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Bible Commentaries
Luke 22

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

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Verse 1


1) "Now the feast of unleavened broad drew nigh," (erygizen de he heorte ton azumon) ’Then the feast of the unleavened bread drew near," a feast that lasted for a week, to begin within two days, Matthew 26:1-2; Exodus 12:14-20. No leaven was permitted in any house during this entire week.

2) "Which is called the Passover." (he legomene pascha) "Which is being called the Passover," or Is known as the Passover feast. This indicates Luke wrote for Gentiles who were not familiar with the feast. The actual day of the Passover was the 15th of Nissan, called, "the great day of the feast," of seven days, the high-light or high moment of the event, Mark 14:1; Exodus 12:11.

Verse 2

1) "And the chief priests and scribes sought," (kai ezetoun hoi archiereis kai hoi grammateis to) "And the scribes and the administrative priests sought a means or method," Matthew 26:3; Mark 14:1; Psalms 2:2. The Pharisees, now drop into the background as the Sadducees, administrative priests, and scribes assault Jesus.

2) "How they might kill him;" (pos anelosin auton) "How they might destroy him," rid themselves of His presence and influence, Matthew 26:4; John 11:47-53; Acts 4:27.

3) "For they feared the people." (ephobounto gar ton laon) "For they feared the laity, or masses of people," Matthew 26:5; Mark 14:2; Luke 19:4; Luke 19:8; Luke 20:19. For the people rejoiced at His words and deeds, Luke 21:38. His popularity was an embarrassment to the Jewish leaders, an occasion for their hearts of hate against Him.

Verse 3

1) "Then entered Satan into Judas," (eiselthen de satanas eis loudas) "Then Satan entered into Judas," John 13:2, who is called Iscariot, or put it into his heart to betray Christ. Whether or not bribe money had already been offered to anyone to entrap and deliver Jesus is not known.

2) "Surnamed Iscariot," (ton kaloumenon Iskarioten) "The one being called or surnamed Iscariot," Matthew 26:14; Mark 14:10. Matthew and Mark, at this point, tell of the common meal in the home of Simon the Leper in Bethany where Jesus was anointed and washed the feet of the disciples, Matthew 26:6-13; Mark 14:3-9; John 12:11; John 13:1-30.

3) "Being of the number of the twelve." (onta ek tou arithmou ton dodeka) "Existing (as one) out of the number of the twelve," who were called apostles; Mark 14:10. Satan, who failed in tempting the master, succeeded with the servant, Matthew 4:3-11. This points up the dark treachery of Judas.

Verse 4

1) "And went away and communed with," (kai’ apelthon sunelalesen) "And they went away and entered collusion with," conferred with, Matthew 26:15. Judas negotiated a betrayal deal with the following clan of conspirators:

2) "The chief priests and captains," (tois archiereusin kai straegois) "The chief (or administrative) priests and the captains," of the temple, Luke 22:52-53, law enforcement agents, the temple police Matthew 26:3; Mark 14:1; Mark 14:10. These were Jewish guards of the temple, of the Levitical order, as set forth, Leviticus 8:24-25; Acts 4:1-2.

3) "How he might betray him unto them." (to pos autois parado auton) "Just how (by what method) he might betray him to them," or entrap Jesus for seizure by the administrative priests and law enforcement persons, the police, Matthew 26:15.

Verse 5

1) "And they were glad," (kai ekaresan) "And they rejoiced," were emotionally, carnally thrilled, and covenanted with or entered into a contract with him. Judas made the proposal., took the initiative, Matthew 26:15; Mark 13:11.

2)"And covenanted to give him money," (kai sunethento auto argurion dounai) "And they agreed to give (dole out to him) kidnap money," in the amount of thirty pieces of silver. They agreed then, and paid later, Matthew 26:15; even as prophesied, Zechariah 11:12-13; Mark 13:11.

Verse 6

1) "And he promised," (kai eksomologesen) "And he fully consented," to accept the amount for leading them to the place that they might seize Jesus in the night.

2) "And sought opportunity," (kai ezetei eukairian) "And he sought, watched for an opportunity," Matthew 26:16; Acts 1:16.

3) "To betray him unto them in the absence of the multitude." (paradounai auton ater ochlou autois) "To give him over (betray him) to them apart from the crowd," who might have attempted to rescue Him in day time, or in the absence of and away from the multitudes, to avoid a tumult, a riot, Psalms 41:9; Psalms 55:12-14.

Verse 7


1) "Then came the day of unleavened bread," (elthen de he hemera ton azumon) "Then came the day of the unleavened bread," the first day, Nisan the 15th, beginning from the evening of the 14th, when the Passover lamb was killed, having been killed about 3 p.m. Tuesday the 13th, Exodus 12:14-20; Deuteronomy 16:1-8; Matthew 26:17; Mark 14:12.

2) "When the passover must be killed." (he edei thuesthai to pascha) "On which it was necessary to kill the pass ’ over lamb," Matthew 14:12, or sacrifice the paschal lamb, as prescribed by the law, Exodus 12:6, to be killed in he evening, about 3 p.m. Nisan 13th, to be ready for 6 p.m. eating, beginning the 14th, after which six more days were observed for the unleavened feast. It was a type of Christ our Passover; 1 Peter 1:18-19. The blood typified our redemption, while the feast typified Christ as the bread of life, to satisfy all who receive Him, John 6:51; John 6:58; Matthew 26:17.


1. Friday, Nisan 9th, six days before the passover, John 12:1; Mark 10:46.

2. Saturday, Nisan 10th, a regular sabbath. John 12:12-19; Mark 11:1-11; entered Jerusalem.

3. Sunday, Nisan 11th, the first day of the week, Mark 11:12-19. On the morrow after the tenth, the fig tree cursed, the temple cleansed.

4. Monday, Nisan 12th, Mark 11:20; Mark 13:1-11. Olivet discourse.

5. Tuesday, Nisan 13th, Mark 14:12-16. The passover made ready.

6. Wednesday, Nisan 14th. Mark 14:17; Mark 15:47. Ate the passover; instituted the Lord’s Supper, went to the garden, his arrest and mock trial before Pilate in the morning, crucified at 9 a.m. (here on Wednesday, taken down, buried) in late afternoon.

7. Thursday, Nisan 15th. Leviticus 23:5-7; Numbers 28:16-19. The high sabbath, John 19:31. The guard given. Matthew 27:62-66. (Couldn’t bury here on Thursday) the high sabbath.

8. Friday, Nisan 16th. Joseph and Nicodemus prepared the body for burial. (Friday, buried with spices). John 19:38-42; Luke 23:50-56. Matthew, Mark and Luke use the word which means sleeping garment; John uses the word which means burial bandages.

9. Saturday, Nisan 17th, a regular sabbath. Matthew 28:1-8. The resurrection at the end of the sabbath (three full days and nights, arose at end of sabbath.) John 20:11-18. The women did not believe he had risen, Luke 24:12.

10. Sunday, Nisan 18th. Mark, Luke and John record the account of the women coming in the morning, Matthew 28:9-15; John 20:1-19; Matthew 28:1-8; Luke 24:1-8. Sunday a.m. 1st day of the week witnesses came.

Verse 8

1) "And he sent Peter and John, saying," (kai apesteilen Petron kai loannen elpon) "And he directed (sent out) Peter and John," two of the twelve, "saying," or instructing them, concerning the Passover, about which they had made inquiry, Matthew 26:17. For it was a solemn occasion.

