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Bible Lexicons

Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary

Entry for Strong's #757 - ἄρχω

Transliteration
árchō
Phonetics
ar'-kho  
Word Origin
a primary word
Parts of Speech
Verb
TDNT
1:478,81
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. to be chief, to lead, to rule
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 1254 ‑ בָּרָא (baw‑raw');  1404 ‑ גְּבֶרֶת (gheb‑eh'‑reth);  2490 ‑ חָלַל (khaw‑lal');  2974 ‑ יָאַל (yaw‑al');  3245 ‑ יָסַד (yaw‑sad');  4911 ‑ מָשַׁל (maw‑shal');  5081 ‑ נָדִיב (naw‑deeb');  5128 ‑ נוּעַ (noo'‑ah);  5251 ‑ נֵס (nace);  5257 ‑ נָסִיךְ (nes‑eek');  5493 ‑ שׂוּר (soor, soor);  6030 ‑ עָנָה (aw‑naw');  6113 ‑ עָצַר (aw‑tsar');  6260 ‑ עַתֻּד (at‑tood', at‑tood');  6544 ‑ פָּרַע (paw‑rah');  7218 ‑ רֹאשׁ (roshe);  7287 ‑ רָדָה (raw‑daw');  7891 ‑ שׁוּר (sheer, shoor);  7981 ‑ שְׁלֵט (shel‑ate');  8199 ‑ שָׁפַט (shaw‑fat');  8271 ‑ שְׁרָא (sher‑ay');  
Frequency Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (2) NAS (85) HCS (2)
Mark 1
Romans 1
Matthew 13
Mark 27
Luke 30
John 2
Acts 10
Romans 1
2 Corinthians 1
1 Peter 1
Mark 1
Romans 1
BYZ TIS TR
V-PAN 2
V-PAN 2
V-PAN 2
NA WH
V-PAN 2


Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

ἄρχω, inf. ἀρχέμεναι Il. 20.154: impf. ἦρχον ib. 2.378, etc.; Dor. ἆρχον Pi. O. 10(11).51: fut. ἄρξω Od. 4.667, A. Pr. 940, Th. 1.144: aor. ἦρξα, ἄρξα Od. 14.230, etc.: pf. ἦρχα CIG 3487.14 (Thyatira), Decr. ap. Plu. 2.851f: Med., Od. 8.90, etc.; non-thematic part. ἄρχμενος Call. Aet. 3.1.56, al.: impf., Il. 9.93, Hdt. 5.28: fut. ἄρξομαι (in med. sense, v. infr.) Il. 9.97, E. IA 442, X. Cyr. 8.8.2; Dor. ἀρξεῦμαι Theoc. 7.95: aor. ἠρξάμην Od. 23.310, etc.: Pass., pf. ἦργμαι only in med. sense, v. infr. 1.2: aor. ἤρχθην, ἀρχθῆναι Th. 6.18, Arist. Pol. 1277b13, v. infr. 11.4: to be first,

I in Time, begin, make a beginning, Act. and Med. (in Hom. the Act. is more freq., in Att. Prose the Med., esp. where personal action is emphasized), πολέμου ἄρχειν to be the aggressor, Th. 1.53; π. ἄρχεσθαι to begin one's operations, X. HG 6.3.6; ἄρχειν τοῦ λόγου to open a conversation, Id. An. 1.6.6; ἄρχεσθαι τοῦ λόγου to begin one's speech, ib. 3.2.7. Constr.:

1 mostly c. gen., make a beginning of, ἄρχειν πολέμοιο Il. 4.335; μύθων Od. 3.68; τῶν ἀδικημάτων πρῶτον τοῦτο ἄρξαι Hdt. 1.2; ἦρξεν ἐμβολῆς A. Pers. 409; τοῦ κακοῦ ib. 353; ἄρχειν χειρῶν ἀδίκων, ἄρχειν τῆς πληγῆς, strike the first blow, Antipho 4.2.1 and 2: in Med. in religious sense, = ἀπάρχεσθαι, ἀρχόμενος μελέων beginning with the limbs, Od. 14.428, cf. E. Ion 651; but Act., σπονδαῖσιν ἄρξαι Pi. I. 6(5).37.

