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Bible Commentaries

Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures
Luke 22

 

 

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Verses 1-23

Prophecy of His Betrayal - In Luke 22:1-23 Jesus gives a prophecy of His betrayal by one of His disciples.

Outline - Here is a proposed outline:

1. The Plot to Kill Jesus — Luke 22:1-6

2. The Preparation for the Passover — Luke 22:7-13

3. Jesus Institutes the Lord's Supper — Luke 22:14-23

Luke 22:1-6 — The Plot to Kill Jesus ( Matthew 26:1-5; Matthew 26:14-16, Mark 14:1-2; Mark 14:10-11, John 11:45-53) - In Luke 22:1-6 we have the account of Judas Iscariot plotting with the chief priests and the scribes to kill Jesus.

Luke 22:3Comments - Judas Iscariot was chosen by Jesus Christ to be one of the Twelve ( Matthew 10:4), and he was given authority over demons to cast them out ( Matthew 10:1). Judas had also been given the responsibility of carrying the moneybag. At some point in time, he gave place to the devil and began to steal out of the money ( John 12:6). After repeatedly giving place to the devil, Judas opened the door in his life for Satan to enter him ( Luke 22:3). At this point, Satan was able to control his thoughts and moved him to betray the Lord ( John 13:2). Judas had been given authority over Satan and his kingdom of demons, but he was deceived by the devil and later committed suicide in the midst of great remorse.

Matthew 10:1, "And when he had called unto him his twelve disciples, he gave them power against unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal all manner of sickness and all manner of disease."

Matthew 10:4, "Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him."

John 12:6, "This he said, not that he cared for the poor; but because he was a thief, and had the bag, and bare what was put therein."

John 13:2, "And supper being ended, the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon"s Song of Solomon , to betray him;"

This series of events reveals the way people become demon possessed without intending to do so from the beginning. Sin leads people down a path that may look appealing at first, but it ends in bondage, then condemnation and eventually destruction, as when Judas hanged himself out of guilt ( Matthew 27:3-5, Acts 1:18).

Matthew 27:3-5, "Then Judas, which had betrayed him, when he saw that he was condemned, repented himself, and brought again the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders, Saying, I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent blood. And they said, What is that to us? see thou to that. And he cast down the pieces of silver in the temple, and departed, and went and hanged himself."

Acts 1:18, "Now this man purchased a field with the reward of iniquity; and falling headlong, he burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out."

Luke 22:4Comments - You and I must ask the question, "How can a man connive and outsmart God"; for Jesus was God. Surely, in the hardness of Judas' heart he allowed Satan to deceive him into believing that Jesus could be outdone by man.

Luke 22:6Comments - The reason for Jesus being seized in the Garden of Gethsemane is so that the crowd would not know.

Luke 22:7-13 — The Preparation for the Passover ( Matthew 26:17-25, Mark 14:12-21, John 13:21-30) - In Luke 22:7-13 we have the account of Jesus and His disciples preparing for the Passover meal. When Jesus sent His disciples out to prepare a place for this meal, they asked Him where they should go. Rather than telling them the exact place, Jesus told them to look for a man carrying a pitcher of water. This lesson was to teach them about divine providence. He then told them to follow this man into a house, where they would be given a place to conduct the Passover meal. At this step in their act of obedience the disciples were to learn a lesson in divine provision. At an earlier time Simon Peter hesitated at such commandments from Jesus Christ ( Luke 5:1-11). When Jesus told Peter to cast his nets on the other side he said, "we have toiled all the night, and have taken nothing: nevertheless at thy word I will let down the net." Now they were learning to trust His word.

Jesus had commanded the twelve not to take anything with them when He sent the out to preach the Gospel and heal the sick ( Luke 9:1-6). After teaching and healing the multitudes ( Luke 9:10-17), He then tested them by asking them to feed the five thousand when the disciples had no food ( Luke 9:13). Later, Jesus told His disciples to prepare for His triumphant entry into Jerusalem by going into the city and finding a colt tied ( Luke 19:28-38).

In addition, Jesus was operating in the gifts of a word of knowledge, which He had received from the Father through the Holy Spirit when He charged them these things. Thus, Jesus was simply telling His disciples about what He had seen. In other words, Jesus did not know any further details, because they had not been revealed to Him.