2) "Go and prepare us the passover," (poreuthentes hetoimasate hemin to pascha) "You all go and prepare the passover for us," Mark 14:16. Jesus gave orders, as head of the family, that they might eat it in one house, Exodus 12:46.

3) "That we may eat." (hina phagomen) "in order that we may eat," according to the law of Moses, Mark 14:12; Mark 14:16; Exodus 12:43-49.

Verse 9

1) "And they said unto him," (hoi de elpen autois idou) "Then they replied to him," by way of further inquiry, Matthew 26:17, regarding their preparing to observe the passover.

2) "Where wilt thou that we prepare?" (pou theleis hetoimasomen) "Just where is your priority wish that we may prepare it?" Matthew 26:17; Where shall we eat it? In what house, as directed by the law, Exodus 12:3-4; Exodus 12:46.

Verse 10

1) "And he said unto them, Behold," (hoi de eipen autois idou) "Then he said to them, take note of this," to the two, who were Peter and John, Luke 22:8; Mark 14:13.

2) "When ye are entered into the city," (eiselthonton humon eis ten polin) "As you all enter into the city," Mark 14:13.

3) "There shall a man meet you," (sunantesei humin anthropos) "You all will meet (face to face) a man;" doing what was normally a woman’s task, 1 Samuel 10:3.

4) "Bearing a pitcher of water;" (keramion hudatos bastazon) "Bearing (carrying) a pitcher of water," a thing that was normally done by women only, Mark 14:13; John 2:6-10. He may have been a slave of one who was a disciple of Jesus.

5) "Follow him into the house where he entereth in." (akolouthesate autou eis ten oikian eis hen eisporeuetai) "You all just follow him into the residence into which he enters," Mark 14:13-14. This mode of selecting the place would have prevented Judas from knowing the place in time to betray our Lord at the passover meal, from which he went out that fateful night, to lead the mob over to Gethsemane to betray and arrest Him there, Matthew 26:20-25.

Verse 11

1) "And ye shall say unto the goodman of the house," (Kai ereite eo oikodespote tes oikias) "And you all will say to the housemaster of the house," Matthew 26:18; Mark 14:14. "Goodman" means a master, husband, father or householder, not a good man.

2) "The Master saith unto thee," (legei soi ho didaskalos) "The teacher says to you," sends this message to you, Matthew 26:18; Mark 14:14. The great teacher advises you, John 13:13.

3) "Where is the guestchamber," (pou estin to kataluma) "Where is the guest room located," Mark 14:14.

4) "Where I shall eat the passover with my disciples?" (hopou to pascha ton matheton mou phago) "Where I may eat the passover with my disciples?" My New Covenant fellowship band of church laborers, Mark 14:14.

Verse 12

1) "And he shall show you a large upper room furnished:" (kakeinos humin deiksei anagaion mega estromenon) "And that man (house-master) will show you a large, private, upper room that has already been spread," or one with carpets, that is comfortably prepared for guests, as an hospitality room, Mark 14:15.

2) "There make ready." (hetoimasate) "You all prepare," the passover feast there, Mark 14:15.

Verse 13

1) "And they went, and found as he had said unto them:" (apelthontes de heuron kathos eirekei autois) "Then upon going they found (things) just as he had told them," the man bearing the pitcher, the residence for their hospitality, exactly as He told them they would, Mark 14:16; John 16:4. Obedient faith is always rewarded.

2) "And they made ready the passover." (kai hetoimasan to pascha) "And they prepared the passover," the elements for its observance, as prescribed by law, Exodus 12:1-51; Mark 14:16; Matthew 26:19. There were four elements: 1. The lamb, 2. the bitter herbs, 3. the bread, and 4. the wine. After the last passover was ended, Jesus took the latter two elements and instituted His New Covenant Supper, in His church, The Lord’s Supper.

Verse 14

1) "And when the hour was come, he sat down," (kai hote egeneto he hora anepesen) "And when the hour came in the evening, (to observe it) he reclined," in the traditional manner, Matthew 26:20; Mark 14:17-18. The first passover was observed standing; The last passover was observed sitting down, Exodus 12:11.

2) "And the twelve apostles with him." (kai hoi apostoloi sun auto) "And the apostles in close colleague with him," Matthew 26:20; Mark 14:17.

Verse 15

1) "And he said unto them," (kai eipen pros autous) "And he said very personally to them," in privacy with His church disciples, the apostles in particular; those sitting with Him.

2) "With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you," (eipthumia epithumesa touto to pascha phagein meth’ humon) "With deep desire I desired to eat this passover with you all." With intense desire is the idea, Luke 12:50; A word of testimony given only by Luke, Hebrews 9:11-12; Hebrews 9:26; Hebrews 10:1-9; 1 Corinthians 5:7. This last passover ended a Divine era.

3) "Before I suffer" (pro tou me pathein) "Before the experience I am to suffer," before my crucifixion.

Verse 16

1) "For I say unto you," (lego gar humin) "For I tell you all," as my chosen new covenant fellowship of church followers, whom ! have called and chosen, Matthew 4:17-22; John 15:16-17.

2) “I will not any more eat thereof," (hot! ouketi ou me phago auto) "That I eat it no more, by any means," or will not eat it any more at all. This was the final hour of both social and religious or church fellowship He would have with them on earth before His death, Matthew 8:11.

3) "Until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God." (heos hotou plerothe en te basileia tou theou) "Until it is (exists) having been fulfilled in the kingdom of God," that is until the object of which the Passover was a type was fulfilled or finished, in the domain of God, as God had ordained, from the foundation of the world, a thing that was now at hand, about to be fulfilled in His death, 1 Corinthians 5:7; 1 Peter 1:18-20.

Verse 17

1) "And he took the cup," (kai deksamenos poterion) "And he took a cup "’ the, "cup of the passover," the wine or fruit of the vine, where He was reclining, after the passover supper was ended, or as it came to an end, and the true passover was about to be offered, 1 Corinthians 5:7.

2) "And gave thanks, and said," (eucharistesas eipen) "And when he had given thanks, he said," Deuteronomy 8:10-18; 1 Timothy 4:4, even facing sorrow, betrayal, and death He still gave thanks, expressed gratitude to His Father for the deliverance from bondage in Egypt, of old, 1 Thessalonians 5:19; 2 Corinthians 9:15; For what the cup symbolized, Matthew 20:22-23.

3) "Take this, and divide it among yourselves:" (labete touto kai diamerisate eis heautous) "You all take this (cup) and divide it among yourselves," Or each of you drink of it, sharing an expression of oneness of fellowship and commitment, as you are to observe this passover no more, as required by law, Colossians 2:14-17; Luke 16:16.

Verse 18

1) "For I say unto you," (lego gar humin) "For I tell you all," as disciples, as my company of followers, of my church, Luke 22:14.

2) "I will not drink of the fruit of the vine," (ou me pio apo tou nun apo tou genematos tes ampelou) "I drink (will drink) not any more-at all, from now and hereafter, from the fruit-produce of the vine," Genesis 49:11; Deuteronomy 32:14, or the "blood of the grape," as at Passovers in Israel, since they (Israel) left Egypt, some 1500 years earlier, Exodus 12:6; Exodus 12:14-20.

3) "Until the kingdom of God shall come." (heos hou he basileia tou theou elthe) "Until the kingdom of God comes," as the door was opened the next day, is come to exist on earth, with its true message of redemption to be borne by you all, until that new millennial era of my return, John 15:16; John 15:27; John 20:21; Luke 1:30-33.