2. c. gen., begin from or with.., ἐν σοὶ μὲν λήξω σέο δ' ἄρξομαι Il. 9.97; ἄρχεσθαι Διός Pi. N. 5.25; πόθεν ἄρξωμαι; A. Ch. 855; πόθεν ποτὲ ἦρκται Hp. VM 5; ἄρχεσθαι, ἦρχθαι ἔκ τινος, Od. 23.199, Hp. Off. 11; ἀπό τινος freq. in Prose, ἀρξάμενοι αὐτίκα ἀπὸ παιδίων even from boyhood, Hdt. 3.12; but more commonly ἐκ παίδων, ἐκ παιδός, etc., Pl. R. 408d, Thg. 128d: — ἀπό in non-temporal relations, ἀρξάμενος ἀπὸ σοῦ. i.e. including yourself, Pl. Grg. 471c, cf. D. 18.297; ἀπὸ τῶν πατέρων X. Mem. 3.5.15; μέχρι τῶν δώδεκα ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀρξάμενος Pl. Lg. 771c; ἀφ' ἱερῶν ἠργμένη ἀρχή ib. 771a; ἀφ' Ἑστίας ἀρχόμενος Ar. V. 846.

3. c. gen. rei et dat. pers., ἄρχε θεοῖς δαιτός begin a banquet to the gods, Il. 15.95; τοῖς ἄρα μύθων ἦρχε 2.433, etc.; τῇσι δὲ.. ἄρχετο μολπῆς Od. 6.101; ἦρξε τῇ πόλει ἀνομίας τὸ νόσημα Th. 2.53, cf. 12; τὴν ἡμέραν ἄρχειν ἐλευθερίας τῇ Ἑλλάδι X. HG 2.2.23; ἡμὶν οὐ σμικρῶν κακῶν ἦρξεν τὸ δῶρον S. Tr. 871.

4. c. acc., ἄρχειν ὁδόν τινι, show him the way, Od. 8.107 (but also ἄρχειν ὁδοῖο lead the way, 5.237): abs. (sc. ὁδόν), ἄρχε δ' Ἀθήνη 3.12; σὺ μὲν ἄρχε Il. 9.69; ἦ ῥα καὶ ἄρχε λέχοσδε κιών 3.447; ἦρχε δ' ἄρα σφιν Ἄρης 5.592, cf. infr. 11.2: with other accusatives, ἄρχειν ὕμνον Pi. N. 3.10; ἅπερ ἦρξεν A. Ag. 1529 (lyr.); λυπηρόν τι S. El. 552; ὕβριν Id. Fr. 368.

5. of actions, σέο δ' ἕξεται ὅττι κεν ἄρχῃ Il. 9.102: freq. c. inf., τοῖσιν δ' ἦρχ' ἀγορεύειν among them, Il. 1.571, etc.; ἦρχε νέεσθαι, ἦρχ' ἴμεν, 2.84, 13.329; ἄρχετε νῦν νέκυας φορέειν Od. 22.437, etc.; ὑφαίνειν ἤρχετο μῆτιν Il. 7.324; ἤρξαντο οἰκοδομεῖν Th. 1.107; ἡ νόσος ἤρξατο γενέσθαι Id. 2.47: c. part., of continued action or condition, ἦρχον χαλεπαίνων Il. 2.378; ἢν ἄρξῃ ἀδικέων Hdt. 4.119; ἡ ψυχὴ ἄρχεται ἀπολείπουσα X. Cyr. 8.7.26; πόθεν ἂν ὀρθῶς ἀρξαίμεθα ἐπαινοῦντες; Pl. Mx. 237a, cf. Tht. 187a (but ἄ. ἐπαινεῖν Id. Phdr. 241e); ἄρξομαι διδάσκων X. Cyr. 8.8.2 (but ἤρξω μανθάνειν Id. Mem. 3.5.22).

