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LUKE CHAPTER 22
Luke 22:1,Luke 22:2 The chief priests and scribes conspire against Christ.
Luke 22:3-42.22.6 Judas covenants to betray him.
Luke 22:7-42.22.18 The apostles sent to prepare the passover: Christ eateth it with them,
Luke 22:19,Luke 22:20 and institutes his last supper.
Luke 22:21-42.22.23 He covertly points out the traitor,
Luke 22:24-42.22.30 cheeks the ambitious strife of his disciples, and promises them a share in his kingdom.
Luke 22:31-42.22.34 He telleth Peter of Satan’s desire to sift him; but that his faith should be supported; and yet he should thrice deny him.
Luke 22:35-42.22.38 He advises his disciples to provide necessaries and a sword.
Luke 22:39-42.22.46 His agony and prayer in the garden.
Luke 22:47-42.22.49 He is betrayed,
Luke 22:50-42.22.53 healeth a servant of the high priest, whose ear was cut off,
Luke 22:54-42.22.62 is lead to the high priest’s house; Peter thrice denieth him.
Luke 22:63-42.22.65 Christ is scornfully used,
Luke 22:66-42.22.71 and brought before the council, where, confessing himself to be the Son of God, he is pronounced guilty of blasphemy.
See Poole on "Matthew 26:1" and following verses to Matthew 26:5, See Poole on "Mark 14:1-41.14.2".
See Poole on "Matthew 26:14", and following verses to Matthew 26:19. See Poole on "Mark 14:10", and following verses to Mark 14:16.
See Poole on "Matthew 26:20", and following verses to Matthew 26:30, where is opened whatsoever Luke hath that is not in the other evangelists.
Luke only taketh notice of this strife at the time of their being in the guest chamber. Such a strife we read of, Matthew 18:1; Matthew 20:25,Matthew 20:26; Mark 9:33 and in this Gospel, Luke 9:46; by which it is apparent, that they had been more than once arguing this point. But yet most interpreters think that it is here placed by Luke out of order and some translate εγενετο in this text, there had been, not, there was; and indeed we can hardly think so uncharitably of the apostles, as to imagine of them, that immediately after their receiving, first the passover, then the Lord’s supper, their thoughts should be taken up with things of this nature, much less that they should discourse of any such subjects as these; especially also considering what our Saviour had told them, that he was betrayed into the hands of sinners. Something of our Saviour’s answer, pressing upon them brotherly love, and mutual serviceableness each to other, was very proper to this time, which our Saviour (though spoken before) might at this time repeat, and Luke prefactorily to it might take notice of this contest in this place.
See Poole on "Matthew 20:25", and following verses to Matthew 20:28. The sum is, our Saviour hereby teacheth all his disciples (his ministers especially) to avoid affectation of rule and dominion, as that which became heathens rather than Christians, and the kings of the Gentiles rather than the ministers of the Lord Jesus Christ. This text giveth no countenance to the levelling of all orders of men. Magistracy is an ordinance of God, and ought to be upheld. Order also in the church is to be observed, for God is the God of order; but no minister of Christ ought to affect great titles, nor to exercise a dominion or lordship. Our work is to feed the flock of God, taking the oversight of them, not by constraint, but willingly; not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind; neither as being lords over God’s heritage, but being ensamples to the flock, 1 Peter 5:2,1 Peter 5:3. Not for that we have dominion, over your faith, but are helpers of your joy, 2 Corinthians 1:24. That the ministers of Christ may not have titles given them, speaking honour and reverence due to them, I do not know. But the reason is obvious why they should not affect them to be fond of them; for pride is a vain and vicious affection, and more culpable in them than others. Their works are but a ministration to the church, in putting the laws of Christ relating to it in execution, and it is their greatest honour to be humble. Nor doth this at all degrade a minister of Christ, for even Christ himself, while he was upon the earth, was not as one that sat at meat, but as one that served.
These verses seem to contain (though in a few more words) the substance of what we met with Matthew 19:28. There they are spoken as an answer to Peter, speaking on the behalf of himself and the rest of the apostles, who had forsaken all to follow Christ. Christ tells them there, that those which had followed him, in the regeneration when the Son of man should sit on the throne of his glory, should sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. That time which our Lord there calleth the regeneration, is the time when he had been giving a new birth to the church, reforming the world by his doctrine and holy example. That time he here calleth the time of his temptations, by which he meaneth trials, afflictions, and persecutions, as the word is often taken in holy writ, Galatians 4:14; James 1:12; 2 Peter 2:9; Revelation 3:10.
