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Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature


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(Heb. Ludim', לוּדַים, Sept. Λωδιείμ; in 1 Chronicles לוּדיוֹם, Λωδίειμ in Jer. Λοῦδοι,, A.V. "Lydians"), a Mizraitish or Egyptian people or tribe (Genesis 10:13; 1 Chronicles 1:11; Jeremiah 46:9), probably the same with LUD, No. 2. From their position at the head of the list of the Mizraites, it is probable that the Ludim were settled to the west of Egypt, perhaps further than any other race of the same stock. Isaiah mentions "Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, that draw the bow (משְׁכֵי קֶשֶׁת ) Tubal, and Javan, the isles afar off" (66:19). Here the expression in the plural, "that draw the bow" (Vulg. (tendentes sagitam), may refer only to Lud, and therefore not connect it with one or both of the names preceding. A comparison with the other three passages, in all which Phut is mentioned immediately before or after Lud or the Ludim, goes to confirm the Sept. reading, Phut, Φούδ, for Pul, a word not occurring in any other passage, as the true one; and we also notice as coincident the extraordinary change from משְׁכֵי to Μοσόχ . (See PUL); (See MESECH).

Jeremiah, in speaking of Pharaoh Necho's army, makes mention of "Cush and Phut that handle the buckler, and the Ludim that handle [and] bend the bow" (Jeremiah 46:9). Here the Ludim are associated with African nations as mercenaries or auxiliaries of the king of Egypt, and therefore it would seem probable, primd facie, that the Mizraitish Ludim are intended. Ezekiel, in the description of Tyre, speaks thus of Lud: "Persia, and Lud, and Phut were in thine army, thy men of war: buckler (מָגֵן ) and helmet hung they up in thee; they set thine adorning" (Jeremiah 27:10). In this place Lud might seem to mean the Shemitic Lud, especially if the latter be connected with Lydia; but the association with Phut renders it as likely that the nation or country is that of the African Ludim. In the prophecy against Gog a similar passage occurs. "Persia, Cush, and Phut (A. Vers. "Libya") with them [the army of Gog]; all of them [with] buckler (מָגֵן ) and helmet" (Jeremiah 38:5). It seems from this that there were Persian mercenaries at this time, the prophet perhaps, if speaking of a remote future period, using their name and that of other well-known mercenaries in a general sense. The association of Persia and Lud in the former passage therefore loses somewhat of its weight. In one of the prophecies against Egypt Lud is thus mentioned among the supports of that country: "And the sword shall come upon Mizraim, and great pain shall be in Cush, at the falling of the slain in Mizraim, and they shall take away her multitude (שֲׁמוֹנָהּ ), and her foundations shall be broken down. Cush, and Phut, and Lud, and all the mingled people (עֶרֶב ), and Chub, and the children of the land of the covenant, shall fall by the sword with them" (Jeremiah 30:4-5). Here Lud is associated with Cush and Phut, as though an African nation. The Ereb, whom we have called "mingled people" rather than "strangers," appear to havebeen an Arab population of the Sinaitic peninsula, perhaps including Arab or half-Arab tribes of the Egyptian; desert to the east of the Nile. Chub is a name nowhere, else occurring, which perhaps should be read Lub, for the country or nation of the Lubim. (See CHUB); (See LUBIM).

The "children of the land of the covenant" maybe some league of tribes, as probably were the Nine-Bows of the Egyptian inscriptions; or the expressions may mean nations or tribes allied with Egypt, as though a general designation for the rest of its supporters besides those specified. It is noticeable that in this passage, although Lud is placed among the close allies or supporters of Egypt, yet it follows African nations, and is followed by a nation or tribe at least partly inhabiting Asia, although possy possily also partly inhabiting Africa. (See EGYPT).

There can be no doubt that but one nation is intended, in these passages, and it seems that thus far the preponderance of evidence is in favor of the Mizraitish Ludim. There are no indications in the Bible known to be positive of mercenary or allied troops in the Egyptian armies, except of Africans, and perhaps of tribes bordering: Egypt on the east. We have still to inquire how the evidence of the Egyptian monuments and of profane history may affect our supposition. From the former we learn that several foreign nations contributed allies. or mercenaries to the Egyptian armies. Among them, we identify the Reicu with the Lubim, and the SHARYATANA with the Cherethim, who also served in David's army. The latter were probably from the coast of Palestine, although they may have been drawn in the case of the Egyptian army from an insular portion of the, same people.

The rest of these foreign troops seem to have been of African nations, but this is not certain. The evidence of the monuments reaches no lower than the time of the Bubastite line. There is a single foreign contemporary inscribed record on one of the colossi of the temple of Abu-Simbel in Nubia, noting the passage of Greek mercenaries of a Psammetichus, probably the first (Wilkinson, Modern Egypt and Thebes, 2:329). From the Greek writers, who give us information from the time of Psammetichus downwards, we learn that Ionian, Carian, and other Greek mercenaries formed an important element in the Egyptian army in all times when the country was independent, from the reign of that king until the final conquest by Ochus. These mercenaries were even settled in Egypt by Psammetichus. There does not seem to be any mention of them in the Bible, excepting they be instructed by Lud and the Ludim in the passages that have been considered. It must be recollected that it is reasonable to connect the Shemitic Lud with the Lydians, and that at the time of the prophets by whom Lud and the Ludim are mentioned the Lydian on kingdom generally or always included the more western part of Asia Minor, so that the Lud and Ludim might well apply to the Ionian and Carian mercenaries drawn from this territory. (See LUD).

The manner in which these foreign troops in the Egyptian army are characterized is perfectly in accordance with the evidence of the monuments, which, although about six centuries earlier than the prophet's time, no doubt represent the same condition of military matters. The only people of Africa beyond Egypt portrayed on the monuments whom we can consider as most probably of the same stock as the Egyptians are the REBU, who are the Lubim of the Bible, almost certainly the same as the Mizraitish Lehabim (q.v.); therefore we may take to REBU as probably illustrating the Ludim, supposing the latter to be Mizraites, in which case they may indeed be included under the same name as the Lubim, if the appellation REBU be wider than the Lubim of the Bible, and also as illustrating Cush and Phut. The last two are spoken of as handling the buckler. The Egyptians are generally represented with small shields, frequently round; the REBU with small round shields, for which the term here used, מָגֵן, the small shield, and the expression "that handle," are perfectly appropriate.

That the Ludim should have been archers, and apparently armed with a long bow that was strung with the aid of the foot by treading (דֹּרְכֵי קֶשֶׁת ), is noteworthy, since the Africans were always famous for their archery. The REBU. and one other of the foreign nations that served in the Egyptian army the monuments show the former only as enemies were bowmen, being armed with a bow of moderate length; the other mercenaries of whom we can only identify the Philistine Cherethim, though they probably include certain of the mercenaries or auxiliaries mentioned in the Bible-carrying swords and javelins, but not bows. These points of agreement, foiunded on our examination of the monunments, are of no little weight, as showiing the accuracy of the Bible. (See SHIELD).

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Bibliography Information
McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Ludim'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.

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