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Bible Commentaries

Vincent's Word Studies

Luke 22

Verse 1

Feast [εορτη] . Properly festival. See on Mark 14:1.

Drew nigh. Imperfect : "was drawing nigh."

Verse 2

Sought. Imperfect, were seeking, contemporaneously with the approach of the feast.

Kill [ανελωσιν] . Lit., to take up and carry off, and so to make way with.

Verse 3

Satan. See on ch. Luke 13:16.

Iscariot. See on Matthew 10:5.

Verse 4

Captains [στρατηγοις] . The leaders of the temple - guards. Compare Acts 4:1.

Verse 6

Promised [εξωμολογησεν] . See on Matthew 3:6; Matthew 11:25. The idea is that of an open and fair consent or pledge.

Verse 10

A man - pitcher. See on Mark 14:13.

Verse 11

Guest - chamber. See on Mark 14:14.

Verse 12

And he [κακεινος] . See on Mark 14:15.

Furnished. See on Mark 14:15. Wyc., strewed.

14 - 18; 24 - 30. Compare Matthew 26:20; Mark 14:17.

Verse 14

The apostles. Both Matthew and Mark have the twelve.

Verse 15

With desire I have desired. Expressing intense desire. Compare John 3:29, rejoiceth with joy; Acts 4:17, threaten with threatening.

19 - 20. Compare Matthew 26:26-29. Mark 14:22-25. 1 Corinthians 11:23-25.

Verse 19

Bread [αρτον] . Better, a loaf.

Verse 20

The cup. See on Mark 14:23.

Testament [διαθηκη] - shed. See on Matthew 26:28.

Verse 21

Betrayeth [παραδιδοντος] . The present participle : is now engaged in betraying.

With me. "He does not say with you : thus separating the traitor from the rest of the disciples, and showing that now he alone has to do with that wretch, as with an enemy" (Bengel).

Verse 24

A strife [φιλονεικια] . Properly, "an eager contention." Only here in New Testament.

Greatest. Strictly, greater.

Verse 26

Doth serve. See on minister, Matthew 20:26.

Verse 28

Continued [διαμεμενηκοτες] . Lit., "have remained through" [δια] .

Verse 29

I appoint [διατιθεμαι] . Implying allotment : assigning in the course of distribution [δια] . Wyc., dispose. Luke is especially fond of compounds with dia.

Verse 31

Hath desired [εξητησατο] . Only here in New Testament. It sometimes means to obtain by asking, or to beg off. So Xenophon, "Anabasis," 1, 1, 3. The mother of Cyrus, who is charged with an attempt to kill his brother, begged him off [εξαιτησαμενη] . Rev., in margin, obtained you by asking. The result proved that Satan had obtained him for the time.

Sift [σινιασαι] . Only here in New Testament.

Wheat [σιτον] . A general term, grain.

Verse 32

Prayed [εδεηθην] . See on prayers, ch. 5 33.

Art converted [επιστρεψας] . Converted is simply the Latinized rendering of the word to turn round [χονςερτερε] . Rev. renders the aorist participle, denoting a definite act, by once : "when once thou hast turned again."

Strengthen [στηρισον] . See on ch. Luke 16:25, and 1 Peter 5:10. Rev., stablish, which is much better. Strengthen may denote only a temporary effect. The word implies fixedness.

Verse 34

Peter. The only instance of Christ 's directly addressing him as Peter. He refers to him by that name, Mark 16:7.

The cock. See on Matthew 26:34.

Deny. See on Mark 14:30.

Verse 36

He that hath no sword, etc. But sword is not governed by hath. It is too far off in the sentence. The meaning is, he that hath not a purse or scrip (and is therefore penniless), let him sell his garment and buy a sword. So Wyc.

Verse 37

Have an end [τελος εχει] . The phrase is synonymous with be accomplished telesqhnai, Rev., fulfilled). In classical Greek this latter word is often used of the fulfilment of an oracle : also of things which are settled beyond controversy. The two expressions here give the two meanings. The prophecy is fulfilled; the things concerning me are finally settled.

