Bible Commentaries

Vincent's Word Studies

Luke 22

Verse 1

Feast ( ἑορτὴ )

Properly festival. See on Mark 14:1.

Drew nigh

Imperfect: “was drawing nigh.”

Verse 2


Imperfect, were seeking, contemporaneously with the approach of the feast.

Kill ( ἀνέλωσιν )

Lit., to take up and carry off, and so to make way with.

Verse 3


See on Luke 13:16.


See on Matthew 10:5.

Verse 4

Captains ( στρατηγοῖς )

The leaders of the temple-guards Compare Acts 4:1.

Verse 6

Promised ( ἐξωμολόγησεν )

See on Matthew 3:6; and Matthew 11:25. The idea is that of an open andfair consent or pledge.

Verse 10

A man - pitcher

See on Mark 14:13.

Verse 11


See on Mark 14:14.

Verse 12

And he ( κἀκεῖνος )

See on Mark 14:15.


See on Mark 14:15. Wyc., strewed.


Verse 14

The apostles

Both Matthew and Mark have the twelve.

Verse 15

With desire I have desired

Expressing intense desire. Compare John 3:29, rejoiceth with joy; Acts 4:17, threaten with threatening.

Verse 19

Bread ( ἄρτον )

Better, a loaf.

Verse 20

The cup

See on Mark 14:23.

Testament ( διαθήκη ) - shed

See on Matthew 26:28.

Verse 21

Betrayeth ( παραδιδόντος )

The present participle: is now engaged in betraying.

With me

“He does not say with you: thus separating the traitor from the rest of the disciples, and showing that now he alone has to do with that wretch, as with an enemy” (Bengel).

Verse 24

A strife ( φιλονεικία )

Properly, “an eager contention.” Only here in New Testament.


Strictly, greater.

Verse 24

A strife ( φιλονεικία )

Properly, “an eager contention.” Only here in New Testament.


Strictly, greater.

Verse 26

Doth serve

See on minister, Matthew 20:26.

Verse 26

Doth serve

See on minister, Matthew 20:26.

Verse 28

Continued ( διαμεμενηκότες )

Lit., “have remainedthrough ( διά )i1.

Verse 28

Continued ( διαμεμενηκότες )

Lit., “have remainedthrough ( διά )i1.

Verse 29

I appoint ( διατίθεμαι )

Implying allotment: assigning in the course of distribution ( διά ). Wyc., dispose. Luke is especially fond of compounds with διά.


Verse 29

I appoint ( διατίθεμαι )

Implying allotment: assigning in the course of distribution ( διά ). Wyc., dispose. Luke is especially fond of compounds with διά.


Verse 31

Hath desired ( ἐξῃτήσατο )

Only here in New Testament. It sometimes means to obtain by asking, or to beg off. So Xenophon, “Anabasis,” i., 1,3. The mother of Cyrus, who is charged with an attempt to kill his brother, begged him off ( ἐξαιτησαμένη )Rev., in margin, obtained you by asking. The result proved that Satan had obtained him for the time.

Sift ( σινιάσαι )

Only here in New Testament.

Wheat ( σῖτον )

A general term, grain.

Verse 32

Prayed ( ἐδεήθην )

See on prayers, Luke 5:33.

Art converted ( ἐπιστρέψας )

Converted is simply the Latinized rendering of the word to turn round (convertere ). Rev. renders the aorist participle, denoting a definite act, by once: “when once thou hast turned again.

Strengthen ( στήρισον )

See on Luke 16:25, and 1 Peter 5:10. Rev., stablish, which is much better. Strengthen may denote only a temporary effect. The word impliesfixedness.

Verse 34


The only instance of Christ's directly addressing him as Peter. He refers to him by that name, Mark 16:7.

The cock

See on Matthew 26:34


See on Mark 14:30.