Verse 19


1) "And he took bread, and gave thanks," (kai labon arton eucharistesas) "And having given thanks he took a loaf (of bread)," of the unleavened bread. He took it, and offered thanks to His Father for it, and what it symbolized, Matthew 16:16; Mark 14:22; 1 Corinthians 10:16; 1 Corinthians 11:23.

2) "And brake it, and gave unto them, saying," (eklasen kai edoken autois legon) "And broke and gave it to them, saying;" He gave His body to be broken, willingly, John 10:18; Titus 2:14. Commenting, informing, and directing them, His disciples as a church company who had followed Him from the baptism of John, John 15:16; John 15:27; Acts 1:21-22; Matthew 26:26.

3) "This is my body," (touto estin to soma mou) "This is (exists as, similar to, a symbol of) my body," my body that is to be wounded and broken for you, for, your sins, Isaiah 53:4-11; 1 Peter 2:24; Matthew 26:26. The bread was not changed into His literal body.

4) "Which is given for you:" (to huper humon didomenon) "Which is being given on your behalf," or "being broken for you," 1 Corinthians 10:16; 1 Corinthians 11:24; Ephesians 5:25-27.

5) "This do in remembrance of me," (touto poieiti eis ten emen anamnesin) "You all do this with reference to a memorial-remembrance of me," not to receive remittal of sins, 1 Corinthians 11:24. This memorial has outlived all other monuments.

Verse 20

1) "Likewise also the cup after supper, saying," (kai to poterion meta to deipnesai legon) "And in a similar manner, after the sup, he also took the cup saying," explaining, after the passover supper, and giving directions for its future use in His church fellowship worship, Matthew 26:27, directing them to drink of it in memory of Him, as they- had formerly taken it in remembrance of the passover deliverance.

2) "This cup is the new testament In my blood," (touto to poterion he kaine diatheke en to haimati mou) "This cup is (exists as a symbol or memorial) of a new covenant in my blood," 1 Corinthians 10:16; Matthew 26:28; and they drank of it in originating or establishing the Lord’s Supper, Mark 14:23; 1 Corinthians 11:25-26; Hebrews 8:8-12.

3) "Which is shed for you." (to huper humon ekchunnomenon) "Which is being shed on your behalf," for the remission of your sins, Mark 14:24. After the Passover Supper was ended, had fulfilled its memorial purpose, commemorating Israel’s deliverance from Egypt, until the true sacrifice was at hand, Jesus then took two of its elements and instituted this new covenant memorial of His death.

Verse 21


1) "But behold the hand of him that betrayeth me," (plen idou he cheir tou paradidontos me) "However, take note, the hand of the one actively engaged in betraying me," the hand of the one who took the bribe, having already entered a contract to betray him, for thirty pieces of silver; It was Judas Iscariot. If the order of recounting is chronologically given here, Judas Iscariot partook of the first supper, Psalms 41:9.

2) "Is with me on the table." (met’ emou epi teo trapezes) "is with me upon the table," the passover table, John 13:21-26.

Verse 22

1) "And truly the Son of man goeth," (hoti ho huios men tou anthropou poreuetai) "Because the Son of man surely goes," or certainly goes, the heir-redeemer of man goes from this life, of His own will and choice, Luke 19:10; John 10:18; Luke 23:46.

2) "As it was determined:" (kata to horismenon) "As it has been determined," by Divine purpose, before the foundation of the world, Acts 2:23; Acts 4:28; 1 Peter 1:18-20; Revelation 13:8. The moral responsibility of Judas was not destroyed by the determination of God.

3) "But woe unto that man," (plen ouai to anthropo ekeino) "Nevertheless, woe be to that man," whose hand is on this passover table, a pretended friend, Psalms 41:9. For he chose to do this by his own volition, in spite of his knowledge of Jesus Christ.

4) "By whom he Is betrayed!" (di’ ou paradidotai) "Through whom he is (now exists as) betrayed," through collusion and contract agreement with the chief priests and captains, administrative priests and law enforcement agents, a contract entered into the night Judas left the supper in the home of Simon the leper, in Bethany earlier that week, John 13:21-30; Matthew 26:6; Matthew 26:14-16.

Verse 23

1) "And they began to enquire among themselves," (kai autoi erksato suzetein pros heautous) "And they began to debate directly with themselves," one with another, among themselves, Matthew 26:22.

2) "Which of them," (to Ais eks auton) "Just who (which one) out of and among them," "is it l?" each repeatedly inquired, none said, "is it he?" or Judas, indicating trust in each other.

3) "It was that should do this thing." (ara eie ho touto mellon prassein) "It might be who was about to do this thing," about to betray Him to death, John 13:22.

Verse 24


V. 24-27

1) "And, there was also a strife among them," (egeneto de kai philomeikia en autois) "Then there became also a rivalry among them," Matthew 20:24; Among the apostles of the church fellowship, which Jesus rebuked by washing the disciples’ feet, after a supper in Simon’s home in Bethany, Mark 12:2; Mark 12:9; Mark 13:2-11.

2) "Which of them should be accounted the greatest." (to tis auton dokei einai meizon) "Who of them seemed to be (to exist) greater," in administrative position, and who would take charge, be head over them when Jesus was gone, Mark 9:34; Luke 9:46; They had a mistaken concept of His kingdom, the church.

Verse 25

1) "And he said unto them," (ho de eipen autois) "Then he said to them," as they debated and bickered about who should be in ascendancy of oversight direction, or administration among them, when He was gone, Matthew 20:25.

2) "The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them:" (hoi basileis ton ethnon kurieuousin auton) "The kings of the Gentiles, races, or heathen nations lord it over them;" Your bickering attitude is a spirit of heathen covetousness, as each of you covets a position of dominancy over others, Matthew 20:25.

3) "And they that exercise authority upon them," (kai hoi ekousiazontes auton) "And those who have administrative authority over them," Matthew 20:25; They who exercised heavy jurisdiction over them.

4) "Are called benefactors." (euergetai kalountai) "Are called benefactors," a title taken by some kings upon conquering certain people, properties, and territories; They sought popularity by gifts, then did good for ulterior purposes. It was a title coveted by heathen kings and the surname of one of the Ptolemies and of Cyrus, 2 Maccabees 4:2; Xenophom, Cyr. 3:3, 4.

Verse 26

1) "But ye shall not be so:" (humeis de ouch houtos) "Yet (with) you all it shall not be so:" Heavy handed men shall not dominate you all, my church, Matthew 20:16.

2) "But he that is greatest among you," (air ho meigon en humin) "But the one who is greatest among you al I," as a new covenant church body of service and worship, Matthew 20:26; Luke 9:48.

3) "Let him be as the younger;" (ginestho hos ho neoteros) "Let him become as the younger," who often does the more menial tasks, much as a servant, respectfully subject to the other disciples of your church-family fellowship, serving them, Matthew 20:26. Not lording it over them, 1 Peter 5:2-3; Acts 5:6.

4) "And he that is chief, as he that doth serve." (hai ho hegoumenos hos ho diakon) "And the one who governs, let him become as the one who serves," serves in physical and material things, as a bond servant, Matthew 23:11. This is a particular warning against nicolaitanism, a people bossing attitude, which the Lord hates, 3 John 1:9-11; Revelation 2:6. It depicts that servant who strikes and smites to dominate other servants, Matthew 24:48-51. Jesus, the servant of all, is our Master, John 13:13; Philippians 2:7.

