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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #1342 - δίκαιος
- righteous, observing divine laws
- in a wide sense, upright, righteous, virtuous, keeping the commands of God
- of those who seem to themselves to be righteous, who pride themselves to be righteous, who pride themselves in their virtues, whether real or imagined
- innocent, faultless, guiltless
- used of him whose way of thinking, feeling, and acting is wholly conformed to the will of God, and who therefore needs no rectification in the heart or life
- only Christ truly
- approved of or acceptable of God
- in a narrower sense, rendering to each his due and that in a judicial sense, passing just judgment on others, whether expressed in words or shown by the manner of dealing with them
- in a wide sense, upright, righteous, virtuous, keeping the commands of God
δίκαιος [ ῐ], α, ον, also ος, ον
E. Heracl. 901 (lyr.), IT 1202, D.S. 5.72: (δίκη):
1. in Hom. and all writers, of persons, observant of custom or rule, Od. 3.52; esp. of social rule, well-ordered, civilized, ὑβρισταί τε καὶ ἄγριοι οὐδὲ δ. 9.175, cf. 8.575; [ Γαλακτοφάγοι] δικαιότατοι Il. 13.6; [ Χείρων] δικαιότατος Κενταύρων 11.832, cf. Thgn. 314, 794; δ. πολίτης a good citizen, D. 3.21, etc.: metaph. of the sea, Sol. 12.2 (Sup.); δικαίη ζόη a civilized way of living, Hdt. 2.177. Adv. δικαίως, μνᾶσθαι woo in due form, decently, Od. 14.90; ὑπὸ ζυγῷ λόφον δ. εἶχον loyally, S. Ant. 292.
2. observant of duty to gods and men, righteous, Od. 13.209, etc.; δ. πρὸς πᾶσαν ὁμιλίην Hp. Medic. 2; ἰθὺς καὶ δ. Hdt. 1.96; opp. δυσσεβής, A. Th. 598, cf. 610; δ. καὶ ὅσιος Pl. Grg. 507b; δικαίων ἀδίκους φρένας παρασπᾷς S. Ant. 791 (lyr.); also of actions, etc., righteous, ἐπὶ ῥηθέντι δικαίῳ a thing rightly said, Od. 18.414, etc.
3. ὁ δίκαιος, euphem. of a sacred snake, GDI 5056 (Crete). later: I equal, even, well-balanced, ἅρμα δίκαιον evengo
II of persons and things,
1. meet and right, fitting, δ. τοῦδε τοῦ φόνου ῥαφεύς A. Ag. 1604; κόσμος οὐ φέρειν δ. Id. Eu. 55; ἵππον δ. ποιεῖσθαί τινι make a horse fit for another's use, X. Mem. 4.4.5, cf. Cyn. 7.4 (ἵππος δ. τὴν σιαγόνα having a good mouth, Poll. 1.196). normal, σχήματα Hp. Art. 69; φύσις Id. Fract. 1 (Sup.).
2. real, genuine, γόνος S. Fr. ; ποιῶν τὰ ἐν τῇ τέχνῃ δ. Supp.Epigr. 2.184.7 (Tanagra, ii B. C.). Adv., εἴπερ δικαίως ἐστ' ἐμός really and truly mine, S. Aj. 547, cf. Pl. Cra. 418e.
3. ὁ δ. λόγος the plea of equity, Th. 1.76. Adv. -αίως with reason, Id. 6.34, cf. S. OT 675: Comp. -ότερον Ar. V. 1149, etc.; also -οτέρως Isoc. 15.170: Sup. -ότατα Ar. Av. 1222; Aeol. δικαίτατα IG 12(2).526c17 (Eresus).