To those of the disciples (they were eleven of the twelve) he promises a kingdom, a state of great honour and dignity, as his Father had appointed him; and therefore they might satisfy themselves with the titles and qualities of ministers and servants while they were here, and be content to meet with troubles and temptations, as he had done, to hunger and thirst, &c.; when that time came which he had appointed, they should then eat and drink at his table, they should sit also upon thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. Terms expressive of that rest and satisfaction, that glory, honour, and dignity, which the saints in God shall in heaven be possessed of.
Our Lord directeth his speech to Peter, as one who (as it will by and by appear) had a greater confidence of himself than the rest expressed, and as one who he foresaw would fall more foully than the rest; though it appears, that in his speech he had a respect to them all, for the word you is in the plural number. The devil had a mind to disturb them all by his temptations (that is here called sifting). Christ hath his fan in his hand, and will sift his church, but his sifting is to purge his floor; he sifts a particular soul, to purify it from its lusts and corruptions; but Satan sifts the soul and the church merely to give them trouble, and to keep them from rest and quiet by continual motion and agitation. This we are all concerned to take notice of, that we may both be continually prepared for the time of our siftings, and bless God who doth not satisfy Satan’s desires to sift his; for he hath the same mind to winnow us now, that he had to sift Peter and the rest of the apostles.
But (saith our Saviour) I have prayed that thy faith fail not. There is a total and a partial failing of faith. Peter’s faith did fail in part; but the seed of God did yet abide in him, his faith did not wholly fail: so will it be with the faith of every true disciple of Christ. In hours of great temptation and trial, their faith may, as to some degrees, fail, but totally it shall not: they may be perverted, but they shall again be converted. As the apostles saith of the bodies of the saints, Romans 8:10,Romans 8:11, And if Christ be in you, the body is dead because of sin; but the Spirit is life because of righteousness. But if the Spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, he that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies by his Spirit that dwelleth in you: may also be said of their souls. They have in them a body of death, and they may in act hour of great temptations fail, and their gracious habits may seem to die. But if the Spirit of God dwelleth in the soul, he will again quicken their souls by his Spirit which dwelleth in them.
And when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren; that is, when God hath recovered thee from thy fall, and made thee to see thy error, make an improvement of thy recovery out of the snare of the devil, by admonishing others to take heed of too much confidence in themselves, and encouraging them not to despair, though they also may fall into temptation; but that the grace of God shall be sufficient for them.
This is more largely recorded by Matthew 26:33-40.26.35, and by Mark 14:27-41.14.30.
Those who interpret Luke 22:35,Luke 22:36, as a precept of our Saviour’s imposing a duty upon his disciples, or a counsel concerning the proviting arms which they might use for the protection and defence of themselves, will not only find a difficulty to reconcile their notion of it to several other precepts, and the will of God declared by the apostles’ practice, who never went about by force and arms to defend themselves in the first plantation and propagation of the gospel; but also to reconcile it to the last words of our Saviour, who said, when his disciples told him they had two swords, It is enough; which he would never have said, if he had intended any such thing; for two swords was much too little to have conquered that multitude of adversaries which the disciples of Christ were to meet with. Our Saviour doth doubtless speak in a figure, and all that he intends amounts but to this: Hitherto I have been with you, and you have had my special protection; though you went out without a purse or a scrip, yet you have wanted nothing; though you went without a sword, yet none did you any harm. But the time is now come, when the posture of your affairs will be much altered; your friends will be few, your enemies many, therefore you stand concerned to make as good preparation as you can do in those things that are consistent with the general precepts that I have given you. The tragedy will begin with me; for what is written of me must now be accomplished, Isaiah 53:12, He was numbered with the transgressors. I must be brought before magistrates as a common malefactor, and hanged on a cross between two thieves. And
the things concerning me shall shortly have an end: you will next come upon the stage, and therefore prepare what in you lieth for the performance of your part.