Verse 27

1) "For whether is greater,"(tis gar meizon) "For just who is really greater," Luke 9:48.

2) "He that sitteth at meat, or he that serveth?" (ho anakeimenos e ho diakonon) "The one who reclines (being served) or the one who does the serving?" of the food, as a helping servant, John 13:13-17; Philippians 2:5-7.

3) "Is not he that sitteth at meat?" (ouchi ho anakeimenos) "Is not the one reclining, being fed?" ,considered to be the greater, higher in honor or rank, among, men? Surely, Philippians 2:7.

4) "But I am among you as he that serveth." (ego de en meso humon limi his ho diakonon) "Yet, I am in the midst of you all as one who repeatedly serves," even in things of your physical needs, continually, 1 Corinthians 9:19. As an example of humility in service He was:

a) Condescending

b) Active

c) Persevering in love

d) Reverent in greatness e) A laborer with others.

Verse 28


1) "Ye are they which have continued with me," (humeis de este hoi diamemenekotes met emou) "Yet, you all are the ones (disciples of the church band) who have remained with me throughout," my ministry, from the beginning, John 15:16; John 15:26-27.

2) "In my temptations." (en tois peirasmois mou) "in my temptations," from the beginning back in Galilee, Matthew 4:17-22; Matthew 5:10-12; Acts 1:21-22; James 1:2-3; James 1:14. His life was a continual conflict with Satanic powers, Hebrews 4:15.

Verse 29

1) "And I appoint unto you," (kago diatithemai humin) "And I appoint (put, place, set or assign) to you all," I bequest to you all, as an organized new covenant fellowship of worship and service, (Gk. basileian), "a kingdom," the administrative execution of my work in this coming age, Matthew 3:2; Matthew 5:3; Matthew 5:10. This He did while here, before He went away, John 20:21.

2) "A kingdom as my Father hath appointed unto me." (kathos dietheto moi ho pater mou basileian) "Just as my Father has (appointed) to me a kingdom," to administer, in the millennial age, Luke 12:32; Matthew 19:28.

Verse 30

1) "That ye may eat and drink," (hina esthete kai pinete) "In order that you all may eat and drink," as a matter of worship, in administering the Lord’s Supper, which He had given for them to observe in His house, His church, in remembrance of Him, Luke 22:19; 1 Corinthians 15:23-24.

2) "At my table in my kingdom," (epi tes rapezes mou en te basikia mou) "At or upon my table, in my kingdom;" The only eating and drinking in His "house kingdom" in this age, in His house, in contrast with Moses’ house of the Passover Supper memorial, is at the Lord’s table, in the church, 1 Corinthians 10:16; 1 Corinthians 10:21; Hebrews 13:10. The eating denotes perfect friendship and fellowship, Matthew 26:29.

3) "And sit on thrones," (kai kathesesthe epi thronon) "And in order that you (all may each) sit on thrones," (twelve thrones) in the golden millennial era, that is to follow the church age, Matthew 19:28; 1 Corinthians 6:2.

4) "Judging the twelve tribes of Israel." (tas dokeka phulas krinontes) "Repeatedly judging the twelve tribes," (tou Israel) "Of natural Israel" concurring in Christ’s will, restored to her promised land. This will also fulfill Isaiah 1:26; Judges 2:18; Revelation 3:21.

This promise and prophecy is two-fold to the apostles and to the church:

1) First, the eating and drinking is to be at His "table," in His house, in contrast with the Passover memorial, at Moses’ table in the house that Moses built. This alludes to the Lord’s supper being administered by and to the church, "the kingdom of heaven", in this age, Hebrews 3:3-6.

2) Second, the pledge of throne reigning and judgment positions in His coming reign, were pledged both to the twelve apostles and members of His church for that era, as cited above.

Verse 31


1) "And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold," (Simon, Simon idou) "Simon, behold," or take note of what I tell you. The repeating of the name indicates solemnity and tenderness in the appeal.

2) "Satan hath desired to have you," (Satanas eksetesato humas) "Satan has begged earnestly for you," desired to have you, is not content with just Judas, the old slanderer who possessed Judas Iscariot, Luke 22:3; that deceived Adam and eve, Genesis 3:1-8, who is a liar, John 8:44; Revelation 20:10.

3) "That he may sift you as wheat." (tou siniasai hos ton siton) "To sift or shake you down like wheat," as he goeth about seeking whom he may devour, 1 Peter 5:8. Peter was true wheat, his carnal self confidence was chaff, Psalms 1:4; Matthew 13:31; The harvest of Jesus’ friends he still desires to sift, 1 Peter 5:5.

Verse 32

1) "But I have prayed for thee," (ego de edeethen pen sou) "However I have requested concerning you," and this I requested, of the Father, as He has prayed for all His own, John 17:9; John 17:11; John 17:15; and He still prays for them, Hebrews 7:25; 1 John 2:1-2; Romans 8:27.

2) "That thy faith fall not:" (hina me elipe he pistis sou) "In order that your faith might not fail," falter or come to a halt, 1 Corinthians 15:57-58; Galatians 6:9. The prayers of Jesus for us is more powerful than Satan’s power.

3) "And when thou art converted," (kai su pote epi strepsas) "And when you have turned around, changed directions or been converted," in your attitude for preeminence, and your temptations to deny me.

4) "Strengthen the brethren." (sterison tou adelphous sou) "You support the brethren," strengthen them, help them to spiritual maturity, by word and deed, John 21:15-17; 1 Peter 5:10-12; 2 Peter 1:10-15; 2 Peter 3:17.

Verse 33

1) "And he said unto him, Lord," (ho de eipen auto kurie) "Then he said to him, Lord," or master. Peter replied to Him, to Jesus, with commitment, willing in the spirit, but weak in the flesh, emotional and impulsive.

2) "I am ready to go with thee," (meta sou hetoimos eimi) "I am prepared to go with you," to stand by your side, (Gk. poreuesthai) "to go along anywhere," with you. The "with thee" is emphatic! I’ll stand by your side, Matthew 26:33.

3) "Both into prison, and to death." (kai eis phulaken kai eis thanaton) "Even into prison and into death," Mark 14:29; Mark 14:31. And all the rest said the same thing, John 13:37.

Verse 34

1) "And he said, I tell thee, Peter," (ho de eipen lego soi Petre) "Then he responded, I tell you, Peter," little stone. This is the only recorded time that Jesus spoke directly calling him Peter, after having once given him this name, Matthew 16:18. It is perhaps used to remind him of both his strength and his weakness.

2) "The cock shall not crow this day," (ou phonesei semeron alektor) "A cock (rooster) will not sound (crow) today," Matthew 26:34; John 13:38.

3) "Before that thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me," (heos tris me aparnese me eidenai) "Until you deny three times that you know me," in spite of your promises, Matthew 26:34; Mark 14:30; John 13:38 That he did is certified Matthew 26:72; Matthew 26:74; Mark 14:68; Mark 14:71.

Verse 35


V. 35-38

1) "And he said unto them," (kai eipen sutois) "And he said to them," to His church disciples, yet in that upper room.

2) "When I sent you without purse," (hote apestella humas ater bellantiou) "When I sent you all out, without a purse," in Galilee, in my earlier ministry, Matthew 10:9; Luke 9:3; Luke 10:4 He alludes to a past experience to give them a lesson of faith and confidence for the future.

3) "And scrip, and shoes," (kai epras kai hupodematon) "And without a wallet and sandals," as He proceeded to contrast their past kindly acceptance with the harsher enmity they were hereafter to face, very soon.

