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Bible Commentaries

John Trapp Complete Commentary
Luke 22

 

 

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Verse 1

1 Now the feast of unleavened bread drew nigh, which is called the Passover.

Ver. 1. Now the feast of unleavened bread, &c.] It is good to bring Bibles to church. Socrates relates of one Sabbatius, a Novatian bishop, that, reading this text, added such things of his own as carried away many simple people from the faith.


Verse 2

2 And the chief priests and scribes sought how they might kill him; for they feared the people.

Ver. 2. How they might kill him] Not put him to death as judges, but kill him as cutthroats, ανελωσι. So Acts 2:23.


Verse 3

3 Then entered Satan into Judas surnamed Iscariot, being of the number of the twelve.

Ver. 3. Then entered Satan] He stood but at the door till now, that the business was concluded on.


Verse 4

4 And he went his way, and communed with the chief priests and captains, how he might betray him unto them.

Ver. 4. And communed with the chief priests] Suopte ingenio, ut reprobi angeli, saith an interpreter.


Verse 5

5 And they were glad, and covenanted to give him money.

Ver. 5. And covenanted] Judas sold his salvation, and they bought their damnation, saith one. He made a match with mischief, and soon had enough of it.


Verse 6

6 And he promised, and sought opportunity to betray him unto them in the absence of the multitude.

Ver. 6. And he promised] εξωμολογησε, by mutual stipulation (saith Beza), wherein the one asketh, Dost thou promise to do such a thing the other answereth, I do promise. Like as of old it was, Credis? Credo. Abrenuncias? Abrenuncio. Believest thou? I do believe. Forsakest thou? I do forsake.


Verse 7

7 Then came the day of unleavened bread, when the passover must be killed.

Ver. 7. The day of unleavened bread, when, &c.] It must be our care to cast out all filthiness of flesh and spirit (that old leaven) before we communicate, 1 Corinthians 5:7. First throw the baggage into the brook Kidron (the town ditch), and then "kill the Passover," 2 Chronicles 30:14.


Verse 8

8 And he sent Peter and John, saying, Go and prepare us the passover, that we may eat.

Ver. 8. See Matthew 26:17-18, &c.; Mark 14:12.


Verse 9

9 And they said unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare?

Ver. 9. See Matthew 26:17-18, &c.; Mark 14:12.


Verse 10

10 And he said unto them, Behold, when ye are entered into the city, there shall a man meet you, bearing a pitcher of water; follow him into the house where he entereth in.

Ver. 10. See Matthew 26:17-18, &c.; Mark 14:12.


Verse 15

11 And ye shall say unto the goodman of the house, The Master saith unto thee, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples?

12 And he shall shew you a large upper room furnished: there make ready.

13 And they went, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the passover.

14 And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him.

15 And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer:

Ver. 15. With desire have I desired] How much more should we come with strong affections and lusty appetites to this holy supper! It is a virtue here to be a holy glutton, and to drink hearty draughts; that we may go from the table, as Christ from Jordan, full of the Holy Ghost. For this end consider what is before thee, as Proverbs 23:1, not to restrain appetite, but to provoke it. And the rather because Christ thus earnestly thirsted after our salvation, though he knew it should cost him so dear. See Luke 12:50.


Verse 16

16 For I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.

Ver. 16. Until it be fulfilled] Until the old passover he abolished, and the new brought in place by my death and resurrection.


Verse 17

17 And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide it among yourselves:

Ver. 17. And he took the cup] The cup of the common supper, John 13:2-3.


Verse 18

18 For I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God shall come.

Ver. 18. See Matthew 26:29; Mark 14:25.


Verse 19

19 And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me.

Ver. 19. See Matthew 26:26; Mark 14:22.


Verse 23

20 Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed for you.

21 But, behold, the hand of him that betrayeth me is with me on the table.

22 And truly the Son of man goeth, as it was determined: but woe unto that man by whom he is betrayed!

23 And they began to enquire among themselves, which of them it was that should do this thing.

Ver. 23. And they began to inquire] Therefore the Lord had not perfectly pointed out the traitor to them; or if he did, they either heard not, or heeded not.


Verse 24

24 And there was also a strife among them, which of them should be accounted the greatest.

Ver. 24. There was also a strife] This was so much the worse in them, because immediately after the sacrament, and before the passion, which our Saviour had told them should fall out within two days after. Neither was this the first time that they had thus faulted, and were reproved for it.


