leviticus 22:30; Leviticus 28:17; Ezekiel 45:21; of custom, usage Genesis 6:21; Exodus 12:16; Deuteronomy 12:22; Job 6:6; of permission to eat Leviticus 7:19; Leviticus 11:13,34,47 (twice in verse); Leviticus 17:13; with negative be uneatable Jeremiah 24:2,3,8; Jeremiah 29:17.
2 be devoured by fire, consumed Zephaniah 1:18; Zephaniah 3:8; Zechariah 9:4; Ezekiel 23:25.
3 be wasted, destroyed, of flesh Numbers 12:12; Jeremiah 30:16.
Pu`al Perfect אֻכְּלוּ be consumed with fire Nehemiah 2:3,13compare Nahum 1:10 (figurative); so Participle אֻכָּל (= מְאֻכָּל Ew§ 169 d) Exodus 3:2; by sword Isaiah 1:20 תְּאֻכְּלוּ.
Hiph`il Perfect 2 masculine singular suffix הֶאֱכַלְתָּם Psalm 80:6, וְהַאֲכַלְתִּ֫י Isaiah 49:26; suffix וְהַאֲכַלְתִּיךָ consecutive Isaiah 58:14; הֶאֱכַלְתִּיח Ezekiel 16:19; וְהַאֲכַלְתִּים consecutive Jeremiah 19:9; Imperfect suffix יַאֲכִלֵנוּ Numbers 11:4,18, etc.; 2 masculine singular js. תַּאֲכֵל; 1 singular אוֺכִיל Hosea 11:4; Imperative הַאֲכִילֵהוּ Proverbs 25:21, etc.; Infinitive לְהָכִיל Ezekiel 21:33 (but Co לההל, q. v.); Participle מַאֲבִיל Jeremiah 23:15, etc.; —
1 cause to eat, feed with, followed by 2accusative subject mostly ׳י; Exodus 16:32; Deuteronomy 8:3,16; Ezekiel 3:2; Jeremiah 19:9; absolute Hosea 11:4; compare Numbers 11:4,18; figurative Jeremiah 9:14; Jeremiah 23:15; Isaiah 49:26; Isaiah 58:14; Ezekiel 16:19; also Psalm 80:6 הֶאֱבַלְתָּם לֶחֶםדִּמְעָ֑ה (compare Psalm 102:10 Qal above); followed by accusative of person + מן Psalm 81:17, but also subject man Proverbs 25:21; 1 Kings 22:27; 2 Chronicles 18:26 וְהַאֲכִלֻהוּ לֶחֶם לַ֫חַץ of prison fare; followed by accusative of person only 2 Chronicles 28:15, compare Ezekiel 2:3.
2 cause to devour, object sword Ezekiel 21:33 (but on text see Co).
[אֲכַל] verb eat, devour (Biblical Hebrew); —
Pe`al Perfect 3 masculine plural אֲכַ֫לוּ Daniel 3:8; Daniel 6:25; Imperfect 3 masculine singular יֵאכֻל Daniel 4:30; 3 feminine singularתֵּאכֻל Daniel 7:23; Imperative feminine singular אֲכֻּ֫לִי Daniel 7:5; Participle feminine singular אָֽכְלָה, Daniel 7:7; Daniel 7:9; —
1 eat, of beast, Daniel 4:30 (accusative of thing).
2 devour, of beast in vision, Daniel 7:5 (accusative of thing), absolute Daniel 7:7; Daniel 7:19; hence figurative of kingdom, devour, devastate, Daniel 7:23 (accusative of earth).
3 in phrase ק־רְצֵיהוֺן׳א Daniel 3:8 eat their pieces, i.e. slander them, compare Daniel 6:25 (see קְרַץ).
אָכַל inf. const. אֲכֹלּ, with pref. לֶאֱכֹל, בֶּאֱכֹלּ, with suff. אֲכָלְךָ, אָכְלוֹ, fut. יאֹכַל, in pause יאֹכֵל, once יוֹכְלוּ, Ezekiel 42:5.
(1) to eat, to devour (kindred root is כָּלָה). It is put absolutely, Deuteronomy 27:7; 1 Samuel 9:13 more often with an acc. of the food, rarely followed by לְ Lam. 4:5 בְּ -Ex. 12:4345 ; Leviticus 22:11, and מִן Leviticus 7:21, 25:22 Numbers 15:19 comp. ἐσθίειν τινός. It is used not only (and that very frequently) of men, but also of beasts, Isaiah 11:7 whence הָאֹכֵל Judges 14:14, the eater, in Samson’s enigma, is the lion (compare اَلاكلُ). The following phrases should also be noticed:
(a) to eat a land, a field, a vine, is used for to eat its produce or fruit, Genesis 3:17; Isaiah 1:7, 36:16 (comp. 37:30 ).