4) "Lacked ye any thing?" (me tinos husteresate) "Were you all short (or lacking, in need) of anything at all?" Philippians 4:19

5) "And they said, Nothing." (hoi de eipan outhenos) "Then they said, Not at all," or we did not need a thing, or go in want at all, at any time. For He had provided all their need, as He yet does to those who trust, follow, and obey Him, Romans 8:28; Hebrews 13:5.

Verse 36

1) "Then said he unto them," (eipen de autois) "Then he said to them," to His witnessing, chosen followers.

2) "But now, he that hath a purse, let him take it," (alla nun ho echon ballantion arrato) "But now and hereafter, (since I will be leaving you all) let the one who has a purse take it," wherever he goes, Luke 10:35.

3) "And likewise his scrip:" (homoios kai peran) "And likewise, a wallet that he has, let him take it along," wherever he travels, as the good Samaritan did, Luke 10:33-35.

4) "And he that hath no sword," (kai ho me echon machairan) "And the one who does not have a sword," an instrument of warfare, of protection against assault on him physically for bodily harm.

5) "Let him sell his garment, and buy one." (polesato to himation autou kai agorasato) "Let him sell his garment and buy a sword," for his personal and family protection, for days of hateful enmity against them and their families, to protect them, 1 Timothy 3:8.

Verse 37

1) "For I say unto you," (lego gar humin) "For I tell you all."

2) "That this that is written must yet be accomplished in me." (hoti touto to gegrammenon de telesthenai en emoi) "That this (prophecy) that has been written must be finished in me," that all prophecies of me must be fulfilled, Luke 24:25-27; Luke 24:44-45.

3) "And he was reckoned among the transgressors:" (to kai meta anomon elogisthe) "And he was reckoned (for judgment) with lawless men," criminals, transgressors, breakers of Divine, moral, and ethical principles. He was computed or calculated to be identified with them in His passion and death for all men, Isaiah 53:9; Isaiah 53:12; Mark 15:28.

4) "For the things concerning me have no end." (kai gar to peri emou telos echei) "For certainly the thing (prophesied) concerning me has an end purpose," is to be fulfilled or finished, Titus 2:14; Habakkuk 2:8; Habakkuk 2:14; 2 Corinthians 5:21.

Verse 38

1) "And they said, Lord, behold," (ho de eipan kurie idou) "Then they said, Lord, behold," or just take a look, take note.

2) "Here are two swords." (amchairai hode duo) "Here are two swords," that we have.

3) "And he, said unto them, It is enough." (ho de eipen autois hikanon estin) "Then he said to them, It is enough," or "that will do," for He had not yet left them, to go out and away into all parts of the world, as He later mandated them to do, Matthew 28:18-20; Mark 15:15; Luke 24:46-53; John 20:21; Acts 1:8.

Verse 39


1) "And he came out, and went, as he was wont," (kai ekselthon eporeuthe kata to ethos) "And he went out of and away from (the upper room) according to his custom," after He had sung an hymn, Matthew 26:36; Mark 14:32; or habit as He habitually did, a thing known by Judas Iscariot. This accounts for Judas’ being able to lead the arresting gang to the garden, John 18:2. It was perhaps about this time that Judas slipped away to lead the band to Him.

2) "To the mount of Olives;" (eis to otos elaion) "Into the mount of Olives," east of the city of Jerusalem, to the Garden of Gethsemane, Matthew 26:36; Mark 14:32.

3) "And his disciples also followed him." (ekolouthesan de auto kai hoi mathetai) "Then the disciples also followed him," from the upper room, Matthew 26:36; Mark 14:32; John 18:1.

Verse 40

1) "And when he was at the place," (genomenos de epi tou topou eipen autois) "Then when he had come upon the location," where He often resorted to prayer in Gethsemane," He said to them," Matthew 26:36. It was perhaps a farm or garden belonging to a friend or one of His disciples.

2) "Pray that ye enter not into temptation." (proseuchesthe me eiselthein eis peirasmon) "You all pray that you enter not into temptation." It is better to stay out, than to get out of temptation, as He had taught them, from the beginning in the Sermon on the Mount, Matthew 6:13; Mark 14:32; He left eight of the twelve disciples; taking Peter, James, and John with Him, a little farther, to whom He gave this exhortation, Matthew 26:37; Mark 14:33.

Verse 41

1) "And he was withdrawn from them," (kai autos apespasthe ap’ auton) "And he was withdrawn away from them," for a distance, as further described; or "torn away," indicating a reluctance to leave the eight a little way behind as He went to pray alone.

2) "About a stone’s cast," (hosei lithou bolen) "Of about a stone’s throw away," about one hundred feet, a distance called, "a little further," Matthew 26:39; Mark 14:35.

3) "And kneeled down, and prayed." (kai theis ta gonata proseucheto) "And when he had kneeled he prayed," and Matthew adds that "he fell on his face and prayed," or kept on praying, Matthew 26:39; Mark 14:35 adds he "fell on the ground and prayed."

Verse 42

1) "Saying, Father, if thou be willing," (legon pater ei boulei) "Saying repeatedly, Father, if you will, " or if you are willing, of your choice, but not without your will. For He came not to do His own will, but the will of the Father who sent Him. His will was subservient to His Father’s will, as ours should be, John 6:38; Ephesians 5:17; Romans 12:2.

2) "Remove this cup from me:" (parenegke touto to poterion ap’ emou) "Take away this cup from me," this cup of sorrow, suffering, Matthew 26:39; Mark 14:36 a; Psalms 75:8; as pictured Genesis 22:6-8; Hebrews 5:7.

3) "Nevertheless not my will, but thine be done." (plen me to thelema mou alla to son ginestho) "However, let not my priority will but yours be done," occur or come to be, Psalms 40:8; John 4:34; John 6:33; Hebrews 10:7; Mark 14:36.

Verse 43

1) "And there appeared an angel unto him from heaven," (ophthe de auto angelos ap’ ouranou) "Then there appeared to him an angel (messenger and servant) from heaven," as in the temptation, Matthew 4:11; Mark 1:14, dispatched of the Father from heaven, as they appeared to announce His birth, Luke 2:13-15; Psalms 34:7.

2) "Strengthening him." (enischuon auton) "Ministering physical strength to him," as they do to believers in hours of need, Hebrews 1:4. Whatever the believers need, whether physical, emotional, financial or spiritual need, our Lord never arrives too late to supply the need of His own, Philippians 4:19; Hebrews 13:5.

Verse 44

1) "And being in an agony he prayed more earnestly:" (kai genomenos en agonia ektenesteron proseucheto) "And being (existing) in a state of agony he prayed more earnestly:" In "great fear." Luke summarizes the other two prayers reported by Matthew and Mark in the phrase "and He prayed more earnestly," while in agony, Matthew 26:42-44; Mark 14:39-41. From this comes the phrase "the agony in the garden," John 12:27; Hebrews 5:7.

2) "And his sweat was as It were great drops of blood," (kai egeneto ho hidos autou hosei thromboi haimatos) "And his sweat came to be as clots of blood," Luke 22:56. It was a cold night and He was kneeling on the cold ground. Luke only, a physician, reported this bloody sweat, John 18:18.

3) "Failing down to the ground." (katabainontes epi ten gen) "When they fell down upon the ground," in glob-drops, not on His clothing only.

Verse 45

1) "And when he rose up from prayer," (kai anastas apo tes proseuches) "And when he rose up from the prayer," from the third or final prayer in the Garden alone.