Verse 25

25 And he said unto them, The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and they that exercise authority upon them are called benefactors.

Ver. 25. The kings of the Gentiles, &c.] In striving for precedence, the disciples showed themselves but Gentiles, who stand upon their birth and privileges.

Exercise lordship over them] As he did with a witness (of whom Melancthon writeth) that wrung money from his miserable subjects, by knocking out their teeth, one by one, till he had what he would. (Joh. Maulii, loc. com.)

Are called benefactors] Nedibim, bountiful princes, Psalms 47:9; Psalms 83:12. Such a one was Titus, son of Vespasian, who never sent away any suitor sorrowful; and was the author of this brave speech, Hodie non regnavimus, quia neminem affecimus beneficio: We seem not to have reigned this day, because we have done no man a good turn today.


Verse 26

26 But ye shall not be so: but he that is greatest among you, let him be as the younger; and he that is chief, as he that doth serve.

Ver. 26. See Matthew 20:25; Mark 10:42.


Verse 27

27 For whether is greater, he that sitteth at meat, or he that serveth? is not he that sitteth at meat? but I am among you as he that serveth.

Ver. 27. I am among you as he that serveth] i.e. Not as a master, but rather as your fellow disciple. The prophets had their scholars to wait upon them, and to minister to them. God’s Levite had one man to ride with him, 19:11; Balaam had two, Numbers 22:22.


Verse 28

28 Ye are they which have continued with me in my temptations.

Ver. 28. Ye are they which have continued, &c.] Agrippa having suffered imprisonment for wishing Gaius emperor, the first thing Gaius did after he came to the empire, was to prefer Agrippa to a kingdom. He gave him also a chain of gold as heavy as the chain of iron that was upon him in prison. And shall not Christ richly reward all those his suffering servants?


Verse 29

29 And I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me;

Ver. 29. And I appoint] Gr. διατιθεμαι, I bequeath as by my last will and testament. See Hebrews 9:17.


Verse 30

30 That ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

Ver. 30. That ye may eat and drink, &c.] As Mephibosheth and Chimham at David’s table which was a high favour.


Verse 31

31 And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat:

Ver. 31. Simon, Simon] q.d. Mi charissimo Simon. Piscat.

Satan hath desired, &c.] As a challenger desireth to have one of the other side to combat with, as Goliath did. He cannot harm us without leave. So he desired to have Job, and had him.

That he may sift you] Cribratione Satanae non perditur, sed purgatur frumentum, saith Zanchy {See Trapp on "Matthew 3:12"}


Verse 32

32 But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren.

Ver. 32. But I have prayed] So the plaster is ready made before the wound be given; for else the patient might perish, as those do that are stung with scorpions, if not presently anointed with oil of scorpions.

That thy faith fail not] It is our faith that Satan chiefly assaulteth: he knows that nihil retinct qui fidem perdidit. (Seneca.)

Strengthen thy brethren] So he doth notably, in both his Epistles, dooming apostates most severely, 2 Peter 2:1-22.


Verse 33

33 And he said unto him, Lord, I am ready to go with thee, both into prison, and to death.

Ver. 33. Lord, I am ready] Thus Peter overweened his own abilities; being melius semper animatus quam armatus, better affected than appointed.


Verse 34

34 And he said, I tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day, before that thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me.

Ver. 34. See Matthew 26:34; Mark 14:30; John 13:38.


Verse 35

35 And he said unto them, When I sent you without purse, and scrip, and shoes, lacked ye any thing? And they said, Nothing.

Ver. 35. See Matthew 10:9; Luke 10:4.


Verse 36

36 Then said he unto them, But now, he that hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise his scrip: and he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment, and buy one.

Ver. 36. But now he that hath, &c.] Here the Captain of our salvation cries, Arm, arm; and under the name and notion of corporal weapons he intends all manner of spiritual preparations.


Verse 37

37 For I say unto you, that this that is written must yet be accomplished in me, And he was reckoned among the transgressors: for the things concerning me have an end.

Ver. 37. For the things concerning me] i.e. Concerning my state of humiliation.


Verse 38

38 And they said, Lord, behold, here are two swords. And he said unto them, It is enough.

Ver. 38. It is enough] q.d. You speak absurdly: I mean not such kind of swords; let me hear no more of them.


Verse 39

39 And he came out, and went, as he was wont, to the mount of Olives; and his disciples also followed him.

Ver. 39.] See Matthew 26:36; Mark 14:32; John 14:4.