Luke 22:13Comments - We see from Acts 1:13 that this upper room is the same place where the disciples were gathered on the day of Pentecost.

Acts 1:13, "And when they were come in, they went up into an upper room, where abode both Peter, and James , and John , and Andrew, Philippians , and Thomas, Bartholomew, and Matthew , James the son of Alphaeus, and Simon Zelotes, and Judas the brother of James."

Luke 22:14-23 — Jesus Institutes the Lord's Supper ( Matthew 26:26-30, Mark 14:22-26, 1 Corinthians 11:23-25) - In Luke 22:14-23 Jesus institutes the Lord's Supper using the bread and the wine.

Luke 22:14Comments - The hour that had arrived was the hour when the sun was setting.

Deuteronomy 16:6-7, "But at the place which the LORD thy God shall choose to place his name in, there thou shalt sacrifice the passover at even, at the going down of the sun, at the season that thou camest forth out of Egypt. And thou shalt roast and eat it in the place which the LORD thy God shall choose: and thou shalt turn in the morning, and go unto thy tents."

Luke 22:15Comments - We know from John 13:1-2 that Jesus held a "Passover" meal with His disciples earlier in the day before the traditional evening Passover. This fact is further confirmed by the fact that the disciples thought that Jesus sent Judas Iscariot out to perhaps buy food for the Passover feast.

John 13:1, "Now before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved his own which were in the world, he loved them unto the end. And supper being ended, the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon"s Song of Solomon , to betray him;"

Therefore, we see in this verse in Luke that Jesus' great desire to eat with His disciples was the reason for an early meal.

Luke 22:16Comments - The fulfillment of the Old Testament Passover in the Kingdom of God is Jesus' Passion as our sacrificial lamb.


Verses 1-53

Witnesses of Jesus' Glorification: His Passion and Resurrection- Luke 22:1 to Luke 24:53 organizes narrative material that testifies to Jesus' rejection by the Jews, His death and His resurrection. This collection of material is organized in a way that gives three witnesses to each of these four events surrounding His Passion; His betrayal and arrest, His trial, His crucifixion and His resurrection. This section begins with His rejection by the Jewish leaders and culminates with His resurrection and commission to His disciples to preach the Gospel to all the world. While Acts 1:1 reflects the two-fold emphasis of Jesus' ministry of doing and teaching, Acts 1:2-5 makes a clear reference to the rest of Luke's Gospel beginning from His Passion until His ascension ( Luke 22:1 to Luke 24:53).

Acts 1:2-5, "Until the day in which he was taken up, after that he through the Holy Ghost had given commandments unto the apostles whom he had chosen: To whom also he shewed himself alive after his passion by many infallible proofs, being seen of them forty days, and speaking of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God: And, being assembled together with them, commanded them that they should not depart from Jerusalem, but wait for the promise of the Father, which, saith Hebrews , ye have heard of me. For John truly baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost not many days hence."

Outline- Note the proposed outline:

A. Witnesses of His Betrayal & Arrest — Luke 22:1-54

1. Prophecy of His Betrayal — Luke 22:1-23

2. Prophecy of the Disciples' Denial — Luke 22:24-38

3. Prophecy of His Arrest — Luke 22:39-54

B. Witnesses of His Trial — Luke 22:55 to Luke 23:25

1. Jesus' Prophecy to Peter Fulfilled — Luke 22:55-62

2. Jesus' Prophecy to Jewish Leaders — Luke 22:63-71

3. Jesus' Prophecy to Pontus Pilate — Luke 23:1-25

C. Witnesses of His Crucifixion — Luke 23:26-56

1. Prophecy to the Multitude — Luke 23:26-38

2. Prophecy to Criminal on the Cross — Luke 23:39-43

3. Witness of the Centurion (a Roman) — Luke 23:44-49

4. Witness of Joseph of Arimathea (a Palestinian Jew) — Luke 23:50-56

D. Witnesses of His Resurrection — Luke 24:1-53

1. Witness of His Resurrection by Women — Luke 24:1-12

2. Witness of His Resurrection on Road to Emmaus — Luke 24:13-35

3. Witness of His Resurrection by the Disciples — Luke 24:36-49

E. Witness of His Ascension — Luke 24:50-53

Witnesses of His Passion and Resurrection (The Trials of Jesus and His Apostles) - Luke 22:1 to Luke 24:53 records the lengthiest account within the four Gospels of Jesus' arrest and trials leading up to His crucifixion. The trials recorded in Luke -Acts are numerous: of Jesus before the Sanhedrin ( Luke 22:66-71), before Pontus Pilate ( Luke 23:1-5; Luke 23:13-25), before King Herod ( Luke 23:6-12), and Peter's two trials before the Sanhedrin ( Acts 4:1-22; Acts 5:17-42), and Stephen's unjust trial and stoning ( Acts 6:8 to Acts 7:60), and Peter's imprisonment by King Herod Agrippa I ( Acts 12:1-19), and Paul's arrest in the Temple and address to the Jewish mob ( Acts 21:26 to Acts 22:29), his hearings before the Sanhedrin ( Luke 22:30 to Luke 23:10), the chief captain sending Paul to Felix the governor with a letter ( Acts 23:11-35), his defense before Felix ( Acts 24:1-27), his defense before Festus ( Acts 25:1-12), his defense before King Herod Agrippa II ( Acts 25:13 to Acts 26:32), and his voyage to Rome to await his trial before Nero ( Acts 27:1 to Acts 28:31). All of these trials and events surrounding them serve as testimonies to prove the innocence of Jesus and His apostles.


Verses 1-54

Witnesses of Jesus' Betrayal and Arrest - In Luke 22:1-54 the author records three predictions by Jesus Christ concerning His betrayal and arrest.

Outline - Here is a proposed outline:

1. Prophecy of His Betrayal — Luke 22:1-23

2. Prophecy of the Disciples' Denial — Luke 22:24-38

3. Prophecy of His Arrest — Luke 22:39-54


Verses 24-38

Prophecy of the Disciples' Denial - Luke 22:24-38 contains a prophecy from Jesus regarding Peter's denial.

Outline - Here is a proposed outline:

1. Jesus Teaches on Servanthood — Luke 22:24-30

2. Jesus Foretells Peter's Denial — Luke 22:31-34

Luke 22:24-30 — Jesus Teaches on Servanthood - In Luke 22:24-30 we have the unique story of Jesus teaching on the subject of servanthood at the Last Supper. This discourse was given because His disciples were striving about who should be exalted in this new kingdom ( Luke 22:24). He also demonstrated servanthood to His disciples at this time by washing their feet ( John 13).

Luke 22:30Comments - Jews of the first century were able to recognize their tribe because of the accurate genealogies kept at the time. Josephus tells us that there were indeed public tablets of Jewish ancestry. In his opening paragraph of his autobiography, he goes to great length to defend his Jewish heritage. He closes by saying:

"Thus have I set down the genealogy of my family as I have found it described in the public records, and so bid adieu to those who calumniate me [as of a lower original]." (The Life of Flavius Josephus 16)

Josephus also tells us of the painstaking care that the Jews have taken to keep records as old as two thousand years of their ancestry. All Jews of the Diaspora kept accurate records, which were sent to Jerusalem for safekeeping (Against Apion 17). Thus, Jesus' reference to the twelve tribes of Israel was accurate in that the Jews were able to identify themselves by a particular tribe.

Luke 22:31-34 — Jesus Foretells Peter's Denial ( Matthew 26:31-35, Mark 14:27-31, John 13:36-38) - In Luke 22:31-34 Jesus tells Peter that he will deny the Lord three times before sunrise.

Luke 22:31Comments - It is possible that Satan stood before God as in the time of Job and asked permission to test Simon Peter's loyalty to the Lord Jesus Christ.

Luke 22:33 Comments - The spirit is willing. Peter was willing, but his flesh was weak.

Matthew 26:41, "Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation: the spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak."

Luke 22:35-38 — Jesus Prepares His Disciples for His Arrest and Crucifixion - In Luke 22:35-38 Jesus prepares His disciples for His soon-coming arrest and crucifixion. This passage of Scripture, which records what Jesus taught at the Last Supper, is unique to Luke's Gospel in that the other Gospels make no reference to it. This passage reflects the underlying theme of Luke -, Acts , which is the prophetic-apostolic ministry of the Twelve being sent out to testify of the Gospel of Jesus Christ.

Luke 22:37Scripture Reference- Note:

Isaiah 53:12, "Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he hath poured out his soul unto death: and he was numbered with the transgressors; and he bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors."