2) "And was come to his disciples," (elthon pros tous mathetas) "Upon coming directly to the disciples," who had been only a stone’s throw away, to the three, and the eight, Matthew 26:36-37; Mark 14:32-33.

3) "He found them sleeping for sorrow," (heuren koimomenous sutous apo tes lupes) "He found them sleeping from the grief," Matthew 26:40, they too had experienced that evening, and the weariness of the day; Peter slept while his master prayed, later followed afar off, sat among the Lord’s enemies, denied his Lord, and that he was "one of His."

Verse 46

1) "And said unto them," (kai eipen autois) "And he said to them," to the slumbering disciples.

2) "Why sleep ye?" (ti katheudete) "Just why are you all asleep?" Deep grief often causes or induces a stupefying effect, leading to sleep that is but little refreshing. It is said that condemned people awaiting execution often have to be aroused to be executed.

3) "Rise and pray," (anastantes proseuchesthe) "You all rise up and pray," Mark 14:38. For the days of labor and battle are but few, John 4:34-36.

4) "Lest ye enter into temptation." (hina me eiselthete eis peirasmon) "Lest you all enter into temptation," Mark 14:38, the one now at hand, Matthew 26:45-46.

Verse 47


V. 47-53

1) "And while he yet spake, behold a multitude," (eti autou lalountos idou, ochlos) "While he was still speaking, behold a crowd," a night-scene of the betrayal and the arrest of our Lord is now at hand. Led by Judas Iscariot a Levitical guard under their Jewish Generals, a band of Roman soldiers of the cohort from the Fort of Antonio with priests and elders, charged across the Kedron valley, and up the mount of Olives to Gethsemane to seize Jesus, Matthew 26:47.

2) "And he that was called Judas, one of the twelve," (kai ho legomenos loudas eis ton dodeka) "And one of the twelve (apostles) the one who is called Judas," Judas Iscariot, Matthew 26:47; Mark 14:43; John 18:3-4. All four of the Gospel writers record his presence and forward part in the betrayal.

3) "Went before them," (prosercheto autous) "Came before them," to guide them, leading the crowd up the mount of Olives, through the dark of the night, having given his followers a token or sign by which they would know Jesus, Mark 14:44. He was eager to deliver Jesus to them, and get his pay-off.

4) "And drew near to Jesus to kiss him." (kai engisen to lesou philesai auton) "And he drew near to Jesus to kiss him," though his deceitful heart was far away from loving Him, for the purpose of kissing Him, the prophesied method of identifying Jesus and Judas for what he was that night, Matthew 26:48; Mark 14:44.

Verse 48

1) "But Jesus said unto him," (lesous de eipen auto) "Then Jesus said to him," to Judas who led the blood thirsty gang or mob, Matthew 26:49-50.

2) "Judas, betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss?" (louda philemati ton huion tou anthropou paradidos) "Judas, are you betraying the Son of man with a kiss?" a fervent kiss, overdoing the thing. Answer the question, Judas, Matthew 26:50; 2 Samuel 20:9-10; Psalms 55:13; Mark 14:45.

Verse 49

1) "When they which were about him saw," (idontes de hoi peri auton) "Then when those around him (around Jesus) saw or perceived," from the looks of the armed crowd, as Peter struck with his sword, cutting off the ear of Malchus, servant of the high priest, Matthew 26:51; Mark 14:47; John 18:10.

2) "What would follow, they said unto him," (to esomenon elpan) "What was about to occur, they said," as the horde of night-marchers were binding Him like a criminal to lead Him to prison. The Lord was being captured, seized as, and numbered with, transgressors, Isaiah 53:7-12.

3) "Lord, shall we smite with the sword?" (kurie ei pataksomen en marchaire) "Lord do we have your permission to strike with the sword?" to protect you with a sword? Matthew 26:52; John 18:8. The answer was "no." Civil matters may be defended by the sword, but not religious matters.

Verse 50

1) "And one of them smote," (kai epataksen eis tis eks auton) "And a certain one of them (out of the disciples) struck," an account given by all four of the Gospel writers, but only John told who did it, John 18:10. So bold now, so timid a few hours later.

2) "The servant of the high priest," (tou archiereos ton doulon) "The servant of the High Priest," of the administrative High Priest at that time, Matthew 26:51; Mark 14:47.

3) "And cut off his right ear." (kai apheilen to ous autou to deksion) "And he cut off (severed) his right ear," John 18:10 discloses that it was Peter who drew the sword and did this.

Verse 51

1) "And Jesus answered and said," (apokritheis de ho lesous eipen) "Then -responding Jesus said," John 18:9; John 18:11.

2) "Suffer ye thus far." (eate heos eouto) "You al I let this be enough," you all have gone far enough, Matthew 26:52-53; John 18:11. It appears that these words were spoken to His disciples who were resisting His mob seizure.

3) "And he touched his ear, and healed him.’.’ (kai hapsamenos tou otiou iasato auton) "And he (Jesus) touched the ear and cured him," Matthew 26:51, of the injury, or restored the ear that was severed or cut off; A final miracle of compassion, that men might believe that He was the Son of God, the Messiah-Redeemer, and trust Him, John 1:11-12; John 3:17; John 3:2; John 20:30-31. His pity and care reached even the camp of His enemies.

Verse 52

1) "And Jesus said unto the chief priests," (eipen de lesous pros tous archieneis) "Then Jesus said directly to the administrative priests," of the Levitical order of the Mosaic Law, who had come outside the city of Jerusalem, with a multitude in the night time, to witness His seizure and arrest, Luke 22:47, Mark 14:48; Matthew 26:55.

2) "And captains of the temple and elders," (kai strategous tou hierou kai presbuterous) "And directly to the captains (enforcement officers) of the temple and to the elders," who constituted the Sanhedrin, judges in matters of the law.

3) "Which were come to him," (paragenomenous ep’ auton) "Who were coming upon him," to witness His seizure and arrest.

4) "Be ye come out as against a thief," (hos eip lesten ekselthate) "Did you all come out as upon a robber," a thug, or a bandit, Mark 14:48? Is that really your opinion of me? Or is this malice and demonstrated hatred and fear because of the religious jobs you fear you will lose if the administration of your religious orders are replaced?

5) "With swords and staves?" (meta machairon kai ksuton) "With clubs and swords," armed for brutal combat with terrorists, Matthew 26:47. John 18:3 reads, "With lanterns and torches and weapons." Except for the Roman soldiers the rest of that motley multitude was an irrascable religious band. With violence and treachery they came in the night, "loving darkness rather than light because their deeds were evil," devious John 3:19.

Verse 53

1) "When I was daily with you in the temple," (kath’ hemeran ontos mou meth’ humon en to hiero en to hiero) "And while I was with you all in the temple," in the daytime, open to the public, teaching the word of the law, and the prophets, and the Psalms, Luke 24:44-45; Matthew 26:55.

2) "Ye stretched forth no hand against me:" (ouk ekseteinate tas cheiras ep eme) "You all did not stretch out your hands against me," in any open protest to stop me or ordering me out and away, Mark 14:49.

3) "But this is your hour," (air aute estin humon he hora) "But this is (exists as) your hour," that the Scriptures may be fulfilled, given you by the determinate counsel of God, to do your own grisly, murderous will against me, Acts 4:28; Mark 14:49 b; Matthew 26:56; Job 20:5; John 12:27.