Both Matthew and Mark say, he went to a place called Gethsemane; but that makes no difference, for whether Gethsemane signifieth a village, or a garden, or a valley, all agree it was at the foot of the mount of Olives. It was a place to which our Saviour had used to go ever since he came to Jerusalem, and lay in his way to Bethany. He went thither to pray, and his disciples followed him.
When he came to the mount of Olives, he first setteth his disciples to that work, which at this day was proper for them.
Pray that ye enter not into temptation; that, if it be the will of God, you may be delivered from such an hour of trial as I am entering into; or, at least, that you may not be overcome by it. That my trials which you will presently be witnesses unto, and your own which you shall hereafter meet with, may have no power upon you to withdraw you from your work in the publication or profession of my gospel. The other two evangelists make mention of our Saviour’s taking Peter, and James, and John with him, yet more privately. Luke mentions not that, but goeth on.
Whether from the eight, or from Peter, James, and John also, the evangelist doth not tell us; but some are of opinion, that he took the three disciples along to join with him in prayer, from whom some account might be given of the substance of his prayer, which followeth. I rather think he was alone.
We have a larger account given us of our Saviour’s prayer, See Poole on "Matthew 26:39", and following verses to Matthew 26:46. See Poole on "Mark 14:35", and following verses to Mark 14:42.
We have formerly opened these verses in Matthew 26:44-40.26.46, where we took them in, as being a part of the history of our Saviour’s praying before his passion.
The relations which Matthew and Mark give us are both more particular than that given us by Luke, to which we refer the reader. Luke speaketh but of his praying once; Matthew saith he prayed thrice. Luke mentions nothing of his withdrawing with Peter, James, and John from the other eight; Matthew and Mark both mention it. Luke maketh mention of an angel’s appearing to him, of the agony in which he was, and his sweating drops as it were of blood; which neither Matthew nor Mark take notice of: yet we must not think, that either any one of the evangelists, or all of them together, give a perfect account of all the words our Saviour used in these prayers, only they tell us the sum of them in different words; but See Poole on "Matthew 26:40", and following verses to Matthew 26:41. See Poole on "Mark 14:37", and following verses to Mark 14:38, where we have fully considered whatsoever is said by any of the evangelists upon this argument.
See Poole on "Matthew 26:47", and following verses to Matthew 26:49. See Poole on "Mark 14:43", and following verses to Mark 14:45.
No other evangelist but John hath this passage perfect. What he hath we have opened in our notes on Matthew 26:51,Matthew 26:52, because it tendeth to complete that part of the history there discoursed, concerning Christ’s being apprehended. John relates it with more circumstances, telling us that it was Peter who drew the sword, and that his name whose ear was cut off was Malchus, and relates some further words used by our Saviour to Peter, which we shall further consider in their places. This rash act of Peter might have cost him dear, for it made a kinsman of Malchus take such notice of him, as he was very near being accused by him, John 18:26. Swords are dangerous things for us to use, until God puts them into our hands. Peter ought not only to have asked his Master if he should smite with the sword, but also to have staid his hand till Christ had given him an answer.
See Poole on "Matthew 26:55". See Poole on "Mark 14:48-41.14.49". It speaketh a great degree of rage and malice against our Saviour, that so great men, as the chief of the priests and the elders, should come out at midnight, in the company of the officers and soldiers, to apprehend Christ. From these verses it appeareth that some of them were there in the height of their zeal.
The whole history of Peter’s denial of his Master, and of his repentance. See Poole on "Matthew 26:69", and following verses to Matthew 26:75, where we have opened what passages relating to it are in Mark or this evangelist.
Concerning these abuses offered to our Saviour. See Poole on "Matthew 26:67-40.26.68". See Poole on "Mark 14:65".
Our blessed Lord before his death passed two trials or examinations. The one before the Jewish sanhedrim, whose proper province it was to try such as were accused as false prophets, or blasphemers. This was a kind of ecclesiastical court. The high priest was the chief judge in it, and we are told that they used to sit in his palace. The other was before Pilate, the Roman governor of Judea at that time; he principally took cognizance of criminal things, such especially as concerned the peace of the country, considered as a part of the Roman empire. These verses give an account only of the former. Blasphemy was the crime they charged upon him. We cannot from any one evangelist have a full account of either of them.
See Poole on "Matthew 26:57" and following verses to Matthew 26:68, when have fully considered what all the evangelists say.
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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Luke 22". Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week after Epiphany