Verse 36

He that hath no sword, etc

But sword is not governed by hath. It is too far off in the sentence. The meaning is, he that hath not purse or scrip (and is therefore penniless), let him sell his garment and buy a sword. So Wyc.

Verse 37

Have an end ( τέλος ἔχει )

The phrase is synonymous with be accomplished ( τελεσθῆναι , Rev., fulfilled )In classical Greek this latter word is often used of the fulfilment of an oracle: also of things which are settled beyond controversy. The two expressions here give the two meanings. The prophecy is fulfilled; the things concerning me are finally settled.


Verse 40

The place

See on Gethsemane, Matthew 26:36.

Verse 41

Was withdrawn ( ἀπεσπάσθη )

The Vulgate has avulsus est, “he was torn away,” as by an inward urgency. Godet adopts this view, and so, apparently, Wyc., he was taken away. Meyer inclines to it; De Wette decidedly rejects it. Compare Acts 21:1.


Imperfect, began to pray.

Verse 43

There appeared ( ὤφθη )

The word most commonly used in the New Testament of seeing visions. See Matthew 17:3; Mark 9:4; Luke 1:11; Luke 22:43; Acts 2:17; Acts 7:35. The kindred noun ὀπτασία , wherever it occurs in the New Testament, means a vision. See Luke 1:2; Luke 24:23, etc.

Strengthening ( ἐνισχύων )

Only here and Acts 9:19. See on was not able, Luke 14:30; and cannot, Luke 16:3. Commonly intransitive; to prevail in or among. Used transitively only by Hippocrates and Luke.

Verse 44

Being in an agony ( γενόμενος ἐν ἀγωνίᾳ )

There is in the aorist participle a suggestion of a growing intensity in the struggle, which is not conveyed by the simple being. Literally, though very awkwardly, it is, having become i n an agony: having progressed from the first prayer (began to pray, Luke 22:41) into an intense struggle of prayer and sorrow. Wycliffe's rendering hints at this: and he, made in agony, prayed. Agony occurs only here. It is used by medical writers, and the fact of a sweat accompanying an agony is also mentioned by them.

More earnestly ( ἐκτενέστερον )

See on fervently, 1 Peter 1:22.

Was ( ἐγένετο )

More correctly, as Rev., became. See on γενόμενος , being, above.

Great drops ( θρόμβοι )

Only here in New Testament: gouts or clots. Very common in medical language. Aristotle mentions a bloody sweat arising from the blood being in poor condition; and Theophrastus mentions a physician who compared a species of sweat to blood.

Verse 45

For sorrow

The mention of the cause of the drowsiness is characteristic.


Verse 47

Multitude - one of the twelve

See on Matthew 26:47

To kiss

See on Matthew 26:49.

Verse 50

The servant

See on Matthew 26:51.

His right ear

Lit., his ear, the right one. See on Matthew 26:51; and compare Mark 14:47. Both Matthew and Mark use diminutives.

Verse 51

Suffer ye thus far

This is variously interpreted. I think the text requires that the words should be addressed to the disciples, and taken as the answer to the question, shall we smite, etc. The meaning then is, permit them to go so far as to seize me. The expression thus corresponds with Matthew 26:52,

Ear ( ὠτίου )

This time Luke uses the diminutive. Wyc., little ear.


Only Luke records the healing.

Verse 52

Thief ( λῃστὴν )

See on Matthew 26:55; and Luke 10:30; Mark 11:17.


Verse 55

Kindled ( περιαψάντων )

Lit., kindled all round ( περί ): set in full blaze.


Or court. See on Mark 14:54.

Verse 56

By the fire ( πρὸς τὸ φῶς )

See on Mark 14:54.

Verse 63

Smote ( δέροντες )

Originally to flay; thence to cudgel. Compare our vulgarism, to tan or hide.

Verse 66

The elders ( πρεσβυτέριον )

More correctly, the assembly of the elders. So Rev.

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The text of this work is public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Luke 22". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.