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§ 120. TRANSACTIONS OF THE TUESDAY PRECEDING THE CRUCIFIXION, Luke 22:1-6 .
Compare notes on Matthew 26:1-16; Mark 14:1-11; John 12:2-7.
3. Then entered Satan into Judas After the supper at Bethany, as narrated by the other evangelists, at which the provocation produced a diabolical excitement in Judas’s mind. This entering of Satan into him is not to be interpreted as an actual possession, but as a filling his whole soul, by Satan, with his devilish spirit and purpose.
Surnamed Iscariot See note on Matthew 10:4. The town of Kerioth, from which Judas seems to be named, is mentioned in Joshua 15:25. Dr. Hackett identifies it with Khureitun, “a few miles south of Bethlehem.” “A dark spirit would find its own element in the gloomy scenery of Khureitun.”
Of the twelve A fact which both rendered the crime possible and aggravated its guilt. At the present time none but an apostle could have surrendered Jesus; for so great was his present influence with the people that the authorities needed to have it done in the absence of the multitude.
Compare notes on Matthew 26:17-19; Mark 14:12-16.
THE SUFFERING, Luke 22:7 to Luke 23:56.
§ 121. JESUS PREPARES TO KEEP THE PASSOVER, Luke 22:7-13 .
Compare notes on Matthew 26:17-19; Mark 14:12-16.
10. A man bearing a pitcher Doubtless a servant coming with water from the western part of the city as the apostles entered the eastern part.
§ 122. JESUS SITS DOWN WITH THE TWELVE AMBITIOUS
CONTENTION AMONG THEM, Luke 22:14-18; Luke 22:24-30.
Matthew 26:20; Mark 14:17.
14. Sat down It must never be forgotten, in reading descriptions of the ancient meals, that there was no sitting in chairs, but reclining on couches at the table. The best commentators, assuming that Luke has changed the order, place the strife of the twelve (Luke 22:24-30) immediately upon their sitting down. Then, in reproof of that strife, follows the washing of the apostles’
feet, given by John.
15. With desire I have desired The Hebrew mode of saying I have had a most intense desire. The deep emotion of the Saviour at coming to the hour of his last converse with his chosen ones, fills his language with an exquisite pathos. And these last hours were to be devoted to instituting the symbols of his own death. He was to die, be emblematically slain before them, and to appoint the ever-continued repetition of that symbolical death in his Church through future ages. No wonder that he had looked forward to that supper with earnest emotion, and had well provided that it should be an hour upon whose sacred privacy no enemy but one should intrude.
The present passage (15-18) narrates that part of the supper which belonged to the Passover. That which belonged to the institution of the Lord’s Supper is Luke 22:19-20. See notes on Matthew 26:26, with introductory note preceding.
16. Eat thereof Whether as Passover or Lord’s Supper; both being the same thing in successive stages of development.
Until it be fulfilled Until the emblem is fulfilled in the glorious reality.
In the kingdom of God In the resurrection state.
17. And he took the cup The passover cup.
Divide it among yourselves He drank it not himself.
18. Until the kingdom of God shall come These words were in substance repeated at the drinking of the sacramental cup, as appears by Matthew 26:29, on which see our notes.
§§ 126, 128. THE INSTITUTION OF THE LORD’S SUPPER, Luke 22:19-20 .
See notes on Matthew 26:26; Mark 14:22.
20. This cup is the new testament The Greek word for testament should be rendered covenant. And the fruit of the vine is the symbol of the new covenant; that is, the covenant of the new dispensation, in the place of the covenant of Moses. A covenant is a compact by which two parties stipulate mutual things. Covenants were anciently made and ratified by or in the blood of a victim sacrificed by the parties. The old covenant in blood, made by God through Moses, is found in Exodus 24:3-8. The blood by which that covenant was sanctioned was the blood of slain beasts. But this is the covenant ratified by or in the blood of the Lamb of God.