Mark 15:28, "And the scripture was fulfilled, which saith, And he was numbered with the transgressors."


Verses 39-54

Prophecy of Jesus' Arrest - In Luke 22:39-54 the author records a prophecy of His arrest.

Outline - Here is a proposed outline:

1. Jesus Prays in the Garden of Gethsemane — Luke 22:39-46

2. The Betrayal and Arrest of Jesus — Luke 22:47-54

Luke 22:39-46 — Jesus Prays in the Garden of Gethsemane ( Matthew 26:36-46, Mark 14:32-42) - In Luke 22:39-46 we have the account of Jesus withdrawing Himself to pray in the Garden of Gethsemane.

Luke 22:39Comments - Judas Iscariot did not accompany Jesus to the mount of Olives this night. Perhaps it was common for some of the twelve apostles to stay behind when Jesus visited the mount.

Luke 22:42Comments - While we all have dreams and goals that we want to strive to reach in this life, the mature Christian knows that yielding to God's will and plan is the best decision in life. Thus, we should always undergird our prayers with a willingness to accept God's will for our lives. In the Garden of Gethsemane, Jesus prayed to the Father to be delivered from the Cross, but followed this request by consecrating Himself to God's will ( Luke 22:42). Paul makes a similar statement in his plans to visit the Corinthians by saying, "I will come to you shortly, if the Lord will…" ( 1 Corinthians 4:19) James 4:15 describes the pray of consecration as well, saying, "For that ye ought to say, If the Lord will, we shall live, and do this, or that." We cannot pray like this without a full surrender to carry our cross and follow Jesus.

1 Corinthians 4:19, "But I will come to you shortly, if the Lord will, and will know, not the speech of them which are puffed up, but the power."

James 4:15, "For that ye ought to say, If the Lord will, we shall live, and do this, or that."

Luke 22:43 And there appeared an angel unto him from heaven, strengthening him.

Luke 22:43 Comments- Note how the angel also strengthening Darius in Daniel 11:1

Daniel 11:1, "Also I in the first year of Darius the Mede, even I, stood to confirm and to strengthen him."

Luke 22:44 And being in an agony he prayed more earnestly: and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground.

Luke 22:41-44Comments- Jesus' Prayer of Consecration to the Father - Luke 22:41-44 gives us the account of Jesus praying to the Father and consecrating Himself as He makes the most difficult decision of His life. Jesus Christ knew the very events of His sufferings ( Matthew 20:19), for the Old Testament Scriptures had predicted them.

Matthew 20:19, "And shall deliver him to the Gentiles to mock, and to scourge, and to crucify him: and the third day he shall rise again."

Andrew Murray says, "How now does Satan hinder prayer? By temptation to postpone or curtail it, by bringing in wandering thoughts and all sorts of distractions: through unbelief and hopelessness. Happy is the prayer hero who, through it all, takes care to hold fast and use his weapon. Like our Lord in Gethsemane, the more violently the enemy attacked, the more earnestly He prayed and ceased not till He had obtained the victory." 275]

275] Andrew Murray, The Prayer Life (Chicago, Illinois: The Moody Press, n.d.), 23.

Ephesians 6:18, "Praying always with all prayer and supplication in the Spirit, and watching thereunto with all perseverance and supplication for all saints;"

Jesus' Love for the Father is Tested- Jesus experienced several times of testing, when God the Father tested Him to demonstrate His love and devotion to God. The most obvious time was Jesus' forty days of temptation in the wilderness preceding His public ministry ( Luke 4:1-13). However, Jesus' decision to stay in Jerusalem and dialogue with the priests was perhaps His first tests ( Luke 2:49), when He chose to pursue His love for God's Word instead of following His parents home to Nazareth. The next time when Jesus faced a difficult decision was when His set His face towards Jerusalem, where Calvary awaited ( Luke 9:51). Another time of testing came in the Garden of Gethsemane when His prayed, "Not my will, but thine." ( Luke 22:41-42) Reflecting upon these four periods of testing, we see how they each preceded Jesus' move from one phase of ministry into a higher phase, leading Him from justification, indoctrination, divine service, perseverance, to glorification with the Father. For example, His decision to stay with the teachers of the Law in the temple as the age of twelve indicated that He was moving from a time of justification as a child to indoctrination and training in God's Word. His forty days of tempting in the wilderness preceded His phase of divine service. His decision to set His face towards Jerusalem preceded a period of perseverance, and His decision in the Garden to go to the Cross preceded His glorification with the Father. We, too, will face similar seasons of testing, where our Heavenly Father wants us to demonstrate our love and devotion to Him.

