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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #6030 - עָנָה
1) to answer, respond, testify, speak, shout
1a1) to answer, respond to
1a2) to testify, respond as a witness
1b1) to make answer
1b2) to be answered, receive answer
2) (Qal) to sing, utter tunefully
3) (Qal) to dwell
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
(1) prop. to sing, i.q. Arab. غنى Conj. II. IV. (this signification, although unfrequent, seems, however, to be primary, see Piel; compare Lat. cano, Pers. خواذدن to sing, to call, to read; Sansc. gai), Exodus 15:21 followed by לְ to praise with song, 1 Samuel 21:12, 29:5 Psalms 147:7 hence to cry out (compare Lat. actor canit, cantat, i.q. declamat, fchreit laut), used of the shout of soldiers in battle, Exodus 32:18; Jeremiah 51:14 of jackals in the deserts, Isaiah 13:22 (compare cantus galli, gallicinium). It is applied to any one who pronounces any thing solemnly and with a loud voice (compare Lat. cantare, cantor, used of any one who often says, inculcates, or affirms any thing, Ter. Plaut.; Cic. Orat. i. 55); hence
(a) used of God uttering an oracle, 1 Samuel 9:17, וַיהֹוָה עָנָהוּ “Jehovah declared to him” (Samuel); Genesis 41:16, “God announces welfare to Pharaoh;” compare Deuteronomy 20:11. Used in a forensic sense
(b) of a judge giving sentence, Exodus 23:2 and
(c) of a witness giving evidence, solemnly affirming any thing; hence to testify, with an acc. of the thing, Deuteronomy 19:16 followed by בְּ of him for whom (Genesis 30:33; 1 Samuel 12:3) or against whom (Numbers 35:30; Deuteronomy 19:18; 2 Samuel 1:16) testimony is given. More fully עָנָה עֵד בְּ Exodus 20:16. Hence
(2) to lift up the voice, to begin to speak (Syr. ܥܢܐܳ); especially in the later [?] Hebrew, Job 3:2, אִיֹּוב וַיֹּאמֶד וַיַּעַן “and Job began to speak, and said;” Song of Solomon 2:10; Isaiah 14:10; Zechariah 1:10, 3:4 4:11, 12 Zechariah 4:12. Followed by an acc. of pers. to speak to any one, Zechariah 1:11. Far more frequently
(3) to answer, to reply. Constr.
(a) with an acc. of pers. Job 1:7; Genesis 23:14; Song of Solomon 5:6, like the Gr. ἀμείβομαι τινά
(b) with an acc. of the thing which, or to which one answers, Proverbs 18:23; Job 40:2. In like manner, Job 33:13, כָּל־דְּבָרָיו לֹא יַעֲנֶה “he does not answer as to any of his things,” i.e. he renders no account. And so
(c) with two acc. of pers. and thing, 1 Samuel 20:10; Micah 6:5; Jeremiah 23:37; Job 9:3. To answer to any one is used
(aa) in a bad sense, of those who contradict a master when commanding or blaming, who excuse themselves and contend with him (fich verantworten), Job 9:14, 15 Job 9:15, 32 Job 9:32, 16:3 (compare Arab. جواب reply, also excuse); or who refute some one, Job 32:12.
(bb) in a good sense, of those who answer the prayers of any one, who hear and answer a petitioner; and thus it is often used of God hearing and answering men, 1 Samuel 14:39; Psalms 3:5, 4:2. There is a pregnant construction, Psalms 22:22, מִקַּרְנֵי רֵמִים עֲנִיתָנִי “answer (and deliver) me from the horns of the Remim;” hence
(cc) with an acc. of pers. and בְּ of the thing, to answer any one in any thing, i.e. to be bountiful to him, to bestow the thing, Psalms 65:6 and with an acc. of the thing, Ecclesiastes 10:19, הַכֶּסֶף יַעֲנֶה אֶת־הַכֹּל “money answers with all things” (imparts all), geührt alles, compare Hosea 2:23, 24.
(4) to signify, to imply any thing by one’s words (etwas fagen wollen, beabfichtigen), i.q. Arab. عنى. Hence מַעֲנֶה, מַעַן, יַעַן something proposed, a counsel, purpose, then used as a prep.