Shed for you The emblem of the death of the Lord’s body substituted in the place of the death of your soul.
§ 124. JESUS INDICATES HIS BETRAYER, Luke 22:21-24 .
See notes on Matthew 26:21-25; Mark 14:18-21; John 13:21-35.
21. Behold How terrible the transition from the words of dying love which have just preceded.
The hand of him that betrayeth me… on the table Violating with its treacherous pressure the board of common love and unity.
§ 122. AMBITIOUS STRIFE AMONG THE TWELVE, Luke 22:24-30 .
24. There was also a strife This was when they first took seats at the table, as above remarked, Luke 22:14. This was in all probability a strife now awakened for the couch of honour. The strife would most likely be between Peter, James, and John. But even in the lower ranks there may have been a strife for a higher relative place.
25. Exercise lordship Play the lord and despot. Jesus here does not condemn the exercise of a just governmental authority, in which the ruler, acting for the public good, is in fact the public servant. On the contrary, the powers that be are ordained of God. Rulers are a necessity in all human society. But every true ruler, whether in Church or State, is a true and faithful servant, both of God and of the people he rules.
They that exercise authority… benefactors The most despotic tyrants and the bloodiest destroyers are often the themes of human eulogy.
Benefactors The Greek title here named, Euergetes, was conferred upon or adopted by several of the Egyptian Ptolemies, who were anything but benefactors to their nation or race.
26. Shall not be so The spirit to be lords over God’s heritage, and not servants, shall not reign in your hearts. This does not condemn a true ecclesiastical order; but it does condemn all ecclesiastical ambition, and all aspiration after selfish power.
Chief… doth verse All office should be service. Every man should abdicate and disuse every authority over another which is not for the best good.
27. But I Who am official Lord of you all.
As he that serveth Loving, suffering, and dying for the good of others.
28. Ye are they Our Lord now proceeds to show not only that he has no design to abolish a just authority, but that so dignified is the title and inheritance of every apostle that none need envy another.
My temptations My trials from Satan, men, and earthly things.
29. I appoint Literally, I bequeath, as if an inheritance after his death.
A kingdom A realm more powerful than any political kingdom; a royalty more dignified than any civil throne. This is the kingdom of the true Church, being a humble share in the mediatorial kingdom of Christ himself.
30. Eat… at my [sacramental]
table Which is the antepast and emblem of the eternal banquet when the family all get home.
In my kingdom First of grace, and then of glory. Sit on apostolic thrones. Truly the throne of the apostle was higher than any of the thrones of earth.
Judging Ruling. The judges of the book of Judges were civil rulers and military leaders. The apostles ruled in the Church with divine authority while they lived. They still rule in the Church whose laws their labors first established.
Twelve tribes of Israel The type of the Church of God. This passage fully shows that the apostles were twelve in special reference to the twelve tribes. See notes on Matthew 19:28-29.
§ 125. JESUS FOREWARNS PETER, Luke 22:31-38 .
31. Simon, Simon Peter had probably had his full share in the contention just mentioned; and our Lord here addresses him with a most solemn emphasis by his old natural name, in distinction from his new name of Peter.
Hath desired In the Greek ( εζητησατο ) has asked that you be surrendered over to him, as Job was surrendered to this same Satan. So Philip of Macedon demanded of the Athenians to surrender his enemy, Demosthenes, over to him. Demosthenes, in relating the fact, adopts the very word here used by our Lord.
32. Prayed that thy faith fail not His faith should falter, though it did not finally fail. His faith doubtless ceased to be justifying, though it remained convicting; at least so far as to form the basis of a true repentance.
Converted From the apostacy. That re-conversion he doubtless needed to save him from damnation. The salvation of an old conversion will not survive a complete apostacy. A new repentance, faith, and conversion are necessary.
Strengthen thy brethren Who will have been shaken and enfeebled by thy apostacy. Alford says that the use three times, in Peter’s epistles, of this word strengthened is at least remarkable. He who by sin disgraces the cause of Christ, should doubly honour it by a redoubled effort to prevent others from like folly.