III ψυχὴ ἐς τὸ δ. ἔβη 'the land of the leal', IG 7.2543.3 (Thebes). in Prose, δίκαιός εἰμι, c. inf., δίκαιοί ἐστε ἰέναι you are bound to come, Hdt. 9.60, cf. 8.137; δ. εἰμεν ἔχειν Id. 9.27; δ. εἰμι κολάζειν I have a right to punish, Ar. Nu. 1434, cf. S. Ant. 400; δ. ἐστι περιπεσεῖν κακοῖς Antipho 3.3.7; δ. εἰσι ἀπιστότατοι εἶναι they have most reason to distrust, Th. 4.17; δ. βλάπτεσθαι Lys. 20.12; δ. ἐστιν ἀπολωλέναι dignus est qui pereat, D. 6.37; ὁ σπουδαῖος ἄρχειν δ. has a right to.., Arist. Pol. 1287b12; with a non-personal subject, ἔλεος δ. ἀντιδίδοσθαι Th. 3.40: less freq. in Comp. and Sup., δικαιότεροι χαρίσασθαι Lys. 20.34; δικαιότατος εἶ ἀπαγγέλλειν Pl. Smp. 172b; but δίκαιόν ἐστι is also found, Hdt. 1.39, A. Pr. 611, etc.: pl., δίκαια γὰρ τόνδ' εὐτυχεῖν S. Aj. 1126, cf. Tr. 495, 1116; δικαίως ἄν, c. opt., Pl. Phdr. 276a. [ δικαίων with penult. short in Orph. Fr. 247.2; cf. οὐ δίκαον· οὐ δίκαιον, Hsch. ]
δίκαιος , -α , -ον
(< δίκη ),
in early Gk. writers,
(a) of persons, observant of ίκη , custom, rule, right, righteous in performing duties to gods and men;
(b) of things, righteous, in accordance with right. In NT:
1. righteous, chiefly in the broad sense, as above, of the person or thing corresponding to the Divine standard of right;
(a) of persons: of God, Romans 3:26, 1 John 2:29; 1 John 3:7; of Christ, Acts 3:14; Acts 7:52; Acts 22:14, 1 Peter 3:18, 1 John 2:1; of men, Matthew 1:19 (Abbott, Essays, 75 f.) Matthew 10:41; Matthew 13:17; Matthew 13:43; Matthew 13:49, Luke 1:6; Luke 1:17, Romans 5:7, 1 Timothy 1:9, James 5:6, 1 Peter 3:12, 1 John 3:7, Revelation 22:11, al.; δ . καὶ εὐλαβής , Luke 2:25; ἅγιος , Mark 6:20; ἀγαθός , Luke 23:50; φοβούμενος τ . θεόν , Acts 10:22; opp. to ἀμαρτωλοὶ καὶ ἀσεβεῖς , 1 Peter 4:18; ἄδικοι , Matthew 5:45, Acts 24:15; δ . ἐκ πίστεως , Romans 1:17, Galatians 3:11, Hebrews 10:38 (LXX); δ . παρὰ τ . θεῷ , Romans 2:13;
(b) of things: ἔργα δ ., opp. to πονηρὰ , 1 John 3:12; ἐντολή , Romans 7:12; metaph., αἷμα , Matthew 23:35; τὸ δ ., Luke 12:57; δ . ἐστιν , Acts 4:19, Ephesians 6:1, Philippians 1:7; ὅ , Matthew 20:4; ὅσα , Philippians 4:8.
2. In narrower sense;
(a) of persons, as in later cl. writers, just, rendering to each his due: Titus 1:8, 1 John 1:9; δ . κριτής , 2 Timothy 4:8;
(b) of things: τὸ δ ., Colossians 4:1; δ ., sc. ἐστιν , 2 Thessalonians 1:6; κρίσις δ ., John 5:30; ὁδοί , Revelation 15:3.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Our sources have naturally little light to throw upon the deeper Christian significance of this important word, but we may give a few examples showing its general usage. The adjective is applied to a ";just measure"; (μετρήσει δ.) P Tebt I. 11.13 (B.C. 119), 105.41 (B.C. 103) etc., and a ";just rule"; (σκυτάλη δ.) P Rein 20.24 (B.C. 108). Then it would seem to have become a vox propria in connexion with the rise of the Nile, e.g. OGIS 666.11 (i/A.D.) νῦν μᾶλλον ἀπέλαυσε (sc. ἡ Αἴγυπτος) τῆς δικαίας ἀναβάσεως τοῦ θεοῦ : see Dittenberger’s note and cf. Deissmann BS, p. 116. In P Petr II. 28viii. 6 (taxing account—iii/B.C.) we hear of a δικαίου νήσου. The neuter is very largely used substantially, for ";duty,"; ";rights"; or ";claims."; Thus in P Petr II. 10.27 the royal gooseherds make petition that certain grievances be set right, ἵνα δυνώμεθα τὰ δίκαια ποιεῖν τῶι βασιλεῖ, ";in order that we may be able to do our duty to the king"; : cf. the neuter plural of the ";duties"; of marriage, e.g. P Oxy VI. 905.9 (marriage contract—A.D. 170) συμβιούτωσαν [οὖν ἀλλήλοις οἱ γ ]αμοῦντες φυλάσσοντες τὰ τοῦ γάμου δίκαια, ib. X. 1273.23 (A.D. 260), BGU IV. 1098.34 (c. B.C. 18) τηρεῖν τὰ πρὸς τ ̣ο ̣, ν ̣ ἄνδρα καὶ τὸν κοινὸν βίον δίκαια.