In the former [German] editions of this book, I sought with many etymologists to refer the various significations of this root to that of answering, as has since been done by Winer (p. 732, 733); deriving the notion of singing from that of answering and singing alternately; in such matters every one must follow his own judgment. I have adopted this new arrangement especially for this reason, that the primary signification is commonly more forcible and important, and therefore it is often retained in Piel (Lehrg. p. 242), and in Arabic it is expressed by a harder letter (غنى to sing).
(1) to be answered, i.e. to be refuted, Job 11:2 to be heard and answered, Job 19:7; Proverbs 21:13.
(2) i.q. Kal to answer, followed by לְ Ezekiel 14:4, Ezekiel 14:7.
Piel, i.q. Kal No. 1, to sing, Exodus 32:18 (where Piel in the signification of singing is distinguished from Kal). Psalms 88:1; Isaiah 27:2.
Hiphil, to answer, i.q. Kal No. 3, bb, followed by an acc. and בְּ of the thing; to hear and answer any one in any thing, to bestow the thing upon him, Ecclesiastes 5:19.
Derived nouns, see Kal No. 4.
II. עָנָה (for עָנַו, a verb לו֞, compare the derivatives, עָנָו, עֲנָוָה)
(1) to bestow labour upon any thing, to exercise oneself in any thing, followed by בְּ Ecclesiastes 1:13, 3:10. (Syr. ܥܢܐܳ ܒ, Arab. عنى followed by ب id.), specially, as it appears, to till the ground, to bring the earth into cultivation, whence מַעֲנָה, מַעֲנִית, a furrow.
(2) to be afflicted, depressed, oppressed, Psalms 116:10, 119:67 Zechariah 10:2. Isaiah 31:4, וּמֵהֲמֹונָם לֹא יַעֲנֵה “and (who) will not be depressed at their multitude,” he will not lose his courage. Isaiah 25:5, וְמִיר עָרִיצִים יַעֲנֶה “the song of the tyrants shall be brought low.” (Arab. عنا to be depressed, low).
(1) to be afflicted, Psalms 119:107. Isaiah 53:7, וְהוּא נַעֲנֶה “and he was afflicted.”
(2) reflect. to submit oneself to any one, followed by מִפְּנֵי Exodus 10:3 (where for לְהֵעָנֹות there is לֵעָנֹות).
(1) to oppress, to depress, to afflict, Genesis 16:6, 15:13 31:50 Exodus 22:21. Psalms 102:24, עִנָּה בַדֶּרֶךְ כֹּחִי “(Jehovah) depressed (consumed) my strength in the way.” Psalms 88:8, כָּל־מִשְׁבָּרֶיךָ עִנִּיתָ “thou hast oppressed (i.e. inundated) (me) with all thy waves.”
(2) עִנָּה אִשָּׁה compressit feminam, generally by force, Genesis 34:2; Deuteronomy 22:24, 29 Deuteronomy 22:29; Judges 19:24, 20:5.
(3) עִנָּה נֶפֶשׁ to afflict the soul, i.e. to fast, Leviticus 16:31, 23:27, 32 Leviticus 23:32; Numbers 29:7.
Pual, to be oppressed, or afflicted, Psalms 119:71; Isaiah 53:4. Inf. עֻנֹּתֹו his oppression or sorrow, Psalms 132:1.
Hiphil, i.q. Pi. No. 1, 1 Kings 8:35; 2 Chronicles 6:26. But Ecclesiastes 5:19 belongs to עָנָה No. I; which see.
(1) to submit oneself, Genesis 16:9 especially to God, Daniel 10:12.
(2) i.q. Kal, to be afflicted, 1 Kings 2:26.
Derived nouns, עָנָו, עֲנָוָה, עַנְוָה, עֱנוּת, עָנִי, עֳנִי, עִנְיָן, מַעֲנָה, מַעֲנִית, and the pr.n. עֲנָה, עֻנִּי, עֲנָיָה, עֲנָת, עֲנָתֹות, עַנְתֹתִיָּה.
I. עֲנָה, עֲנָא Chald.
(1) to begin to speak; like the Hebr. No. 2, Daniel 2:20, 3:9, 19, 24, 26, 28 4:16, 27 followed by לְ of pers. 2:47.
(2) to answer, Daniel 2:7, 10 3:14, 16 5:7 6:14.
II. עֲנָה Chald. to be afflicted. Part. עֲנֵה; plur. עֲנַיִן the afflicted, Daniel 4:24.
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