35. Purse… scrip The means, figuratively, of conducting their ministry.
Nothing They had been like children for whom the parent cared and provided.
The new responsibilities of the Apostles, Luke 22:35-38.
In this paragraph our Lord shows his apostles how his departure will leave them very much to their own resources. During his stay on earth his divine care had equipped and guarded them in the travel and the battle. But now they must set up on their own account and provide their own resources.
36. But now Childhood is past, and the divine order is, that your powers be developed into the efficiency of manhood. You are like adventurers that must go forth to travel and battle upon your own resources.
He that hath Whatever of means or instrumentalities you have got, cultivate and put them to strenuous use.
He that hath no sword Who finds himself unfurnished for the combat that may come.
Sell his garment For let him be well assured that the battle is sure to come, and that victory is of more value to him than the garment upon his back.
37. For… must yet be accomplished The event which takes me away from you is at hand.
Have an end The fulfilment of the divine prediction, the complement of the divine order, is coming to a completion.
38. They said, Lord… two swords At the mention of a sword some of the disciples, taking him literally, bring him forth double his demand, two swords! It is enough To illustrate my metaphor, quite enough; and too much, if it is real bloodshed you contemplate. The words gently rebuke the apostles’ mistake. They had these swords evidently concealed from our Lord. They may have provided them for defence against assailants, as even the priests did in the passage (Luke 10:31) from Jericho to Jerusalem. But they may have been knives for slaying the Passover lamb. See note on Matthew 26:51.
§ 131. THE AGONY OF GETHSEMANE, Luke 22:39-46 .
See notes on Matthew 26:30; Matthew 26:36-46; Mark 14:26; Mark 14:32-42; John 18:1.
39. Came out Our Lord now changes the scene from the supper-table to the garden.
As he was wont We are to conceive our Lord as an habitual walker to the Mount of Olives from the toils of the day.
41. Withdrawn from them He first withdrew from the body of the disciples, attended by Peter, James, and John. He now withdraws from the three.
About a stone’s cast A customary measurement in the Greek and Roman writers.
43. An angel The angel appeared
to him. Strengthening him So that, as appears in the following verse, he encountered a still greater agony, and prayed even a more earnest prayer, accompanied by the bloody sweat.
44. Sweat… great drops of blood Instances of what has been called bloody sweat are on record numerous and authentic. Dr. Clarke on the passage quotes Galen through Mead as saying: “Cases sometimes happen in which, through mental pressure, the pores may be so dilated that the blood may issue from them; so that there may be a bloody sweat.” The Latin poet, Lucan, in his poem, the Pharsalia, vividly describes a case in which sudor rubet, the sweat is ruddy. Yet Luke affirms not that it was blood, but “as it were great drops of blood.”
§ 132. JESUS IS BETRAYED, Luke 22:47-53 .
See notes on Matthew 26:47-56; Mark 14:43-52; John 18:2-12.
51. Suffer ye thus far Addressed to the soldiers in regard to healing Malchus. Being fettered, he requests them to permit him to do that much.
53. But this is your hour, and the power of darkness This is your long-sought hour to destroy me; this is the Satanic power of darkness which co-operates with you. Is there a contrast between daylight and darkness? My teaching accords with the light; your deeds with the darkness.
§ 133. PETER’S DENIAL OF CHRIST, Luke 22:54-62 .
See notes on Matthew 26:58-75; Mark 14:53-72; John 18:13-27.
§ 134. JESUS BEFORE CAIAPHAS AND THE COUNCIL PRONOUNCED WORTHY OF DEATH AND INSULTED, Luke 22:63-71 .
See notes on Matthew 26:57; Matthew 26:59-68; Mark 14:53; Mark 14:55-65; John 18:19-23.
In the present chapter of Luke Luke 22:63-65 must come after 66-71, as a comparison with the other evangelists will show.
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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Luke 22". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34