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Luke 22:1 . The feast of unleavened bread drew nigh. See Matthew 26:2-3.
Luke 22:3 . Then Satan entered into Judas, by divine permission, his reigning sin of covetousness having proved his destruction. Judas after that was Satan’s instrument.
Luke 22:4 . He went his way, and communed with the chief priests and στρατηγοι , captains. The offices of priests and levites, of the twenty four courses, had each a superior; but these were captains of the temple, and called by that military name because they bore arms. Those captains were rulers of the temple, and saw the brazen gates shut at night by a guard of strong men.
Luke 22:5 . They were glad, and covenanted to give him money. Christ was valued, as Jeremiah says; a price was set upon him, as the chief enemy of the temple.
Luke 22:15 . With desire, yea, with the supreme desire of consummating my work and victory, have I desired to eat this passover. The transactions of the last supper are full of grace, and claim our special attention.
Luke 22:19 . He took bread, a figure of his body broken for us. Collectively considered, this is a figure of his church, composed of many members, as the loaf is composed of many grains of wheat. His flesh spiritually sustains the divine life, as bread sustains the life of the body. Adorable mystery, where faith is lost in the plenitude of redeeming love.
Luke 22:20 . This cup is the new testament in my blood, or covenant, which is shed for you, for the remission of sins. When princes made covenants, they drank wine; and when the highpriest offered sacrifice, he poured out a libation of wine on the victim. Here is the ransom, here is remission of sins, here is joy for the righteous. Here is the cup of memorial: this do in remembrance of me. The jews ate the paschal supper in remembrance of the emancipation from Egypt, a national memorial, local and small compared with the redemption of the world by our Lord Jesus Christ. It is a cup once for all. “I will not drink of the fruit of the wine, until the kingdom of God shall come:” Luke 22:18. What a felicitous transition of thought, and what burning words to enkindle the heart with a flame of devotion.
Luke 22:21 . The hand of him that betrayeth me is with me on the table. It seems quite plain from this chapter, that Judas was present at the sacrament with Christ; and yet the first of critics are divided in opinion on this subject. It is also contended that this was not the paschal supper, but the common supper which preseded it. Grotius contends that the Lord having desired with strong desire to eat the passover before his passion, celebrated it one night before the time. Now, though Grotius held a first rank as a learned lawyer; yet as a divine he is guilty of temerity in a hundred places. Let it be remarked, that St. Matthew does not mention the time that Judas went out, neither does St. Mark. St. John mentions the sop, but not the supper: chap. Luke 13:26. This sop, according to Erasmus, was psomion, panem, buccella, sive offula; bread, morsel, or fragment of flesh. It was probably a piece of unleavened bread dipped in the sauce of bitter herbs and gravy. In that case our Lord would not eat with the traitor, but sent him away.
Luke 22:22 . Woe to that man by whom he is betrayed. See Dr. Whitby’s remarkable note on this verse. Also on this head, a striking comment of Chrysostom will be found on Jeremiah 36:3.
Luke 22:25 . The kings of the gentiles exercise lordship. Matthew 20:26.
Luke 22:29 . I appoint, covenant, give, dispose, or prepare for you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed, or disposed to me a kingdom; that is, the mediatorial kingdom, and also the everlasting kingdom. What a gift at parting. Some, in regard of the feast at which these words were spoken, would read, “I grant you to eat bread at my table in my kingdom, seeing my Father hath given me a kingdom.”
Luke 22:31 . Simon, Simon, Satan hath desired to have you. From the sacred scriptures we everywhere learn, that Satan could hurt neither Job nor Peter, nor any saint, without the divine permission. Christ was privy to that permission, being in his divine nature associate in the council of the Godhead. He therefore prayed for Peter, that his faith and courage might not fail. When Satan is permitted to tempt a man, he will try and sift him to the extent of his commission. Our Lord forewarns and foreärms men against the day of trial. He showed Peter his glory on the mount, he warned him of his fall, he capitulated with the multitude that his disciples should go their way; and here he told Peter that he prayed for him that his faith should not fail. Hence there was no absolute necessity that Peter should fall; the prediction that he should thrice deny his Master was no more positive than the sentence against Ahab, Hezekiah, and Nineveh. But at the same time let the converted backslider strengthen his brethren: he is under a thousand obligations so to do.
Luke 22:37 . The things concerning me have an end; that is, all the prophecies concerning my sufferings have their accomplishment in my exit from the world.
Luke 22:44 . Being in an agony he prayed more earnestly. St. Mark says he began to be sorely amazed, and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood, falling down to the ground. Biblical critics quote Aristotle, a physician, and Diodorus Siculus, who both affirm that violent wrestling and exertions will produce these effects. And who can conceive the conflict of wrestling under the divine displeasure against a guilty world?
Luke 22:54 . Peter followed afar off. See on Matthew 26:75. John 21:0.
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Sutcliffe, Joseph. "Commentary on Luke 22". Sutcliffe's Commentary on the Old and New Testaments. https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 8 / Ordinary 13