6. abs., ἄρχε take the lead! Il. 9.69: generally, begin, ἄρχειν [τὴν ἐκεχειρίαν] τήνδε τὴν ἡμέραν Indut. ap. Th. 4.118, cf. Lex ap. D. 24.42; τὸ ἄρχον, opp. τὸ ἑπόμενον, Dam. Pr. 234: part. ἀρχόμενος at first, X. Eq. 9.3, Cyn. 3.8, Isoc. 2.54; at the beginning, ἀρχομένου δὲ πίθου καὶ λήγοντος Hes. Op. 368, cf. Fr. 192.4; ἀρχομένοισιν ἢ καταπαυομένοισι Ar. Eq. 1246; ἄρχεται ὁ πόλεμος ἐνθένδε Th. 2.1; ἅμα ἦρι ἀρχομένῳ ibid.; θέρους εὐθὺς ἀρχομένου ib. 47.

7. Gramm., of a word, ἄ. ἀπὸ φωνήεντος D.T. 633.27; ἡ ἄρχουσα (sc. συλλαβή) A.D. Synt. 130.13.

II in point of Place or Station, rule, govern, command,

1 mostly c. gen., rule, be leader of.., Βοιωτῶν Il. 2.494, cf. Hdt. 5.1, etc.

2. less freq. c. dat., ἀνδράσιν ἦρξα Od. 14.230, cf. 471, Il. 2.805, Pi. P. 3.4, A. Pr. 940, E. Andr. 666, IA 337, IG 7.2830 (Hyettus), etc.; also ἐν δ' ἄρα τοῖσιν ἦρχ' held command among them, Il. 13.690, cf. Pl. Phdr. 238a: c. inf. added, ἄρχε Μυρμιδόνεσσι μάχεσθαι led them on to fight, Il. 16.65.

3. abs., rule, ὅσον τό τ' ἄρχειν καὶ τὸ δουλεύειν δίχα A. Pr. 927, cf. Pers. 774; esp. hold a magistracy, ὁκοῖόν τε εἴη ἄρχειν μετὰ τὸ βασιλεύειν Hdt. 6.67; at Athens, etc., to be archon, D. 21.178; ἀρχάς, ἀρχὴν ἄρχειν, Hdt. 3.80, Th. 6.54; ἄρχειν τὴν ἐπώνυμον (with or without ἀρχήν) IG 3.659, 693, SIG 872.7.

4. Pass., with fut. ἄρξομαι Hdt. 7.159, Pi. O. 8.45, A. Pers. 589, Lys. 28.7; but ἀρχθήσομαι Arist. Pol. 1259b40, D.C. 65.10: to be ruled, governed, etc., ὑπό τινος Hdt. 1.127; ἔκ τινος S. El. 264, Ant. 63; ὑπό τινι Hdt. 1.91, 103; σφόδρα ὑπό τινος Lys. 12.92; ἄρχε πρῶτον μαθὼν ἄρχεσθαι Sol. ap. D.L. 1.60, cf. Pl. Prt. 326d; δύνασθαι καὶ ἄρχεσθαι καὶ ἄρχειν Arist. Pol. 1277b14; οἱ ἀρχόμενοι subjects, X. An. 2 6.19, etc.

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 αρχι( (from ἄρχω, ἀρχός), an inseparable prefix, usually to names of office or dignity, to designate the one who is placed over the rest that hold the office (German Ober-, Erz- (English arch- (chief-, high))), as ἀρχάγγελος, ἀρχιποίμην (which see), ἀρχιερεύς, ἀρχιατρος, ἀρχιευνοῦχος, ἀρχυπερετης (in Egyptian inscriptions), etc., most of which belong to Alexandrian and Byzantine Greek. Cf. Thiersch, De Pentateuehi versione Alex., p. 77f.

ἄρχω; (from Homer down); to be first.

1. to be the first to do (anything), to begin — a sense not found in the Greek Bible.

