The Passover (πασχα pascha) Both names (unleavened bread and passover) are used here as in Mark 14:1. Strictly speaking the passover was Nisan 14 and the unleavened bread 15-21. This is the only place in the N.T. where the expression “the feast of unleavened bread” (common in lxx, Exodus 23:15, etc.) occurs, for Mark 14:1 has just “the unleavened bread.” Matthew 26:17 uses unleavened bread and passover interchangeably.Drew nigh (ηγγιζεν ēggizen). Imperfect active. Mark 14:1; Matthew 26:2 mention “after two days” definitely.
Sought (εζητουν ezētoun). Imperfect active of ζητεω zēteō were seeking, conative imperfect.How they might put him to death (το πως ανελωσιν αυτον to pōs anelōsin auton). Second aorist active deliberative subjunctive (retained in indirect question) of αναιρεω anaireō to take up, to make away with, to slay. Common in Old Greek. Luke uses it so here and in Luke 23:32 and eighteen times in the Acts, a favourite word with him. Note the accusative neuter singular article το to with the whole clause, “as to the how, etc.” For they feared (εποβουντο γαρ ephobounto gar). Imperfect middle describing the delay of the “how.” The triumphal entry and the temple speeches of Jesus had revealed his tremendous power with the people, especially the crowds from Galilee at the feast. They were afraid to go on with their plan to kill him at the feast.
Satan entered into Judas (εισηλτεν εις Ιουδαν eisēlthen eis Ioudan). Ingressive aorist active indicative. Satan was now renewing his attack on Jesus suspended temporarily (Luke 4:13) “until a good chance.” He had come back by the use of Simon Peter (Mark 8:33; Matthew 16:23). The conflict went on and Jesus won ultimate victory (Luke 10:18). Now Satan uses Judas and has success with him for Judas allowed him to come again and again (John 13:27). Judas evidently opened the door to his heart and let Satan in. Then Satan took charge and he became a devil as Jesus said (John 6:70). This surrender to Satan in no way relieves Judas of his moral responsibility.
Went away (απελτων apelthōn). Second aorist active participle of απερχομαι aperchomai He went off under the impulse of Satan and after the indignation over the rebuke of Jesus at the feast in Simon‘s house (John 12:4-6).Captains (στρατηγοις stratēgois). Leaders of the temple guards (Acts 4:1), the full title, “captains of the temple,” occurs in Luke 22:52. How he might deliver him unto them (το πως αυτοις παραδωι αυτον to pōs autois paradōi auton). The same construction as in Luke 22:2, the article το to with the indirect question and deliberative subjunctive second aorist active (παραδωι paradōi).
Were glad (εχαρησαν echarēsan). Second aorist passive indicative of χαιρω chairō as in Mark 14:11. Ingressive aorist, a natural exultation that one of the Twelve had offered to do this thing.Covenanted (συνετεντο sunethento). Second aorist indicative middle of συντιτημι suntithēmi An old verb to put together and in the middle with one another. In the N.T. outside of John 9:22 only in Luke (here and Acts 23:20; Acts 24:9). Luke only mentions “money” (αργυριον argurion), but not “thirty pieces” (Matthew 26:15).
Consented (εχωμολογησεν exōmologēsen). Old verb, but the ancients usually used the simple form for promise or consent rather than the compound. This is the only instance of this sense in the N.T. It is from ομολογος homologos (ομος homos same, and λεγω legō to say), to say the same thing with another and so agree.Opportunity (ευκαριαν eukarian). From ευκαιρος eukairos (ευ καιρος eu ατερ οχλου kairos), a good chance. Old word, but in the N.T. only here and parallel passage Matthew 26:16. In the absence of the multitude (Ατερ ater ochlou). χωρις Ater is an old preposition, common in the poets, but rare in prose. Also in Luke 22:35. It means “without,” “apart from,” like chōris The point of Judas was just this. He would get Jesus into the hands of the Sanhedrin during the feast in spite of the crowd. It was necessary to avoid tumult (Matthew 26:5) because of the popularity of Jesus.