4) "And the power of darkness." (kai he eksousia tou skotous) "And the administrative authority of darkness this is," Matthew 21:18; Ephesians 6:12; 2 Corinthians 3:14; Colossians 1:13; Revelation 12:10, of spiritual darkness, from the god of this world, Satan himself, because their actions were treacherous, led by a traitor; And they all loved and chose to seize Jesus in the dark hours of the night, rather than the light of the day, because they were blinded spiritually "by the god of this world," the Prince of the power of darkness, John 3:19; 2 Corinthians 4:3-4.

It is possibly about at this point that John Mark, the young man, lost his coat and fled naked from the arresting band, Mark 14:51-52.

Verse 54

1) "Then took they him, and led him," (sullabontes de auton egagon) "Then when they had arrested him, they led him away," as a sheep to the slaughter, Isaiah 53:7; Acts 8:32; Matthew 26:57. John tells of His first being bound and led to Annas, John 18-13.

2) "And brought him into the high priest’s house." (kai esiegagon eis ten oikian tou archiereos) "And they led him (bound) into the residence of the high priest," where Captains resided, Mark 14:53; Matthew 26:57, "Where the scribes and the elders were assembled," in a nighttime collusion with the arresting band, with "all the chief priests."

3) "And Peter followed afar off." (ho de Petros ekolouthei makrothen) "Then Peter followed afar off," a distance away from them, to the palace, Matthew 26:58; Mark 14:54. Caiaphas had already passed judgment on Jesus, before the arrest, that Jesus should die, to protect their religious order, rather than for all of them to die, without a job, John 11:49-50; John 18:14.

Verse 55

1) "And when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the hall," (periapsanton de pur en meso tes aules) "Then when they had lit a fire in the center of the court," about the residence of Caiaphas the high priest, where all the chief priests and elders of Israel and scribes had. assembled, for a clandestine night­time session, Matthew 26:57; Mark 14:53. The spring nights were cold, for Jerusalem is 2,610 feet above sea level.

2) "And were set down together," (kai sugkathisanton) "And they had sat down as colleagues, close together," with Peter in the midst of the servants, by the fire in the courtyard area of the palace, Matthew 26:58; Mark 14:54.

3) "Peter sat, down among them." (ekatheto ho Petros mesos’ auton) "Peter sat among them," as if he were among their number who sanctioned their actions. John 18:18 indicates that Peter stood among them, as well as sat among the servants of Caiaphas the high priest that night, Psalms 1:1-2.

Verse 56

1) "But a certain maid beheld him," (idousa de auton paidiske tis) "Then a certain maid-servant upon spotting him," a maid also called a damsel, Matthew 26:29; Mark 14:66. The maid or portress had let Peter in, at John’s request, John 18:17.

2) "As he sat by the fire," (kathemenon pros to phos) "Sitting near the light," of the fire; She recognized him by the light of the fire, evidently having seen him earlier that week in the temple with Jesus as He taught, Mark 14:67.

3) "And earnestly looked upon him, and said," (kai atinisasa auto eipon) "And gazing directly and intently at him, by the fire light, she said," Mark 14:67.

4) "This man was also with him." (kai houtos sun auto en) "And this one was in colleague with him," was one of His, one of Jesus’ band," with Jesus Of Galilee," Matthew 26:69.

Verse 57

1) "And he denied him, saying," (ho de ernesato legon) "And he denied him (Jesus) repeatedly saying," before them all, all the servants of the high priest, among whom he stood and sat by the fire, Matthew 26:70; Mark 14:68. This is his first denial.

2) "Woman, I know him not." (ouk oida auton gunai) "Woman, I do not know him," recognize Him, or perceive who the man is, Matthew 26:70. John 18:17 also discloses that he even denied being one of His disciples. So Peter denied two things: 1) Even knowing Jesus, 2) or being one of His disciples, even being an apostle or member of His church. Let each of us: "Beware of Peter’s words, nor confidentially say, I’ll never deny my Lord, but trust I never may."

Verse 58

1) "And after a little while another saw him, and said," (kai meta brachu heteros idon ephe) "And after a brief time another and different kind of servant said," Matthew 26:71; Mark 14:69. Peter had left the fire and was headed for the door, John 18:25.

2) "Thou art also of them." (kai su eks auton ei) "And you are also out of and one of them," of the disciples of Jesus of Nazareth, while the former had simply said of Galilee, Matthew 26:69; Matthew 26:71; Mark 14:69. Mark 14:70 indicates that the men, servants of the high priest also charged that Peter surely was a Galileean, and knew Jesus, adding, "Thy speech agreeth thereto."

3) "And Peter said, man, I am not." (ho de Petros epe anthrope ouk eim) "Then Peter said, man, I am not." This second time Matthew reports that he denied knowing Jesus and punctuated his denial with an oath, Matthew 26:72. He used the term "Man," in the generic sense, while replying to the damsel, or second maid, evidently for the benefit of the men among whom he stood and sat near the fire.

Mark 14:71 reports that Peter both cursed and sware, "I know not this man of whom ye speak."

Verse 59

1) "And about the space of one hour after," (kai diastases hosei horas mias) "And when about an hour had-intervened," or after about another hour, "they that stood by," had "sized up Peter," and one of them spoke out as follows, Matthew 26:73. He had now gone out to the porch.

2) "Another confidently affirmed, saying," (allos tis duschurizeto legon) "Another certain one asserted emphatically, saying, affirming," a relative of Malchus whose ear had been cut off, Matthew 26:73; Mark 14:70; John 18:26.

3) "Of a truth this follow also was with him:" (ep’ aletheias kai houtos met autou en) "Upon the basis of absolute truth this man (Peter) was with him," with Jesus, Mark 14:70.

4) "For he Is a Galileean” (kai gar Galilaios eatin) "For he is (exists as) a Galilean," and "thy speech or dialect betrayeth thee," don’t try to cover it up, you treacherous traitor, betrayer of your master, Matthew 26:73. His misplaced dialectal gutterals gave him away.

Verse 60

1) "And Peter said, Man," (eipen de ho Petros anthrope) "Then Peter said, man," responded with feigned honesty, but lying. It was his third denial, with oaths and curses, for the second time.

2) "I know not what thou sayest." (ouk oida ho legeis) "I do not know what you are saying or talking about," Matthew 26:74.

3) "And immediately, while he yet spake," (kai parachrema eti lalountos autou) "And at once, while he was still speaking," denying any knowledge of Jesus or His disciples, Matthew 26:74.

4) "The cock crew," (ephonesen alektor) "A cock sounded or crowed," the second time, as the Lord had foretold Peter would happen, Matthew 26:34; Mark 14:30; Mark 14:72.

Verse 61

1) "And the Lord turned, and looked upon Peter." (kai strapheis ho kurios eneblepsen to Petro) "And upon turning the Lord looked (glanced) at Peter," when the cock crowed this second time. Jesus turned from His accusers to look upon His friend, who had denied Him for the third time, with oaths and cursings.

2) "And Peter remembered the word of the Lord," (kai hupemnesthe ho Petros tou logou tou kuriou) "And Peter remembered (recalled) the word of the Lord," or thought thereon, Mark 14:72.

3) "How he had said unto him," (his eipen auto) "As he had told it to him," Mark 14:72.

4) "Before the cock crow," (hoti prin aldktora pheonesai semeron) "That before a cock sounds (crows) today," Mark 14:72.

5) "Thou shalt deny me thrice." (aparnese me tris) "You will deny me three times," Mark 14:72; Matthew 26:75.