2. to be chief, leader, ruler: τίνος ( Buttmann, 169 (147)), Mark 10:42; Romans 15:12 (from Isaiah 11:10). See ἄρχων. Middle, present ἄρχομαι; future ἄρξομαι (once (twice), Luke 13:26 (but not Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading; Luke 23:30>)); 1aorist ἠρξάμην; to begin, make a beginning: ἀπό τίνος, Acts 10:37 ( Buttmann, 79 (69); cf. Matth. § 558); 1 Peter 4:17; by brachylogy ἀρξάμενος ἀπό τίνος ἕως τίνος for, having begun from some person or thing (and continued or continuing) to some person or thing: Matthew 20:8; John 8:9 (i. e. Rec.); Acts 1:22; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 66, the passage cited; (Buttmann, 374 (320)); ἀρξάμενον is used impersonally and absolutely, a beginning being made, Luke 24:27 (so in Herodotus 3,91; cf. Winer s Grammar, 624 (580); (Buttmann, 374 f (321))); carelessly, ἀρξάμενος ἀπό Μωϋσέως καί ἀπό πάντων προφητῶν διηρμήνευεν for, beginning from Moses be went through all the prophets, Luke 24:27; Winer s Grammar, § 67,2; (Buttmann, 374 (320f)). ὧν ἤρξατο ποιεῖν τέ καί διδάσκειν, ἄχρι ἧς ἡμέρας which he began and contnued both to do and to teach, until etc., Acts 1:1 ( Winer s Grammar, § 66,1c.; Buttmann, as above). ἄρχομαι is connected with an infinitive and that so often, especially in the historical books, that formerly most interpreters thought it constituted a periphrasis for the finite form of the verb standing in the infinitive, as ἤρξατο κηρύσσειν for ἐκήρυξε. But through the influence principally of Fritzsche (on Matthew , p. 539f), cf. Winer s Grammar, § 65 7d., it is now conceded that the theory of a periphrasis of this kind was a rash assumption, and that there is scarcely an example which cannot be reduced to one of the following classes:

a. the idea of beginning has more or less weight or importance, so that it is brought out by a separate word: Matthew 11:7 (the disciples of John having retired, Christ began to speak concerning John , which he did not do while they were present); Luke 3:8 (do not even begin to say; make not even an attempt to excuse yourselves); Luke 15:14 (the beginning of want followed hard upon the squandering of his goods); Luke 21:28; 2 Corinthians 3:1; especially when the beginning of an action is contrasted with its continuance or its repetition, Mark 6:7; Mark 8:31 (cf. Mark 9:31; Mark 10:33 f); or with the end of it, Luke 14:30 (opposed to ἐκτελέσαι); John 13:5 (cf. 12).

b. ἄρχειν denotes something as begun by someone, others following: Acts 27:35f ( Winer s Grammar, § 65,7d.).

c. ἄρχειν indicates that a thing was but just begun when it was interrupted by something else: Matthew 12:1 (they had begun to pluck ears of grain, but they were prevented from continuing by the interference of the Pharisees); Matthew 26:22 (Jesus answered before all had finished), Matthew 26:74; Mark 2:23; Mark 4:1 (he had scarcely begun to teach, when a multitude gathered unto him); Mark 6:2; Mark 10:41; Luke 5:21; Luke 12:45; Luke 13:25; Acts 11:15 (cf. Acts 10:44); Acts 18:26>, and often.

d. the action itself, instead of its beginning, might indeed have been mentioned; but in order that the more attention may be given to occurrences which seem to the writer to be of special importance, their initial stage, their beginning, is expressly pointed out: Mark 14:65; Luke 14:18; Acts 2:4, etc.

e. ἄρχω occurs in a sentence which has grown out of the blending of two statements: Matthew 4:17; Matthew 16:21 (from ἀπό τότε ἐκήρυξε ... ἔδειξέ, and τότε ἤρξατο κηρύσσειν ... δεικνύειν). The infinitive is lacking when discoverable from the context: ἀρχόμενος, namely, to discharge the Messianic office, Luke 3:23 ( Winer's Grammar, 349 (328)); ἀρξάμενος namely, λέγειν, Acts 11:4. (Compare: ἐνάρχω (ἐνάρχομαι), προενάρχομαι, ὑπάρχω, προϋπάρχω.