The day of unleavened bread came (ηλτεν η ημερα των αζυμων ēlthen hē hēmera tōn azumōn). The day itself came, not simply was drawing nigh (Luke 22:1).Must be sacrificed (εδει τυεσται edei thuesthai). This was Nisan 14 which began at sunset. Luke is a Gentile and this fact must be borne in mind. The lamb must be slain by the head of the family (Exodus 12:6). The controversy about the day when Christ ate the last passover meal has already been discussed (Matthew 26:17; Mark 14:12). The Synoptics clearly present this as a fact. Jesus was then crucified on Friday at the passover or Thursday (our time) at the regular hour 6 p.m. (beginning of Friday). The five passages in John (John 13:1.; John 13:27; John 18:28; John 19:14; John 19:31) rightly interpreted teach the same thing as shown in my Harmony of the Gospels for Students of the Life of Christ (pp.279-284).
Peter and John (Πετρον και Ιωανην Petron kai Iōanēn). Mark 14:13 has only “two” while Matthew 26:17 makes the disciples take the initiative. The word passover in this context is used either of the meal, the feast day, the whole period (including the unleavened bread). “Eat the passover” can refer to the meal as here or to the whole period of celebration (John 18:28).
Where wilt thou that we make ready? (Που τελεις ετοιμασωμεν Pou theleis hetoimasōmeṉ). Deliberative first aorist active subjunctive without ινα hina after τελεις theleis perhaps originally two separate questions.
When you are entered (εισελτοντων υμων eiselthontōn humōn). Genitive absolute.Meet you (συναντησει υμιν sunantēsei humin). An old verb συνανταω sunantaō (from συν sun with, and ανταω antaō to face, αντι anti) with associative instrumental (υμιν humin). See Mark 14:13 about the “man bearing a pitcher of water.”
Goodman of the house (οικοδεσποτηι oikodespotēi). Master of the house as in Mark 14:14; Matthew 10:25. A late word for the earlier δεσποτης οικου despotēs oikou shall eat (παγω phagō). Second aorist futuristic (or deliberative) subjunctive as in Mark 14:14.
And he (κακεινος k'akeinos). Και Kai and εκεινος ekeinos (χρασις crasis) where Mark 14:15 has και αυτος kai autos Literally, “And that one.” See note on Mark for rest of the verse.
He had said (ειρηκει eirēkei). Past perfect active indicative of ειπον eipon where Mark 14:16 has ειπεν eipen (second aorist).
Sat down (ανεπεσεν anepesen). Reclined, fell back (or up). Second aorist active of αναπιπτω anapiptō f0).
With desire I have desired (επιτυμιαι επετυμησα epithumiāi epethumēsa). A Hebraism common in the lxx. Associative instrumental case of substantive and first aorist active indicative of same like a cognate accusative. Peculiar to Luke is all this verse. See this idiom in John 3:29; Acts 4:17.Before I suffer (προ του με πατειν pro tou me pathein). Preposition προ pro with articular infinitive and accusative of general reference, “before the suffering as to me.” Πατειν Pathein is second aorist active infinitive of πασχω paschō f0).
Until it be fulfilled (εως οτου πληρωτηι heōs hotou plērōthēi). First aorist passive subjunctive of πληροω plēroō with εως heōs (οτου hotou), the usual construction about the future. It seems like a Messianic banquet that Jesus has in mind (cf. Luke 14:15).
He received a cup (δεχαμενος ποτηριον dexamenos potērion). This cup is a diminutive of ποτηρ potēr It seems that this is still one of the four cups passed during the passover meal, though which one is uncertain. It is apparently just before the formal introduction of the Lord‘s Supper, though he gave thanks here also (ευχαριστησας eucharistēsas). It is from this verb ευχαριστεω eucharisteō (see also Luke 22:19) that our word Eucharist comes. It is a common verb for giving thanks and was used also for “saying grace” as we call it.
The fruit of the vine (του γενηματος της αμπελου tou genēmatos tēs ampelou). So Mark 14:25; Matthew 26:29 and not οινος oinos though it was wine undoubtedly. But the language allows anything that is “the fruit of the vine.”Come (ελτηι elthēi). Second aorist active subjunctive with εως heōs as in Luke 22:16. Here it is the consummation of the kingdom that Jesus has in mind, for the kingdom had already come.
