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Bible Encyclopedias

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature


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(Heb. id. לוּד, derivation unknown; Sept. Λούδ, but in Ezekiel Λυδοί; Auth.Vers. "Lydia," in Ezekiel 30:5), the name apparently of two nations. (See ETHOLOGY).

1. The fourth son of Shem (B.C. post 2513), and founder of a tribe near the Assyrians and Aramasans (Genesis 10:22; 1 Chronicles 1:17). According to Josephus (Ant. 1:6, 4), they were the Lydians; in which opinion agree Eustathius, Eusebius, Jerome, and Isidore, and among moderns Bochart (Phaleg. 2:12) and Gesenius. On the contrary, Michaelis (Spicileg. 2:11.4 sq.) reads הוד, and understands the Indians (see also his Supplement, No. 1416; comp. Vater, Comment. 1:130). Lud would thus be represented by the Lydus of the mythical period (Herod. 1:7). "The Shemitic character of the manners of the Ludim, and the strong Orientalism of the art of the Lydian kingdom during its latest period and after the Persian conquest, but before the predominance of Greek art in Asia Minor, favor this idea; but, on the other hand, the Egyptian monuments show us in the 13th, 14th. and 15th centuries B.C. a powerful people called RUTEN or LUDEN, probably seated near Mesopotamia, and apparently north of Palestine. whom some, however, make the Assyrians. We may perhaps conjecture that the Lydians first established themselves near Palestine, and afterwards spread into Asia Minor; the occupiers of the old seat of the race being destroyed or rermoved by the Assyrians." With the latter supposition, compare the apocryphal statement in Judith 2:23. (See LYDIA).

2. One of the Hamitic tribes descended from Mizraim (Ludim, Genesis 10:13), apparently a people of Africa (perhaps of Ethiopia), sprung from the Egyptians, and accustomed to fight with bows and arrows (Ezekiel 27:1 C; 30:5; Isaiah 66:19, where they are associated with Cush and Phut; comp. the Ludim, Jeremiah 46:9, and the Phud and Lud of Judith 2:23). Some have. referred the name to the people of Luday, on the western coast of Africa, south of Morocco (see Michaelis, Spicileg. 1:259 sq.; also Suppl. No. 1417); and combine with this the mention of a river Laud in Tangitania (Pliny, 2). Others, as Bochart (Phaleg, 4:56) and Gesenius (Comment. ad loc. Isa.), regard them as a branch of the Ethiopians. Hitzig (Comment. ad loc. Isaiah and Jeremiah) thinks that the Libyans are intended (by an interchange of letters), but Nulbiua appears to be rather indicated by the scriptural notices. Still more improbable is the supposition of Forster (Ep. ad Michael. page 13 sq.), that the inhabitants of the oases are intended, designated in Coptic by a term having some resemblance to Lud. The Arabic interpreters have Tanites; the Targum of Jonathan renders inhabitants of the nome of Neut. The opinion of Michaelis (Suppl. No. 1418), that by the Ludim the prophets meant the Lydians, has lately been re-enforced by Gesenius (Thes. Heb. page 746) with the remark that the Egyptians and Tyrians employed soldiers from Asia Minor in their armies (Herod. 2:152, 154, 163; 3:1). But the Egyptians, at least, had also mercenary troops from Africa, and the Asiatics referred to were only from Ionia and Caria. Rosellini (Monument. stor. III, 1:321 sq.) speaks of a province of Ludin, but the locality is uncertain. (See LUDIM).

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Bibliography Information
McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Lud'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.

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