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Historical Writings

Ussher's "The Annals of the World"

The Fifth Age: 1012 BC - 589 BC

2992 AM, 3702 JP, 1012 BC
  1. The foundation of the temple was laid in the 480th year after Israel's exodus from Egypt. This was in king Solomon's 4th year of reign on the second day of the second month [called Zif, Monday May 21st]. (1 Kings 6:1,37; 2 Chronicles 3:2)
2993 AM, 3703 JP, 1011 BC
  1. Three years after he was commanded not to cross the brook Kidron, Shimei returned from Gath to bring back two run-away servants. Solomon commanded that he be executed. (1 Kings 2:39-46)
3000 AM, 3709 JP, 1005 BC
  1. In the 11th year of Solomon's reign, in the eighth month, [called Bul] the temple and its furnishings was finished. It took 7 years 6 months to build. (1 Kings 6:38) The dedication of the temple was postponed till the next year because it was a Jubilee year.
3001 AM, 3710 JP, 1004 BC
  1. This was the ninth Jubilee which opened the fourth millennium of the world. King Solomon celebrated the dedication of the temple with great pomp and splendour. All Israel was assembled together in the 7th month, called Ethanim. The ark was brought from Zion into the Holy of Holies. The tabernacle and holy vessels from Gibeon went into the temple treasury. God gave a visible and wonderful token of his presence. Solomon was standing on a scaffold made of brass, kneeling down he uttered a set prayer to God. After this he blessed the people. He then offered 22,000 oxen and 120,000 sheep. They celebrated the feast of the dedication of the altar for 7 days and the feast of tabernacles another 7 seven days. On the 15th day the celebrations were completed on the 23day of the 7th month when the people were dismissed to their homes. (1 Kings 8:1,2,65,66; 2 Chronicles 5:3-5; 2 Chronicles 6:1) 8:1-11
  2. On the eighth day of the seventh month, that is [Friday, October 30th.] it was the first of the seven days of the dedication. According to Levitical law the feast of atonement was held on the tenth day, [Saturday, November 1st.] (Leviticus 25:9) At the sound of the trumpet the jubilee was proclaimed.
  3. The feast of tabernacles was held on the 15th day.[Friday, November 6th.] The last day of this feast was always very solemnly kept. This occurred on the 22nd. [Friday, November 13th.] (2 Chronicles 7:9; Leviticus 23:36; John 7:37) The following day, [Saturday, November 14th.] after the sabbath the people went home.
3012 AM, 3722 JP, 992 BC
  1. In the 13th year after the temple was built, Solomon finished building his own house. He spent 20 years on both of them: 7 years 5 months on the temple and 13 years on his own house. (1 Kings 7:1; 1 Kings 9:10; 2 Chronicles 8:1)
  2. As a reward for Hiram's good will in helping construct these houses, Solomon offered to Hiram king of Tyre 20 cities of Galilee, or Cabul which were located within the tribe of Asher. Solomon purchased these cities himself. When Hiram refused to take them, Solomon reconstructed them all himself, planting colonies of the Israelites in them.(1 Kings 9:10; 2 Chronicles 8:1,2)
  3. When Solomon had finished both houses and the wall of Jerusalem, he moved his wife, the daughter of Pharaoh, out of the city of David, into a house which he had built for her. (1 Kings 3:1) 7:8; (2 Chronicles 8:11) He also built Gezer, which Pharaoh his father-in-law took from the Canaanites and gave to Solomon. (1 Kings 9:15-17) Gezer was located within the tribe of Ephraim.