Which is given for you (το υπερ υμων διδομενον to huper humōn didomenon). Some MSS. omit these verses though probably genuine. The correct text in 1 Corinthians 11:24 has “which is for you,” not “which is broken for you.” It is curious to find the word “broken” here preserved and justified so often, even by Easton in his commentary on Luke, p. 320.In remembrance of me (εις την εμην αναμνησιν eis tēn emēn anamnēsin). Objective use of the possessive pronoun εμην emēn not the subjective. This do (τουτο ποιειτε touto poieite). Present active indicative, repetition, keep on doing this.
After the supper (μετα το δειπνησαι meta to deipnēsai). Preposition μετα meta and the accusative articular infinitive. The textual situation here is confusing, chiefly because of the two cups (Luke 22:17, Luke 22:20). Some of the documents omit the latter part of Luke 22:19 and all of Luke 22:20. It is possible, of course, that this part crept into the text of Luke from 1 Corinthians 11:24. But, if this part is omitted, Luke would then have the order reversed, the cup before the bread. So there are difficulties whichever turn one takes here with Luke‘s text whether one cup or two cups.The New Covenant (ε καινη διατηκη he kainē diathēkē). See note on Matthew 26:28; Mark 14:24 for “covenant.” Westcott and Hort reject “new” there, but accept it here and in 1 Corinthians 11:25. See Luke 5:38 for difference between kainē and nea “The ratification of a covenant was commonly associated with the shedding of blood; and what was written in blood was believed to be indelible” (Plummer). Poured out (καινη ekchunnomenon). Same word in Mark 14:24; Matthew 26:28 translated “shed.” Late form present passive participle of νεα ekchunnō of εκχυννομενον ekcheō to pour out.
That betrayeth (του παραδιδοντος tou paradidontos). Present active participle, actually engaged in doing it. The hand of Judas was resting on the table at the moment. It should be noted that Luke narrates the institution of the Lord‘s Supper before the exposure of Judas as the traitor while Mark and Matthew reverse this order.
As it hath been determined (κατα το ωρισμενον kata to hōrismenon). Perfect passive participle of οριζω horizō to limit or define, mark off the border, our “horizon.” But this fact does not absolve Judas of his guilt as the “woe” here makes plain.
Which of them it was (το τις αρα ειη εχ αυτων to tis ara eiē ex autōn). Note the article το to with the indirect question as in Luke 22:2, Luke 22:4. The optative ειη eiē here is changed from the present active indicative εστιν estin though it was not always done, for see δοκει dokei in Luke 22:24 where the present indicative is retained. They all had their hands on the table. Whose hand was it?
Contention (πιλονεικια philoneikia). An old word from πιλονεικος philoneikos fond of strife, eagerness to contend. Only here in the N.T.Greatest (μειζων meizōn). Common use of the comparative as superlative.
Have lordship over (κυριευουσιν kurieuousin). From κυριος kurios Common verb, to lord it over.Benefactors (ευεργεται euergetai). From ευ eu and εργον ergon Doer of good. Old word. Here only in the N.T. Latin Benefactor is exact equivalent.
Become (γινεστω ginesthō). Present middle imperative of γινομαι ginomai Act so. True greatness is in service, not in rank.
But I (Εγω δε Egō de). Jesus dares to cite his own conduct, though their leader, to prove his point and to put a stop to their jealous contention for the chief place at this very feast, a wrangling that kept up till Jesus had to arise and give them the object lesson of humility by washing their feet (John 13:1-20).
In my temptations (εν τοις πειρασμοις μου en tois peirasmois mou). Probably “trials” is better here as in James 1:2 though temptations clearly in James 1:13 This is the tragedy of the situation when Jesus is facing the Cross with the traitor at the table and the rest chiefly concerned about their own primacy and dignity.
And I appoint unto you (καγω διατιτημαι υμιν k'agō diatithēmai humin). They had on the whole been loyal and so Jesus passes on to them (διατημαι diathēmai verb from which διατηκη diathēkē comes).