Luke 22:47-54 — The Betrayal and Arrest of Jesus ( Matthew 26:47-56, Mark 14:43-50, John 18:3-11) - In Luke 22:47-54 we have the account of the betrayal and arrest of Jesus Christ.

Luke 22:49-51Comments - Peter Draws His Sword- All four Evangelists records the event of Peter drawing his sword in the Garden and cutting off the ear of Malchus, the servant of the high priest ( Matthew 26:51, Mark 14:47, Luke 22:49-51, John 18:10). Only John records the man's name as Malchus and that it was Peter who drew the sword, and only Luke records the fact that Jesus healed the man's ear. Peter was the most zealous of the twelve disciples. He had taken Jesus literally in Luke 22:36 when Jesus told them to sell their garments and purchase a sword.

John 18:10, "Then Simon Peter having a sword drew it, and smote the high priest"s servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant"s name was Malchus."

Matthew 26:51, "And, behold, one of them which were with Jesus stretched out his hand, and drew his sword, and struck a servant of the high priest"s, and smote off his ear."

Mark 14:47, "And one of them that stood by drew a sword, and smote a servant of the high priest, and cut off his ear."

Luke 22:50-51, "And one of them smote the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear. And Jesus answered and said, Suffer ye thus far. And he touched his ear, and healed him."

John 18:10, "Then Simon Peter having a sword drew it, and smote the high priest"s servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant"s name was Malchus."

Luke 22:36, "Then said he unto them, But now, he that hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise his scrip: and he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment, and buy one."

Luke 22:54Comments - Luke 22:54 records the first time that Jesus Christ is led by anyone. He could have escaped from this mob as He did at Nazareth ( Luke 4:29-30), but He willingly chose to go to Calvary for our sins.

Luke 4:29-30, "And rose up, and thrust him out of the city, and led him unto the brow of the hill whereon their city was built, that they might cast him down headlong. But he passing through the midst of them went his way,"


Verse 55

Witness of His Trial - In Luke 22:55 to Luke 23:25 the author records three witnesses of Jesus' trial.

Outline - Here is a propose outline:

1. Jesus' Prophecy to Peter Fulfilled — Luke 22:55-62

2. Jesus' Prophecy to Jewish Leaders — Luke 22:63-71

3. Jesus' Prophecy to Pontus Pilate — Luke 23:1-25


Verses 55-62

Peter Denies the Lord ( Matthew 26:57-58; Matthew 26:69-75, Mark 14:53-54; Mark 14:66-72, John 18:12-18; John 18:25-27) - In Luke 22:54-62 we have the account of Peter denying the Lord three times in fulfillment of Jesus' prophecy.


Verses 63-71

Jesus' Prophecy to the Jewish Leaders - In Luke 22:63-71 Jesus prophesies to the Jewish leaders concerning His exaltation.

Outline - Here is a proposed outline:

1. Jesus is Mocked and Beaten — Luke 22:63-65

2. Jesus Before the Sanhedrin — Luke 22:66-71

Luke 22:63-65 — Jesus is Mocked and Beaten ( Matthew 26:67-68, Mark 14:65) - In Luke 22:63-65 we have the account of Jesus being mocked and beaten by the Roman soldiers.

Luke 22:64Comments - The Jewish people had come to recognize Jesus as a prophet. He had also delivered many prophetic sayings during the course of His public ministry.

Luke 22:66-71 — Jesus Before the Sanhedrin ( Matthew 26:59-66, Mark 14:55-64, John 18:19-24) - In Luke 22:66-71 we have the account of Jesus standing before the Sanhedrin.

 


Copyright Statement
These files are copyrighted by the author, Gary Everett. Used by Permission.
No distribution beyond personal use without permission.

Bibliography Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on Luke 22:4". Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ghe/luke-22.html. 2013.

Lectionary Calendar
Thursday, October 17th, 2019
the Week of Proper 23 / Ordinary 28
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