3026 AM, 3736 JP, 978 BC
  1. Shishak, also called Sefonchis [according to Egyptian Chronology] began to reign. Jeroboam the son of Nebat fled to him and continued with him till after Solomon died. (1 Kings 11:40) 12:2
3029 AM, 3739 JP, 975 BC
  1. Solomon forsook his lusts and vanities to which he was addicted in his later days. He testified of his deep repentance in his book called The Preacher [Ecclesiastes] and made his peace with God. (2 Chronicles 11:17) Solomon died when he had reigned 40 years. (1 Kings 11:42; 2 Chronicles 9:30)
  2. Rehoboam, Solomon's son, was made king by all Israel in Sichem. By his harsh approach to his rule he alienated the hearts of ten tribes from him. These tribes sent for Jeroboam the son of Nebat, in Egypt to be their king. Under his leadership, they rebelled from the house of David. They killed Adoram, whom Rehoboam had sent to them, and abandoned the true worship of God. (1 Kings 12:1-33) In memorial of this sad disaster, the Jews kept a solemn yearly fast on the 23of the third month, called Sivan.
  3. From this sad division made in that kingdom, Rehoboam reigned over Judah and Benjamin 17 years. (1 Kings 14:21; 2 Chronicles 12:1,2) and Jeroboam over Israel i.e.over the other ten tribes, for 22 years. (1 Kings 14:20)
  4. Rehoboam returned to Jerusalem and conscripted 80,100 men to fight against the ten tribes. Through the prophet Shemaiah, he was admonished from God to abandon this plan. 1Ki 12:1-33Continual war took place between the kings for the rest of their days. (1 Kings 14:30)
  5. In the beginning of his reign, Jeroboam repaired Shechem where he was chosen king by the people. This place was destroyed by king Abimelech, 258 years earlier. Jeroboam lived there until he went over Jordan, and built Penuel. (1 Kings 12:25) Finally, he built Tirzah and made that the capital of his kingdom. (1 Kings 14:17) He feared that his new subjects would revolt against him if they continued to worship at Jerusalem. So he devised a new religion. He set up two golden calves, the one at Bethel and the other at Dan, for the people to worship. (1 Kings 12:25-31)
3030 AM, 3739 JP, 975 BC, 1 SK, 1 NK
  1. NK - On the 15th day of the 8th month, [Monday, December 6th.] Jeroboam held a feast of his own creation similar to the feast of tabernacles among the Jews. On an idolatrous altar which he had built at Bethel, he offered sacrifices to his calf. (1 Kings 12:32,33) At that time, God sent an unnamed prophet from Judah who foretold what judgment God would execute by Josiah on the altar and the priests that served it. This prophecy was confirmed by signs which appeared on that altar and the king himself. (1 Kings 13:1-34; 2 Kings 23:15-20) From the beginning of this idolatrous worship and public demonstration of God's judgment there, we are to reckon the 390 years of the iniquity of Israel as spoken of in (Ezekiel 4:5)
  2. This prophet was deceived by another prophet of Bethel, who lied about a message from God. Contrary to the express commandment of God he ate meat at Bethel. Therefore, in his return homeward, he was met by a lion which killed him. When the news came to the prophet which had deceived him, he took the body and gave it an honourable burial. He assured his sons that what had been foretold by that other prophet, would undoubtedly come to pass. (1 Kings 1:3; 2 Kings 23:17,18)
  3. SK - The priests, Levities and other Israelites who feared God did not follow Jeroboam but worshipped with Rehoboam in Jerusalem. This helped maintain the kingdom of Judah for three years. This was the time they walked in the ways of David and Solomon. (2 Chronicles 11:17)
  4. NK - Jeroboam continued in his revolt and excluded the priests that were of the lineage of Aaron the Levites from his worship. He made priests for the high places from men of the common people. (1 Kings 13:33,34; 2 Chronicles 11:14,15; 2 Chronicles 13:9) Hence many of the priests and Levites abandoned their possessions in those tribes and settled in Judah. They were followed there by those of every tribe who wanted to worship the true God. They came to Jerusalem to worship and sacrifice to the God of their forefathers. (2 Chronicles 11:13,14,16).