And ye shall sit (κατησεστε kathēsesthe). But Westcott and Hort read in the text κατηστε kathēsthe (present middle subjunctive with ινα hina). The picture seems to be that given in Matthew 19:28 when Jesus replied to Peter‘s inquiry. It is not clear how literally this imagery is to be taken. But there is the promise of honour for the loyal among these in the end.
Asked to have you (εχηιτησατο exēitēsato). First aorist indirect middle indicative of εχαιτεω exaiteō an old verb to beg something of one and (middle) for oneself. Only here in the N.T. The verb is used either in the good or the bad sense, but it does not mean here “obtained by asking” as margin in Revised Version has it.That he might sift you (του σινιασαι tou siniasai). Genitive articular infinitive of purpose. First aorist active infinitive of σινιαζω siniazō to shake a sieve, to sift, from σινιον sinion a winnowing fan. Later word. Here only in the N.T.
That thy faith fail not (ινα μη εκλιπηι ε πιστις μου hina mē eklipēi he pistis mou). Second aorist active subjunctive of purpose with ινα hina after εδεητην edeēthēn (I prayed) of εκλειπω ekleipō old verb. Our word eclipse is this word. Evidently Jesus could not keep Satan from attacking Peter. He had already captured Judas. Did he not repeatedly attack Jesus? But he could and did pray for Peter‘s faith and his praying won in the end, though Peter stumbled and fell.And do thou (και συ kai su). The words single out Peter sharply. Once thou hast turned again (ποτε επιστρεπσας pote epistrepsas). First aorist active participle of επιστρεπω epistrephō common verb to turn to, to return. But the use of this word implied that Peter would fall though he would come back and “strengthen thy brethren.”
To prison and to death (εις πυλακην και εις τανατον eis phulakēn kai eis thanaton). Evidently Peter was not flattered by the need of Christ‘s earnest prayers for his welfare and loyalty. Hence this loud boast.
Until thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me (εως τρις με απαρνησηι ειδεναι heōs tris me aparnēsēi eidenai). “Thrice” is in all four Gospels here for they all give this warning to Peter (Mark 14:30; Matthew 26:34; Luke 22:34; John 18:38). Peter will even deny knowing Jesus (ειδεναι eidenai).
Without purse (ατερ βαλλαντιου ater ballantiou). Money bag or purse. Old word, but in the N.T. only in Luke (Luke 10:4; Luke 12:33; Luke 22:35).Wallet (πηρας pēras). See note on Matthew 10:10. Lacked ye anything (mē tinos husterēsate̱). Answer No expected (outhenos below). Ablative case after μη τινος υστερησατε hustereō f0).
Buy a sword (αγορασατω μαχαιραν agorasatō machairan). This is for defence clearly. The reference is to the special mission in Galilee (Luke 9:1-6; Mark 6:6-13; Matthew 9:35-11:1). They are to expect persecution and bitter hostility (John 15:18-21). Jesus does not mean that his disciples are to repel force by force, but that they are to be ready to defend his cause against attack. Changed conditions bring changed needs. This language can be misunderstood as it was then.
Lord, behold, here are two swords (κυριε ιδου μαχαιραι ωδε δυο kurie idou machairai hōde duo). They took his words literally. And before this very night is over Peter will use one of these very swords to try to cut off the head of Malchus only to be sternly rebuked by Jesus (Mark 14:47; Matthew 26:51.; Luke 22:50.; John 18:10.). Then Jesus will say: “For all that take the sword shall perish with the sword” (Matthew 26:52). Clearly Jesus did not mean his language even about the sword to be pressed too literally. So he said: “It is enough” (ικανον εστιν Hikanon estin). It is with sad irony and sorrow that Jesus thus dismisses the subject. They were in no humour now to understand the various sides of this complicated problem. Every preacher and teacher understands this mood, not of impatience, but of closing the subject for the present.
As his custom was (κατα το ετος kata to ethos). According to the custom (of him). It was because Judas knew the habit of Jesus of going to Gethsemane at night that he undertook to betray him without waiting for the crowd to go home after the feast.
