Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #08199 - שָׁפַט
1) to judge, govern, vindicate, punish
1a1) to act as law-giver or judge or governor (of God, man)
1a1a) to rule, govern, judge
1a2) to decide controversy (of God, man)
1a3) to execute judgment
1a3a) discriminating (of man)
1a3c) condemning and punishing
1a3d) at theophanic advent for final judgment
1b1) to enter into controversy, plead, have controversy together
1b2) to be judged
1c) (Poel) judge, opponent-at-law (participle)
V) ups (סהפתה ShPTh) - Judge: To rule over cases of dispute or wrong doing. [Hebrew and Aramaic] KJV (204): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Participle) judge, plead, avenge, condemn, execute, judgment, defend, deliver, magistrate - Strongs: H8199 (שָׁפַט), H8200 (שְׁפַט)
Jeff Brenner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
שָׁפַט fut. יִשְׁפֹּט
(1) to judge. (A root which is not found in the other Phœnicio-Shemitic languages, the primary idea of which appears to be, to set up, to erect, like the Germ. richten, comp. the cognate roots שָׁפַת, שָׁבַט. Traces of it are found perhaps in the Indo-Germ. languages, as fcheffen, in Gloss. Mons. to judge; gefchefft, testament; Schöppe, judge.) Const. either absol. Job 22:13; Ezekiel 44:24 or followed by an acc. of pers. whose cause is judged, Exodus 18:22, 26 Exodus 18:26; Deuteronomy 16:18; Isaiah 11:4. שָׁפַט צֶדֶק Proverbs 31:9, and שׁ׳ מֵישָׁרִים Psalms 75:3, to do justice, equity. Ezekiel 16:38, שְׁפַטְתִּיךָ מִשְׁפְּטֵי נֹאֲפוֹת “I will judge thee (with) the judgments of adulteresses.” שׁ׳ בֵּין וּבֵין to be judge or umpire between, Genesis 16:5, 31:53 Isaiah 2:4. Part. שׁוֹפֵט subst. judge, Deuteronomy 16:18.
Specially (see דִּין No. 2 ) to judge any one is
(a) i.q. to condemn, to punish the guilty (κατακρίνω), 1 Samuel 3:13; Obadiah 1:21; Psalms 109:31 compare שְׁפוֹט.
(b) to defend any one’s cause, especially that of the poor and oppressed. Isaiah 1:17, שִׁפְטוּ יָתוֹ ם “defend the cause of the orphan.” Psalms 10:18, 26:1. שׁ׳ מִשְׁפַּט פּ׳ Jeremiah 5:28; Lamentations 3:59. Followed by מִן and מִיַּד pregn. to defend (any one’s) cause, and to deliver him from the power (of his enemies), 1 Samuel 24:16; 2 Samuel 18:19, 31 2 Samuel 18:31; Psalms 43:1.
(2) to rule, to govern, as connected with the idea of judging, since judging was the province of kings and chief magistrates (1 Samuel 8:20; 2 Chronicles 1:10 compare דִּין No. 1, 2), Judges 16:31. Hence Part. שׁוֹפֵט, שֹׁפֵט a prince, Psalms 2:10; Amos 2:3 especially used of the leaders and magistrates of the Israelites, who delivered their people from the oppression of neighbouring nations between the time of Joshua and Samuel, and who then governed them in peace as supreme magistrates (Judges 4:5 ), Judges 2:16, 18 Judges 2:18; Ruth 1:1; 2 Kings 23:22, etc. The same name (suffes; plur. suffetes) was applied to the chief magistrates of the Carthaginians.
(1) to be judged, Psalms 37:33.
(2) recipr., to litigate with any one, Proverbs 29:9; Isaiah 43:26 followed by עִם of pers., Joel 4:2 אֵת (אִתּ) Ezekiel 17:20, 20:35, 36 לְ Jeremiah 25:31 (see below); also with an acc. and עַל of the thing (Jeremiah 2:35) concerning which any one contends, 1 Samuel 12:7; Ezekiel 17:20. When Jehovah is said to contend with men, it has sometimes the notion of punishing, Ezekiel 38:22; Isaiah 66:16 compare 2 Chronicles 22:8.
Poel, part. מְשֹׁופֵט i.q. שׁוֹפֵט Job 9:15.
Derivatives, שָׁפָט-שִׁפְטָן, שְׁפוֹט, מִשְׁפָּט.