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Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature
an old English word of Saxon origin (Germ. geist), equivalent to soul or spirit, occurs as the translation of the Heb. נֶפֶשׁ, ne'phesh, and the Greek πνεῦμα, both signifying breath, life, spirit, or living principle, by which and similar terms they are elsewhere rendered (Job 11:20; Jeremiah 15:9; Matthew 27:50; John 19:30). It frequently occurs in the N.T. in the sacred name "Holy Ghost." (See SPIRIT). Other phrases in which it occurs are those rendered to "give up the ghost," etc., all simply signifying to die, e.g. גָּיִ , to expire (Lamentations 1:19; Genesis 25:17; Genesis 35:29; Genesis 49:33; Job 3:11; Job 10:18; Job 13:19; Job 14:10) έκπνέω to breathe out, etc., one's life (Mark 15:37; Mark 15:39; Luke 23:46); ἐκψύχω, to breathe out one's last (Acts 5:5; Acts 5:10; Acts 12:23). Many commentators suppose, from the original terms used in the Gospels (άφῆκε τὸ πνεῦμα, Matthew 27:50; παρέδωκε τὸ πνεῦμα, John 19:30), something preternatural in Christ's death, as being the effect of his volition. But there is, nothing in the words of Scripture to countenance such an opinion, though our Saviors volition must be supposed to accompany his offering himself for the sins of the world. The Greek words rendered yielded up, and gave up, are no other than such as is frequently used, both in the Septuagint (Genesis 35:18; comp. Psalms 31:5; Ecclesiastes 12:7) and the classical writers, of expiration, either with the spirit or the soul (Josephus, Ant. 5:2, 8; 7:13, 3; Alian, H. An. 2:1; Herod. 4:190. (See SPECTRE).
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McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Ghost'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/tce/g/ghost.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.