At the place (επι του τοπου epi tou topou). The place of secret prayer which was dear to Jesus.Pray that ye enter not into temptation (προσευχεστε μη εισελτειν εις πειρασμον proseuchesthe mē eiselthein eis peirasmon). “Keep on praying not to enter (ingressive aorist infinitive, not even once) into temptation.” It is real “temptation” here, not just “trial.” Jesus knew the power of temptation and the need of prayer. These words throw a light on the meaning of his language in Matthew 6:13. Jesus repeats this warning in Luke 22:46.
About a stone‘s throw (ωσει λιτου βολην hōsei lithou bolēn). Accusative of extent of space. Luke does not tell of leaving eight disciples by the entrance to Gethsemane nor about taking Peter, James, and John further in with him.Kneeled down (τεις τα γονατα theis ta gonata). Second aorist active participle from τιτημι tithēmi Mark 14:35 says “fell on the ground” and Matthew 26:39 “fell on his face.” All could be true at different moments. Prayed (προσηυχετο prosēucheto). Imperfect middle, was praying, kept on praying.
If thou be willing (ει βουλει ei boulei). This condition is in the first petition at the start.Be done (γινεστω ginesthō). Present middle imperative, keep on being done, the Father‘s will.
An angel (αγγελος aggelos). The angels visited Jesus at the close of the three temptations at the beginning of his ministry (Matthew 4:11). Here the angel comes during the conflict.
In an agony (εν αγωνιαι en agōniāi). It was conflict, contest from αγων agōn An old word, but only here in the N.T. Satan pressed Jesus harder than ever before.As it were great drops of blood (ωσει τρομβοι αιματος hōsei thromboi haimatos). Thick, clotted blood. An old word (τρομβοι thromboi) common in medical works, but here only in the N.T. This passage (Luke 22:43, Luke 22:44) is absent from some ancient documents. Aristotle speaks of a bloody sweat as does Theophrastus.
Sleeping for sorrow (κοιμωμενους απο της λυπης koimōmenous apo tēs lupēs). Luke does not tell of the three turnings of Jesus to the trusted three for human sympathy.
Why sleep ye? (Τι κατευδετε Ti katheudete̱). This reproach Luke gives, but not the almost bitter details in Mark 14:37-42; Matthew 26:40-46).
Went before them (προηρχετο proērcheto). Imperfect middle. Judas was leading the band for he knew the place well (John 18:2).
With a kiss (πιληματι philēmati). Instrumental case. Jesus challenges the act of Judas openly and calls it betrayal, but it did not stop him.
What would follow (το εσομενον to esomenon). Article and the future middle participle of ειμι eimi to be.Shall we smite with a sword? (ει παταχομεν εν μαχαιρηι ei pataxomen en machairēi̱). Note ει ei in a direct question like the Hebrew. Luke alone gives this question. Instrumental use of εν en They had the two swords already mentioned (Luke 22:38).
His right ear (το ους αυτου το δεχιον to ous autou to dexion). Mark 14:47; Matthew 26:51 do not mention “right,” but Luke the Physician does. John 18:10 follows Luke in this item and also adds the names of Peter and of Malchus since probably both were dead by that time and Peter would not be involved in trouble.
Suffer us thus far (εατε εως τουτου eāte heōs toutou). Present active imperative of εαω eaō to allow. But the meaning is not clear. If addressed to Peter and the other disciples it means that they are to suffer this much of violence against Jesus. This is probably the idea. If it is addressed to the crowd, it means that they are to excuse Peter for his rash act.He touched his ear and healed him (απσαμενος του οτιου ιασατο αυτον hapsamenos tou otiou iasato auton). Whether Jesus picked up the piece of the ear and put it back is not said. He could have healed the wound without that. This miracle of surgery is given alone by Luke.
As against a robber? (ως επι ληιστην hōs epi lēistēṉ). They were treating Jesus as if he were a bandit like Barabbas.
