Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #07901 - שָׁכַב
1) to lie down
1a1) to lie, lie down, lie on
1a2) to lodge
1a3) to lie (of sexual relations)
1a4) to lie down (in death)
1a5) to rest, relax (figuratively)
1b) (Niphal) to be lain with (sexually)
1c) (Pual) to be lain with (sexually)
1d) (Hiphil) to make to lie down
1e) (Hophal) to be laid
Jeff Brenner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
שָׁכַב fut. יִשְׁכַּב, inf. שְׁכַב with suff. שִׁכְבָהּ Genesis 19:33, and שָׁכְבְּךָ (from שְׁכֹב), Deuteronomy 6:7 imp. שְׁכַב, with ה parag. שִׁכְבִה to lie, to lie down. (Syr., Ch., and Eth. ሰከበ፡ id., but Arab. سكب to pour out, which is done by inclining a vessel. The primary stock is כב, כף, which has the power of bending, inclining oneself, compare under כָּפַף, Gr. Lat. κύπτω, cubo, cumbo. As to a sibilant prefixed to a biliteral stock to form triliterals, see p. 783, A. ) Psalms 68:14, “would that ye lay amongst the stalls” (shepherds to take rest). Isaiah 50:11, “ye shall lie down in sorrow.” 1 Kings 3:19, “(the woman) had lain upon it” (the child), and had smothered it; also to lay one’s self down (fich legen), Ezekiel 4:6, “lie on thy right side,” lege dich auf die rechte Seite. Specially used
(a) of those who are going to sleep, to lay oneself down to sleep, Genesis 19:4, 28:11 1 Samuel 3:5, 1 Samuel 3:6, 1 Samuel 3:9; Psalms 3:6, 4:9 1 Kings 19:5; Job 7:4; Proverbs 3:24 and as being asleep, 1 Samuel 3:2; 2 Samuel 11:9; 1 Samuel 26:7; 1 Kings 21:27 also as taking rest, Psalms 68:14 hence to rest, Ecclesiastes 2:23, “even at night his heart doth not rest.” Job 30:17, “my gnawing (pains) take no rest.”
(b) used of those who are sick, 2 Samuel 13:6; 2 Kings 9:16.
(c) of mourners, 2 Samuel 12:16.
(d) of those who are dying (to lay oneself down), very often in speaking of the death of kings in the phrase, וַיִּשְׁכַּב עִם אֲבוֹתָיו 1 Kings 2:10, 11:43 14:20, 31 1 Kings 14:31, 15:8, 24 1 Kings 15:24, 16:6, 28 1 Kings 16:28 and of the dead, Isaiah 14:8, מֵאָז שָׁכַבְתָּ “since thou wast laid down,” hast died [wast destroyed]. Isaiah 14:18, 43:17 Job 3:13, 20:11 21:26. שֹׁכְבֶי קֶבֶר those who lie in the grave, Psalms 88:6.
(e) used of those who lie with a woman, followed by עִם Genesis 26:10, 30:15, 16 Genesis 30:16, 34:2 39:7, 12 Genesis 39:12; Exodus 22:15; Deuteronomy 22:23, seq.; 2 Samuel 12:11 and אֵת Genesis 35:22; 1 Samuel 2:22 with suff. אֹתִי, אֹתָהּ Genesis 34:2; Leviticus 15:18, 24 Leviticus 15:24 (once used of a woman, Genesis 19:32); also with an acc. Deuteronomy 28:30, in קרי (where in the text there is שָׁגַל). Hence
Niphal, to be lain with, ravished (used of a woman), Isaiah 13:16; Zechariah 14:2 and
Pual, id. Jeremiah 3:2 קרי.
(1) to make any one lie down, to prostrate, 2 Samuel 8:2 to lay down, 1 Kings 17:19 to cause to rest, Hosea 2:20.
(2) to pour out a vessel (i.q. Arab. سكب to pour out, see above as to this meaning), Job 38:37.
Hophal הָשְׁכַּב, part. מָשְׁכָּב to be prostrated, to lie, 2 Kings 4:32; Ezekiel 32:19, 32 Ezekiel 32:32.
Derivatives, שְׁכָבָה, שְׁכֹבֶת, מִשְׁכָּב.
the Sixth Week after Easter