39 - 46. Compare Matthew 26:30, Matthew 26:36-46; Mark 14:26, Mark 14:32-42.

Verse 40

The place. See on Gethsemane, Matthew 26:36.

Verse 41

Was withdrawn [απεσπασθη] . The Vulgate has avulsus est, "he was torn away," as by an inward urgency. Godet adopts this view, and so, apparently, Wyc., he was taken away. Meyer inclines to it; De Wette decidedly rejects it. Compare Acts 21:1.

Prayed. Imperfect, began to pray.

Verse 43

There appeared [ωφθη] . The word most commonly used in the New Testament of seeing visions. See Matthew 17:3; Mark 9:4; Luke 1:11; Luke 22:43; Acts 2:17; Acts 7:35. The kindred noun ojptasia, wherever it occurs in the New Testament, means a vision. See Luke 1:22; Luke 24:23, etc.

Strengthening [ενισχυων] . Only here and Acts 9:19. See on was not able, ch. 14 30; and cannot, ch. 16 3. Commonly intransitive; to prevail in or among. Used transitively only by Hippocrates and Luke.

Verse 44

Being in an agony [γενομενος εν αγωνια] . There is in the aorist participle a suggestion of a growing intensity in the struggle, which is not conveyed by the simple being. Literally, though very awkwardly, it is, having become in an agony : having progressed from the first prayer (began to pray, ver. 41) into an intense struggle of prayer and sorrow. Wycliffe's rendering hints at this : and he, made in agony, prayed. Agony occurs only here. It is used by medical writers, and the fact of a sweat accompanying an agony is also mentioned by them.

More earnestly [εκτενεστερον] . See on fervently, 1 Peter 1:22. Was [εγενετο] . More correctly, as Rev., became. See on genomenov, being, above.

Great drops [θρομβοι] . Only here in New Testament : gouts or clots. Very common in medical language. Aristotle mentions a bloody sweat arising from the blood being in poor condition; and Theophrastus mentions a physician who compared a species of sweat to blood.

Verse 45

For sorrow. The mention of the cause of the drowsiness is characteristic.

47 - 53. Compare Matthew 27:47-56; Mark 14:43-52.

Verse 47

Multitude - one of the twelve. See on Matthew 26:47.

To kiss. See on Matthew 26:47.

Verse 50

The servant. See on Matthew 26:51.

His right ear. Lit., his ear, the right one. See on Matthew 26:51; and compare Mark 14:47. Both Matthew and Mark use diminutives.

Verse 51

Suffer ye thus far. This is variously interpreted. I think the text requires that the words should be addressed to the disciples, and taken as the answer to the question, shall we smite, etc. The meaning then is, permit them to go so far as to seize me. The expression thus corresponds with Matthew 26:52.

Ear [ωτιου] . This time Luke uses the diminutive. Wyc., little ear.

Healed. Only Luke records the healing.

Verse 52

Thief [ληστην] . See on Matthew 26:55; Luke 10:30; Mark 11:17.

54 - 62. Compare Matthew 26:57, Matthew 26:58, Matthew 26:69-75; Mark 14:53, Mark 14:54, Mark 14:66-72.

Verse 55

Kindled [περιαψαντων] . Lit., kindled all round [περι] : set in full blaze.

Hall. Or court. See on Mark 14:54.

Verse 56

By the fire [προς το φως] . See on Mark 14:54.

Verse 63

Smote [δεροντες] . Originally to flay; thence to cudgel. Compare our vulgarism, to tan or hide.

Verse 66

The elders [πρεσβυτεριον] . More correctly, the assembly of the elders. So Rev. ===Luke 23:0

CHAPTER XXIII

1 - 5. Compare Matthew 27:1, Matthew 27:2; Matthew 11:14; Mark 14:1-5.

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The text of this work is public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Luke 22". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/vnt/luke-22.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.