Verse 40

40 And when he was at the place, he said unto them, Pray that ye enter not into temptation.

Ver. 40. See Matthew 26:41; Mark 14:38.


Verse 41

41 And he was withdrawn from them about a stone’s cast, and kneeled down, and prayed,

Ver. 41. And he was withdrawn] For privacy’ sake to pray, though loth to leave their company, through extreme perplexity, which made him return so often to them, calling upon them to watch with him.


Verse 42

42 Saying, Father, if thou be willing, remove this cup from me: nevertheless not my will, but thine, be done.

Ver. 42. lf thou be willing] He was so astonished with the greatness of his present pressures, that he seems for a time to suffer some kind of forgetfulness of his office.


Verse 43

43 And there appeared an angel unto him from heaven, strengthening him.

Ver. 43. And there appeared] To show that he had made himself lower than the angels, Hebrews 2:7, he received comfort from an angel that was his servant. So in his agony he was glad of his apostles’ company, and the help of their poor prayers.


Verse 44

44 And being in an agony he prayed more earnestly: and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground.

Ver. 44. And being in an agony] ΄η δια τουτο ατιμος, οτι δια σε ταπεινονος, saith a Greek father. Alphonsus is honoured in histories for this, that he abased himself so far as to help one of his subjects out of a ditch. Shall not Christ much more be honoured that helped all his out of the ditch of damnation.

He prayed more earnestly] εκτενεστερον, he bent, as it were, all his nerves, he intended the utmost activity of his spirit and of his speech; to make atonement for our dull and drowsy devotions.

Great drops of blood] Clotty blood ( θρομβους αιματος) issuing through flesh and skin in great abundance. Oecolampadius tells of a certain poor man, who being kept hanging in the truss of the cord (which is a certain hanging by the hands behind, having a weighty stone fastened at their feet) the space of six hours, the sweat that dropped from his body for very pain and anguish, was almost blood. But here was no "almost" in our Saviour’s bloody sweat: while without any external violence, merely by the force of his own saddest thoughts working upon him, sanguinem congelatum quasi extruserit. (Bucholcer.) So great was Scanderbeg’s ardour in battle, that the blood burst out of his lips. But from oar Champion’s, not lips only, but whole body burst out a bloody sweat. Not his eyes only were fountains of tears, or his head waters, as Jeremiah wished, Jeremiah 9:1, but his whole body was turned, as it were, into rivers of blood: a sweet comfort to such as are cast down for that, that their sorrow for sin is not so deep and soaking as they could desire.

Falling down to the ground] Through clothes and all, in a cold night; so great was the pressure of his passion here begun. He wept with his members; a strange kind of watering of a garden, as one saith.


Verse 45

45 And when he rose up from prayer, and was come to his disciples, he found them sleeping for sorrow,

Ver. 45. He found them sleeping] Who should have waked, and wiped off his sweat (as the angel did Theodorus the martyr’s), but they rather added to it by their security. (Socrates, Theodoret.)


Verse 46

46 And said unto them, Why sleep ye? rise and pray, lest ye enter into temptation.

Ver. 46. See Matthew 26:47; Mark 14:43; John 18:3.


Verse 47

47 And while he yet spake, behold a multitude, and he that was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before them, and drew near unto Jesus to kiss him.

Ver. 47. See Matthew 26:47; Mark 14:43; John 18:3.


Verse 48

48 But Jesus said unto him, Judas, betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss?

Ver. 48. Judeas, betrayest thou, &c.] Sic Iudaei, sub praetextu pietatis maxime delinquebant; et Deo osculum sine amore praebebant. (Bucholcer.) Julian the Apostate was no friend to Basil, though he wrote to him, φιλος φιλω και αδελφος αδελοω. Nor was Libanius the more to be believed for saying (in Epist. ad Basilium), βασιλειου με επαινησαντος κατα παντων εχω τα νικητηρια. If Basil commend me, I despise other men’s worse censures.


Verse 49

49 When they which were about him saw what would follow, they said unto him, Lord, shall we smite with the sword?

Ver. 49. Lord, shall we smite?] But before he could answer, Peter smote, which might easily have cost him his life. Quod dubites, ne feceris, is a safe rule.


Verse 50

50 And one of them smote the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear.

Ver. 50. See Matthew 26:51; Mark 14:47; John 18:10.


Verse 51

51 And Jesus answered and said, Suffer ye thus far. And he touched his ear, and healed him.

Ver. 51. And he touched his ear, &c.] After he had laid them flat on the ground. So he tried them both ways; but nothing would do.