Verse 62

1) "And Peter went out," (kai ekselthon ekso) "And he (Peter) went outside," into the night to face the coming dawn, out of the courtyard, away from the fire and company of the enemies of His Lord, to whom and before whom he had denied both the Lord and His church, or identity with either, Matthew 26:75.

2) "And wept bitterly." (eksausen pikeos) "And he wept bitterly," bitter tears. He wept aloud, sobbing, Matthew 26:75; Mark 14:72.

Verse 63


1) "And the men that held Jesus," (kai hoi andres hoi sunechontes auton) "And the men who had him (Jesus) in charge," as arresting and detaining officers. Verses 63-65 follow verse 70 in actual order of events, in harmony with the other Gospels.

2) "Mocked him, and smote him." (enepaizon auto derontes) "They mocked and repeatedly beat him," as prophesied, Psalms 69:12; "spitting in his face," and buffeting him, Matthew 26:67; Isaiah 50:6; Isaiah 52:14; Mark 14:65.

Verse 64

1) "And when they had blindfolded him," (kai perikalupsaptes auton) "And blindfolding him," when they had blindfolded him, covered his face, Mark 14:65.

2) "They struck him on the face, and asked him, saying," (eperoton legontes) "They questioned him, repeatedly saying," in mockery and derision, Matthew 26:67; Mark 14:65.

3) "Prophesy, who is it that smote thee?" (propheteuson tis esion ho paisas se) "Prophesy, who is the one playing you?" smiting or striking you? with heavy blows, Matthew 26:68; Mark 14:65.

Five forms of beating were inflicted on Jesus, in keeping with Jewish brutalities of the day, administered by Jews to those who offended them on

any religious matter:

1) (Gk. derontes) a general term meaning to smite.

2) (Gk. eupton) meaning "they kept smiting," again and again.

3) (Gk. ekolaphisan) means slapped with the open palm.

4) (Gk. errapisan) means to smite with sticks.

5) And (Gk. rapismasin eballon), Matthew 26:67; Mark 14:65; Isaiah 1:6; Acts 21:32; Acts 23:2.

Verse 65

1) "And many other things blasphemously," (kai hetera polla blasphemountes) "And many other kind of things blaspheming," reviling Him, or speaking with derision, in a derogatory manner against Him, Mark 14:63-64.

2) "Spake they against him." (elegon eis auton) "They said with reference to him," and in condemnation of Him, to justify the actions of that clandestine, illegal, immoral, and unethical, night-time charade against Him, Matthew 26:71.

Verse 66


1) "And as soon as it was day," (kai hos egeneto hemera) "And when day came," when daylight came. The court of the Sanhedrin could only be held legally in the daytime; Hence what was done and recorded by the scribes at Caiphas’ house the previous night had to be redone in open court to have any semblance of legality.

2) "The elders of the people and the chief priests and the scribes," (to presbuterion tou laou) "The body of elders of the people, (the Sanhedrin)," (archiereis to kai grammateis) "Both the chief priests (administrative priests) and the scribes," or keepers of the archives, who had held the clandestine session during the previous night; The body of elders (presbytery) made up the Sanhedrin, Acts 4:26; Acts 22:5. Where they met in the morning is not clear.

3) "Came together," (sunechthe) "There was assembled," again, Mark 15:1, to arrange for false witnesses against Jesus, to go with them to Pilate that morning, Matthew 26:59-62; Matthew 27:1.

4) "And led him into their council, saying," (kai apegagon auton eis to sunedrion auton) "And they led him away into their council," that of the Sanhedrin, elders of the Jews, for a few moments only, just to confirm their decision of the previous night, that He should be put to death for blasphemy, Matthew 26:65-66; Mark 14:63-64.

Verse 67

1) "Art thou Christ?" (legontes ei su ei ho Christos eipon hemin) "Saying repeatedly as they went, if you are the Christ tell us." Matthew 26:63, asserts that the high priest asked Him the question.

2) "Tell us," (eipon hemin) "Just tell it to all of us, whether or not you are the Christ, the Messiah, Mark 14:60-61.

3) "And he said unto them," (eipen de autois) "Then he said to them," to both the high priest Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin,

4) "If I tell you, ye will not believe:" (ean humin eipo ou me pisteusete) "If I tell you, you all will by no means believe," then He said, "I am," Matthew 26:64; Mark 14:62. For they had already sought false witnesses against Him, Matthew 26:59.

Verse 68

1) "And if I also ask you," (ean de erotese) "Then if I question you all," who you think He is, Matthew 26:65-66. He knew that they desired to charge Him with "treason," so that Pilate might put Him to death as a capital criminal against the Roman Government, see? They knew that Roman law which only had the power to put Him to death, would not do it only on a charge of blasphemy against their Jewish law.

2) "Ye will not answer me, nor let me go." (ou me apo krithete) "You all will by no means answer me," or release me, and you know it. For you declared last evening in your clandestine collusion meeting, in your palace, Caiaphas, and you all know it, Mark 14:63-64; Psalms 2:1-6. Jesus knew He had no opportunity for a fair trial regarding his innocence of their charges. This was the occasion for His further assertions, Luke 22:69-70. In essence He said, "you all are bent on my destruction."

Verse 69

1) "Hereafter shall the Son of man," (apo tou nun de esti ho huios tou anthropou) "Then from now and hereafter forever the Son of man will be," come to reside, to exist at; This prophesies of His return to the glory He left with the Father when He came to earth, John 17:1; John 17:4-5; 2 Corinthians 8:9.

2) "Sit on the right hand of the power of God." (kathemenos ek deksion tes dunameos tou theou) "Sit out at the right of the power (throne) of God," Hebrews 1:3; Revelation 3:21, in heaven. The cross was His next step to returned glory with His Father in heaven, Acts 7:55-56; Hebrews 1:3; Ephesians 1:20; Matthew 26:64. And you all will one day be judged by Him, Revelation 1:7; Revelation 3:21; Matthew 24:30-31; Luke 1:31-33.

Verse 70

1) "Then said they all," (eipan de pantes) "Then they all said," inquired with ulterior motives, to trap Him and charge Him with treason against Caesar.

2) "Art thou the Son of God." (su oun ei ho huios tou theou) "Are you therefore the heir-Son of God?" Again and again He had asserted that God was His Father, and that He came to do His Father’s will, John 6:32-33; John 6:38-40.

3) "And he said unto them," (ho de pros autous ephe) "Then he said directly to them," that He was, as He had done before, John 5:39-40.

4) "Ye say that I am." (humeis legete hoti ego eimi) "You all say that I am," affirm that I am, by the things you say and do to me; and by your own conscience. That is, "you all are right," "I am the Son of God," John 18:19-23; Mark 14:62. They were both judges and witnesses in their own case.

Verse 71

1) "And they said," (ho de elpan) "Then they responded," to His final message to them, before they led Him away to Pilate.

2) "What need we any further witness?" (ti eti echomen marturias chreian) "What further need do we have of a (false) witness?" Matthew 26:65; Mark 14:63. They had thus far sought false witnesses, but found none, Matthew 26:59. So here they use the term "witness" in the singular, to imply that He was a witness against Himself.

3) "For we ourselves have heard of his own mouth." (autoi ger ekousamen apo tou stomatos autou) "For we ourselves, heard, from his own mouth," Matthew 26:66; Mark 14:55-59; Mark 14:64.

Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Luke 22". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghb/luke-22.html. 1985.
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