The meaning of ";right,"; ";justice,"; to which this leads, figures in the concluding formula of numerous petitions : cf. also Colossians 4:1. Thus P Magd 2.9 (iii/B.C.) where a widow petitions Ptolemy III—ἵνα ἐ [πὶ ] σὲ καταφυγοῦσα, βασιλεῦ, τοῦ δικαίου τύχω, and P Oxy III. 486.35 (A.D. 131) ἵνα τὰ ἐ [μα ]υτῆς δίκ ̣[αια λάβω. Cf. P Oxy IV. 746.9 (a letter of recommendation—A.D. 16) τοῦτο οὖν ἐάν σοι φα [ί ]νηται σπουδάσεις κατὰ τὸ δίκαιον, ";please therefore further him in this matter, as is just"; (Edd.). So with the negative in a complaint, as BGU IV. 1187.20 (c. B.C. 1) μη [δ ]ενὸς δικα [ίο ]υ ἀντεχόμενοι. ";Claim"; or the like will render it in P Ryl II. 68.27 (B.C. 89) ι ̣̓́ν ̣᾽. . . ἐὰν δὲ περιγένωμαι, λάβω παρ᾽ αὐτῆς τὸ δίκαιον ὡς καθήκει, ";if I survive, I may obtain satisfaction from her as is right"; (Edd.), P Tor 1vii. 27 (B.C. 116) καὶ ταύτην μηδ᾽ ὁλοσχερῶς πᾶσιν, ἀλλὰ τοῖς ἔχουσίν τι δίκαιον, P Tebt II. 320.10 (A.D. 181) ὑπετάξαμ (εν) [ἡ ]μῶν τὰ δίκαια, ";we append our claims"; (Edd.). Δ. often answers to the Latin ius, as P Lond 1164(e ).6 (A.D. 212) (= III. p. 160) τὰ ὑπάρχοντα αὐτῷ μέρη οἰκιῶν δύο οὐσῶν ἐν τῇ Ἀντινοουπόλει ἐλθόντα εἰς αὐτὸν ἀπὸ [δι ]καίου [π ]αρα χωρήσεως γενομένης κτλ, and often for the ius liberorum, which qualified a woman to appear in legal transactions without a guardian. Thus so in the same formula P Thead 1.5 (A.D. 306), P Oxy IX. 1199.7 (iii/A.D.), ib. X. 1276.3 (A.D. 249) ἡ δὲ Μεϊθοῦς χωρὶς κυρίου χρηματίζουσα κατὰ τὰ Ρωμ [αίω ]ν ἔθη τέκνων δικαίῳ, so.24, and ib. 1277.3 (A.D. 255), and cf. Archiv i. p. 310 f. The difficult phrase ὑπέχειν καὶ λαμβάνειν τὸ δίκαιον ἐπὶ τῶν χρηματιστῶν, P Tebt I. 5.214 (B.C. 118), is translated ";they shall give and receive satisfaction before the chrematistae"; by the editors, who note that it is ";apparently another way of saying διδόναι καὶ δέχεσθαι δίκην, according as the verdict was against or for them";; but see Wenger in Archiv ii. p. 493, who renders ";Recht zu geben und zu nehmen, d. i. sich beklagen zu lassen und zu klagen."; Δικαία appears as a fem. subst. in OGIS 8.29 (iv/B.C.) βαθόεντι τᾶ πόλε [ι ] καὶ τᾶ δικαία, ";helping the state and justice."; In the late P Lond 483.6 (A.D. 616) (= II. p. 325) τὸ δίκαιον is applied to a monastery, evidently with reference to its ";corporate unity as distinct from the individual who happens at any given time to represent it as prior"; (see the editor’s note).
For the adverb, cf. P Magd 29.5 (B.C. 218) οὐ διείρηταί μοι δικαίως —a complaint that the division of a piece of land has not been made ";fairly."; For the combination ὁσίως καὶ δικαίως, as in 1 Thessalonians 2:10, see P Par 63viii. 12 ff. where a letter-writer claims that he has acted ";in a holy and just way"; before the gods—ἐγὼ γὰρ πιστεύσας σοί τε καὶ τοῖς θεοῖς, πρὸς οὓς ὁσίως καὶ δίκ. . . δικαίως [πολι ]τευσάμενος κτλ. MGr is δίκι ̯ος : the phrase ἔχω δίκι ̯ο, ";I am right,"; recalls the old substantival use. It should be added that Δίκαιος appears as a proper name : cf. the Latin Iustus, as in Acts 1:23; Acts 18:7, Colossians 4:11.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
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