But this is your hour (αλλ αυτη εστιν υμων η ωρα all' hautē estin humōn hē hōra). So Jesus surrenders. The moral value of his atoning sacrifice on the Cross consists in the voluntariness of his death. He makes it clear that they have taken undue advantage of him in this hour of secret prayer and had failed to seize him in public in the temple. But “the power of darkness” (η εχουσια του σκοτους hē exousia tou skotous), had its turn. A better day will come. The might, authority of darkness.
Into the high priest‘s house (εις την οικιαν του αρχιερεως eis tēn oikian tou archiereōs). Luke alone mentions “the house.” Though it is implied in Mark 14:53; Matthew 26:57.Followed (ηκολουτει ēkolouthei). Imperfect, was following, as Matthew 26:58; John 18:15. Curiously Mark 14:54 has the aorist.
When they had kindled a fire (περιαπσαντων πυρ periapsantōn pur). Genitive absolute, first aorist active participle of περιαπτω periaptō an old verb, but here only in the N.T. Kindle around, make a good fire that blazes all over. It was April and cool at night. The servants made the fire.And had sat down together (και συνκατισαντων kai sunkathisantōn). Genitive absolute again. Note συν sun - (together), all had taken seats around the fire. Peter sat in the midst of them (εκατητο ο Πετρος μεσος αυτων ekathēto ho Petros mesos autōn). Imperfect tense, he was sitting, and note μεσος mesos nominative predicate adjective with the genitive, like John 1:26, good Greek idiom.
In the light (προς το πως pros to phōs). Facing (προς pros) the light, for the fire gave light as well as heat. Mark 14:65 has “warming himself in the light,” John (John 18:18, John 18:25) “warming himself.”Looking steadfastly (ατενισασα atenisasa). Favourite word in Luke (Luke 4:20, etc.) for gazing steadily at one. This man also (και ουτος kai houtos). As if pointing to Peter and talking about him. The other Gospels (Mark 14:67; Matthew 26:69; John 18:25) make a direct address to Peter. Both could be true, as she turned to Peter.
I know him not (ουκ οιδα αυτον ouk oida auton). Just as Jesus had predicted that he would do (Luke 22:34).
After a little while another (μετα βραχυ ετερος meta brachu heteros). Matthew 26:71 makes it after Peter had gone out into the porch and mentions a maid as speaking as does Mark 14:69, while here the “other” (ετερος heteros) is a man (masculine gender). It is almost impossible to co-ordinate the three denials in the four accounts unless we conceive of several joining in when one led off. This time Peter‘s denial is very blunt, “I am not.”
After the space of about one hour (διαστασης ωσει ωρας μιας diastasēs hōsei hōras mias). Genitive absolute with second aorist active participle feminine singular of διιστημι diistēmi This classical verb in the N.T. is used only by Luke (Luke 22:59; Luke 24:51; Acts 27:28). It means standing in two or apart, about an hour intervening.Confidently affirmed (διισχυριζετο diischurizeto). Imperfect middle, he kept affirming strongly. An old verb (δια ισχυριζομαι dia και γαρ Γαλιλαιος εστιν ischurizomai), to make oneself strong, to make emphatic declaration. In the N.T. only here and Acts 12:15. For he is a Galilean (kai gar Galilaios estin). Matthew 26:73 makes it plain that it was his speech that gave him away, which see note.
I know not what thou sayest (ουκ οιδα ο λεγεις ouk oida ho legeis). Each denial tangles Peter more and more.While he yet spake (ετι λαλουντος αυτου eti lalountos autou). Genitive absolute. Peter could hear the crowing all right.
The Lord turned (στραπεις ο κυριος strapheis ho kurios). Second aorist passive participle of στρεπω strephō coming verb. Graphic picture drawn by Luke alone.Looked upon Peter (ενεβλεπσεν τωι Πετρωι eneblepsen tōi Petrōi). Ingressive aorist active indicative of ενβλεπω enblepō an old and vivid verb, to glance at. Remembered (υπεμνηστη hupemnēsthē). First aorist passive indicative of υπομιμνησκω hupomimnēskō common verb to remind one of something (υπο hupo giving a suggestion or hint). The cock crowing and the look brought swiftly back to Peter‘s mind the prophecy of Jesus and his sad denials. The mystery is how he had forgotten that warning.