Verse 52

52 Then Jesus said unto the chief priests, and captains of the temple, and the elders, which were come to him, Be ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and staves?

Ver. 52. Captain of the temple] {See Trapp on "Acts 4:1"}


Verse 53

53 When I was daily with you in the temple, ye stretched forth no hands against me: but this is your hour, and the power of darkness.

Ver. 53. And the power of darkness] The "dark places of the earth are full of the habitations of cruelty," Psalms 74:20. Creatures kept in the dark are fierce and furious. Had they known, they would never have crucified the Lord of glory, 1 Corinthians 2:8; "I did it ignorantly," saith Paul concerning his persecuting the saints, 1 Timothy 1:13.


Verse 54

54 Then took they him, and led him, and brought him into the high priest’s house. And Peter followed afar off.

Ver. 54. See Matthew 26:57.


Verse 55

55 And when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the hall, and were set down together, Peter sat down among them.

Ver. 55. See Matthew 26:69; John 18:25.


Verse 56

56 But a certain maid beheld him as he sat by the fire, and earnestly looked upon him, and said, This man was also with him.

Ver. 56. Vide ibidem eum notis.


Verse 57

57 And he denied him, saying, Woman, I know him not.

Ver. 57. Vide ibidem eum notis.


Verse 58

58 And after a little while another saw him, and said, Thou art also of them. And Peter said, Man, I am not.

Ver. 58. Vide ibidem eum notis.


Verse 59

59 And about the space of one hour after another confidently affirmed, saying, Of a truth this fellow also was with him: for he is a Galilaean.

Ver. 59. Vide ibidem eum notis.


Verse 60

60 And Peter said, Man, I know not what thou sayest. And immediately, while he yet spake, the cock crew.

Ver. 60. Vide ibidem eum notis.


Verse 61

61 And the Lord turned, and looked upon Peter. And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said unto him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice.

Ver. 61. And looked upon Peter] A stroke from guilt broke Judas’ heart into despair: but a look from Christ broke Peter’s heart into tears.


Verse 62

62 And Peter went out, and wept bitterly.

Ver. 62. See Matthew 26:75. Titubatio Petri, omnium petra.


Verse 63

63 And the men that held Jesus mocked him, and smote him.

Ver. 63. See Matthew 26:27; Mark 14:65; John 18:22; Isaiah 50:6. They scoffed him, not so much with their tongues as hands; plucking his beard, and pulling away hair and skin too, as the word δερειν importeth.


Verse 65

64 And when they had blindfolded him, they struck him on the face, and asked him, saying, Prophesy, who is it that smote thee?

65 And many other things blasphemously spake they against him.

Ver. 65. And many other things] Shooting their sharpest arrows at him, even bearded arrows, which being once got into the flesh, cannot easily be pulled out but by tearing the flesh round about: and far worse than those shot by the Turks at the crucifix, when they sacked Constantinople, railing also, and spitting at it, and calling it the God of the Christians.


Verse 66

66 And as soon as it was day, the elders of the people and the chief priests and the scribes came together, and led him into their council, saying,

Ver. 66. See Matthew 27:1.


Verse 67

67 Art thou the Christ? tell us. And he said unto them, If I tell you, ye will not believe:

Ver. 67. Here the president of the council examineth him, as Luke 22:70; the assessors.


Verse 68

68 And if I also ask you, ye will not answer me, nor let me go.

Ver. 68. Christ’s answer is partly reprehensory, partly concessory and comminatory; for it is a confession of the truth mixed with menaces of condign punishment.


Verse 69

69 Hereafter shall the Son of man sit on the right hand of the power of God.

Ver. 69. Christ’s answer is partly reprehensory, partly concessory and comminatory; for it is a confession of the truth mixed with menaces of condign punishment.


Verse 70

70 Then said they all, Art thou then the Son of God? And he said unto them, Ye say that I am.

Ver. 70. Ye say that I am] Or, as Mark hath it more plainly, "I am," Mark 14:62. Christ here useth a common kind of speech, to consent to what another saith.


Verse 71

71 And they said, What need we any further witness? for we ourselves have heard of his own mouth.

Ver. 71. See Matthew 26:65.

 


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Bibliography Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Luke 22:4". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/luke-22.html. 1865-1868.

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Saturday, November 16th, 2019
the Week of Proper 27 / Ordinary 32
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