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

ἄρχω , [in LXX for H2490, H4911 etc.;]

1. to begin.

2. to rule (v. DCG, ii, 538 b.): c. gen., Mark 10:42, Romans 15:12. Mid., to begin: seq. ἀπό , Matthew 16:21; Matthew 20:8, Luke 14:18; Luke 23:5; Luke 24:27; Luke 24:47, John 8:9, Acts 1:22; Acts 8:35; Acts 10:37, 1 Peter 4:17; c. inf., an Aramaic pleonasm, Mark 1:45; Mark 2:23; Mark 5:17, Luke 3:8, al. (v. M, Proverbs 14:1-35 f.; Dolman, Words, 27; MM, s.v.).


Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

The official uses of . are fully classified by Dittenberger in the index to his OGIS, where he cites instances of its application to (l) summus magistratus, (2) praefectus in urbem aut regionem subditam missus, (3) magistratus provincialis Romanorum, and (4) magistratus quilibet. To these for the NT we have to add ";ruler of a synagogue,"; which is illustrated, according to de Rossi, in an Italian inscr. of the reign of Claudius, Cagnat I. 388 (= IGSI 949) Κλαύδιος Ἰωσῆς ἄρχων ἔζησεν ἔτη λ ̄ε ̄. Ib. 1024.21 (i/B.C. ?)—the inscr. from Berenice in Cyrenaica cited above under ἀβαρήςἔδοξε τοῖς ἄρχουσι καὶ τῷ πολιτεύματι τῶν ἐν Βερενίκῃ Ἰουδαίων : a list of these Jewish ἄρχοντες is given at the beginning of the inscr., which is dated at the σκηνοπηγία. (See Schürer as cited below.) So in P Lond 1177.57 (A.D. 113)] (= III. p. 183), in accounts for the water-works of the μητρόπολις (? Hermopolis)—Ἀρχόντων Ἰ [ου ]δα ̣ίων προσευχῆς Θηβαίων μηνιαι ω < ρ ̅κ ̅α ̅, ";The rulers of the proseucha of Theban Jews 128 drachmae a month"; (see further s.v. προσευχή ). For Jewish ἄρχοντες generally see Schürer’s inscriptional evidence and discussion in Geschichte iii. p. 38 ff. (= HJP II. ii. p. 243 ff.). In P Lond 1178.60 (A.D. 194) (= III. p. 217) the designation is applied to the ";presidents"; of an athletic club known as ";The Worshipful Gymnastic Society of Nomads"; (ἡ ἱερὰ ξυστικὴ περιπολιστικὴ . . . σύνοδος ). Miscellaneous references are P Oxy III. 473.2 (A.D. 138–60) of the magistrates of Oxyrhynchus, ib. 592 (A.D. 122–3) of Sarapion γενομένῳ πρυτανικῷ ἄρχοντ (ι ) ἱερεῖ καὶ ἀρχιδικαστῇ , BGU II. 362v. 2 (A.D. 214–5). ib 388ii. 26 (ii/iii A.D.), P Fay 20.22 (iii/iv A.D.) τοῖς καθ᾽ ἑκάστην πόλιν ἄρχουσιν , Cagnat I. 118.30 (B.C. 78) (= IGSI 951) ἐάν τε ἐν ταῖς πατρίσιν κατὰ τοὺς ἰδίους νόμους βούλωνται κρίνεσθαι ἢ ἐπὶ τῶν ἡμετέρων ἀρχόντων ἐπὶ Ἰταλικῶν κριτῶν . In P Oxy III. 592 we have a πρυτανικὸς ἄρχων , which Wilcken (Archiv iv. p. 118 f.) regards as equivalent to πρύτανις . Note also P Giss I. 19.17 (ii/A.D.), where Aline commends to her husband, a στρατηγός , the example of ὁ ἐ ]νθάδε στρατηγός , who τοῖς ἄρχου [σι ἐπιτί ]θησι τὸ βάρος : these ἄρχοντες were accordingly subordinates. MGr οἱ ἄρχοντες or ἡ ἀρχοντιά = the local aristocracy.

 

 

The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
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