And he went out and wept bitterly (και εχελτων εχω εκλαυσεν πικρως kai exelthōn exō eklausen pikrōs). A few old Latin documents omit this verse which is genuine in Matthew 26:75. It may be an insertion here from there, but the evidence for the rejection is too slight. It is the ingressive aorist (εκλαυσεν eklausen), he burst into tears. “Bitter” is a common expression for tears in all languages and in all hearts.
That held (οι συνεχοντες hoi sunechontes). See note on Luke 8:45; and the note on Luke 19:43 for this verb συνεχω sunechō Here alone in the N.T. for holding a prisoner (holding together). The servants or soldiers, not the Sanhedrin.Mocked (ενεπαιζον enepaizon). Imperfect active, were mocking, inchoative, began to mock, to play like boys. And beat him (δεροντες derontes). Present active participle of δερω derō to flay, tan, or hide. Literally, “beating.”
Blindfolded (περικαλυπσαντες perikalupsantes). First aorist active participle of περικαλυπτω perikaluptō old verb, to put a veil around. In the N.T. only here and Mark 14:65. See note on Mark and Matthew 26:67. for further discussion.
Many other things (ετερα πολλα hetera polla). These are just samples.
As soon as it was day (ως εγενετο ημερα hōs egeneto hēmera). Mark 15:1 (Matthew 27:1) has “morning.”The assembly of the people (το πρεσβυτεριον του λαου to presbuterion tou laou). The technical word for “the eldership” (from πρεσβυτερος presbuteros an old man or elder) or group of the elders composing the Sanhedrin. The word occurs in the lxx for the Sanhedrin. In the N.T. occurs only here and Acts 22:5 of the Sanhedrin. In 1 Timothy 4:14 Paul uses it of the elders in a church (or churches). The Sanhedrin was composed of the elders and scribes and chief priests (Mark 15:1) and all three groups are at this meeting. Luke‘s language (both chief priests and scribes, τε και te πρεσβυτεριον kai) seems to apply the word εις το συνεδριον αυτων presbuterion to the whole Sanhedrin. Sadducees (chief priests) and Pharisees (scribes) were nearly equally represented. Into their council (eis to sunedrion autōn). The place of the gathering is not given, but Jesus was led into the council chamber.
If thou art the Christ (Ει συ ει ο Χριστος Ei su ei ho Christos). The Messiah, they mean. The condition is the first class, assuming it to be true.If I tell you (Εαν υμιν ειπω Ean humin eipō). Condition of the third class, undetermined, but with likelihood of being determined. This is the second appearance of Jesus before the Sanhedrin merely mentioned by Mark 15:1; Matthew 27:1 who give in detail the first appearance and trial. Luke merely gives this so-called ratification meeting after daybreak to give the appearance of legality to their vote of condemnation already taken (Mark 14:64; Matthew 26:66). Ye will not believe (ου μη πιστευσητε ou mē pisteusēte). Double negative with the aorist subjunctive, strongest possible negative. So as to Luke 22:68.
The Son of man (ο υιος του αντρωπου ho huios tou anthrōpou). Jesus really answers their demand about “the Messiah” by asserting that he is “the Son of man” and they so understand him. He makes claims of equality with God also which they take up.
Art thou the Son of God? (Συ ουν ει ο υιος του τεου Su oun ei ho huios tou theou̱). Note how these three epithets are used as practical equivalents. They ask about “the Messiah.” Jesus affirms that he is the Son of Man and will sit at the right hand of the power of God. They take this to be a claim to be the Son of God (both humanity and deity). Jesus accepts the challenge and admits that he claims to be all three (Messiah, the Son of man, the Son of God).Ye say (υμεις λεγετε Humeis legete). Just a Greek idiom for “Yes” (compare “I am” in Mark 14:62 with “Thou has said” in Matthew 26:64).
For we ourselves have heard (αυτοι γαρ ηκουσαμεν autoi gar ēkousamen). They were right if Jesus is not what he claimed to be. They were eternally wrong for he is the Christ, the Son of man, the Son of God. They made their choice and must face Christ as Judge.
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Luke 22". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/
the Third Week after Epiphany