(b) to devour sacrifices, is said of idols, a phrase taken from lectisternia, Deuteronomy 32:38; Ezekiel 16:20.
(c) אָכַל לֶחֶם is to take food, 1 Kings 21:7; Psalms 102:5 and when לֹא is added, not to take food, to fast, 1 Samuel 28:20, 30:12 the former is especially, to take a meal, to dine or sup, to feast, Genesis 31:54, 43:16 Jeremiah 41:1, 52:33 comp. φαγεῖν ἄρτον, Lu. 14:1. Sometimes אָכַל לֶתֶם is simply to live, Amos 7:12.
(d) אָכַל לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה is used of sacrificial banquets held at the temple, Deuteronomy 12:7, 18 Deuteronomy 12:18, 14:23 Exodus 18:12.
(e) to devour any one’s flesh, Psalms 27:2, used of cruel and fierce enemies who thirst for one’s blood. Different from this is
(f) to eat one’s own flesh, Ecclesiastes 4:5, of a foolish person devoured by envy. Compare Hom. Il. vi. 202: ὃν θυμὸν κατέδων.
(g) עֲנִיִּים, אָכַל הָעָם to eat up, to devour a people, the poor, used of princes who consume the wealth of a people, oppressing and impoverishing them, Psalms 14:4; Proverbs 30:14; Habakkuk 3:14. Comp. δημοβόρος βασιλεύς (Iliad i. 231). Similar is to eat the flesh of a people, Micah 3:3. In other places, to eat is i.q. to destroy by war and slaughter, Hosea 7:7; Isaiah 9:11; Deuteronomy 7:16; Jeremiah 10:25, 30:16 50:7, 17 Jeremiah 50:17, 51:34. Comp. Jdt_5:24.
(h) to eat any one’s words, is to receive them eagerly, Gr. φαγεῖν ῥήματα, dicta devorare (Plaut. Asin. iii. 3, 59). Jeremiah 15:16, נִמְצְאוּ דְבָרֶיךָ וָאֹכְלֵם “thy words were found, and I did eat them,” i.e. I eagerly devoured them, made them my own. (Compare on Carm. Samarit. iv. 16.) Hence is the vision to be explained of the roll given to the prophet to be eaten, Ezekiel 2:8, 3:1, seq.; Revelation 10:9 10. [But the vision presents an actual eating.]
(2) to devour, to consume, often used of inanimate things, as of fire, Numbers 16:35, 21:28 26:10 Job 1:16, etc.; followed by בְּ Zechariah 11:1 (comp. ignis edax, Virg. Æn. ii. 758. πάντας πῦρ ἐσθίει, Il. xxiii. 182); of the sword, 2 Samuel 2:26, 18:8 Deuteronomy 32:42 of famine and pestilence, Ezekiel 7:15 of fatal disease, Job 18:13 of the anger of God, Exodus 15:7 of a curse, Isaiah 24:6 of heat and cold, Genesis 31:40 of too much longing and desire, Psalms 69:10.
(3) to enjoy any thing, as good fortune, Job 21:25 the fruit of good or evil actions, sexual pleasures, Proverbs 30:20 (comp. 9:17 et vesci voluptatibus, Cic. Fin. 5:20).
(4) perhaps, to taste, to have the sense of taste, Deuteronomy 4:28.
(5) to diminish, to lessen, to take from, Ezekiel 42:5, “the upper chambers were shorter, כִּי יוֹכְלוּ אַתִּיקִים מֵהֵנָּה for the beams or columns took away from them,” i.e. occupied their place.
Niphal נֶאֱכַל, fut. יֵאָכֵל to be eaten, Exodus 12:46, 13:3, 7; also, to be fit to be eaten, to be fit for food, Genesis 6:21. Metaph. to be consumed by fire, Zechariah 9:4.
Piel אִבֵּל i.q. Kal, like the Arab. أَكَّلَ to eat up, to consume. Job 20:26, תְּאָכְלֵהוּ אֵשׁ (read t’aµchleµhu) “fire shall consume him,” for תְּאַכְּלֵהוּ. Dagesh forte excluded is compensated by the long vowel Kametz. Some copies however read תְּאַכְלֵהוּ. Comp. Lehrg. § 72, note 2, p. 251.
Pual, to be consumed, by fire, Nehemiah 2:3, 13 by the sword, Isaiah 1:20.
Hiphil הֶאֱכִיל, fut. יַאֲכִיל, once 1 pers. אוֹכִיל (Hosea 11:4), inf. חָכִיל for הַאֲכִיל (Eze. 21:33 ) to cause to consume, to devour (of the sword, Eze. 21:33 ), specially to give to eat, to feed, construed with two accus., one of the person, the other of the thing. Exodus 16:32; Numbers 11:18; Deuteronomy 8:16; Isaiah 49:26 with מִן of the food, Ps. 81:17.
Besides the derivatives which immediately follow, see אֲכִילָה, מַאֲכָל.