3032 AM, 3742 JP, 972 BC, 3 SK, 3 NK
  1. SK - Rehoboam, now settled in his kingdom, forsook the law of the Lord and all Israel and Judah with him.(2 Chronicles 12:1) The Jews, who should have stirred up their Israelite brothers to repentance, provoked the Lord with their own sins. They behaved worse than their forefathers. They made high places, images and groves, for themselves on every high hill and under every tree. They did all the wicked things the heathen did in their barbarous worship including those nations whom God had cast out before them. (1 Kings 14:22-24)
3033 AM, 3743 JP, 971 BC, 5 SK, 5 NK
  1. SK - In Rehoboam's 5th year, Shishak, king of Egypt, invited perhaps by Jeroboam, [who had formerly lived with him, noted in the year, 3026 AM] led an army of 120 chariots, 60,000 horses, with innumerable footmen from Egypt. The men were from the Lubims, Sukkiims, and Cushites who entered the land of Judah. They had already captured all the rest of their fortified cites and finally came to Jerusalem. The king and his princes were brought to repentance by the preaching of Shemaiah the prophet. The king received a gracious promise of their deliverance at a high cost. They were to release to the Egyptians all the treasure of the temple and of the king's house. All the shields of gold which Solomon had made which Rehoboam remade using brass. (1 Kings 14:26,27; 2 Chronicles 12:2-12)
3046 AM, 3756 JP, 958 BC, 1 SK, 18 NK
  1. SK - Abijah the son of Rehoboam, succeeded his father who died in the beginning of the 18th year of Jeroboam's. He reigned 3 years. (1 Kings 15:1,2; 2 Chronicles 13:1,2)
3047 AM, 3757 JP, 957 BC, 2 SK, 19 NK
  1. SK - Abijah and his army of 400,000 men, fought with Jeroboam and his army of 800,000 men. Because Abijah trusted in God, he obtained victory against Jeroboam. He killed 500,000 of Jeroboam's soldiers. This was the highest casualty rate of any battle recorded in the Bible. Abijah captured Bethel where one of the calves was set up and Jeshanah and Ephrain, with all its towns. (2 Chronicles 13:1-22)
3049 AM, 3759 JP, 955 BC, 1 SK, 21 NK
  1. SK - After Abijam's death, at the very end of the 20th year of Jeroboam's reign, Asa his son succeeded him and reigned 41 years. (1 Kings 15:8-10)
3050 AM, 3759 JP, 955 BC, 2 SK, 22 NK
  1. This was the 10th Jubilee.
  2. NK - Nadab in the 2nd year of Asa, succeeded his dead father Jeroboam in his kingdom and reigned only 2 years. (1 Kings 15:25)
3051 AM, 3761 JP, 953 BC, 3 SK, 1,2 NK
  1. NK - At the siege of Gibbethon of the Philistines, Nadab was slain by Baasha, a man from the tribe of Issachar in the third year of the reign of Asa. In the same year that Baasha made himself king over Israel, he utterly destroyed all the family of Jeroboam. He reigned for 24 years. (1 Kings 15:27-29,33)
3053 AM, 3763 JP, 951 BC, 5 SK, 3 NK
  1. SK - God now gave 10 consecutive years of peace to the land, (2 Chronicles 14:1,6) even to the 15th year of king Asa's reign, or to the 35th year from the rebellion of the northern kingdom. (2 Chronicles 15:10,19) In that year, this godly king Asa put away all public idolatry, reformed his kingdom and fortified the cities of Judah against the invasion of enemies. (2 Chronicles 14:6)
3055 AM, 3765 JP, 949 BC, 7 SK, 5 NK
  1. Jehoshaphat was born to Asa by his mother Azubah. Later he at the age of 35 succeeded Asa in his kingdom. (1 Kings 22:42; 2 Chronicles 20:31)
3063 AM, 3773 JP, 941 BC, 15 SK, 13 NK
  1. In the beginning of Asa's reign, Zerah the Ethiopian mobilised an innumerable army to invade the land of Judah. This force had 1,000,000 men from the Cushites, who as it seemed came from Arabia Petrea and the desert and the Lubims, besides those who fought aloft from the chariots. Asa met this army with 300,000 men from the tribe of Judah and 280,000 from the tribe of Benjamin. He called on the name of the Lord and routed and slew that vast army and took much spoil from them. After this he was encouraged by Azariah the prophet. He assembled all his subjects and also many of the Israelites which were loyal to him. They met at Jerusalem in the third month in which the feast of Pentecost fell. They sacrificed to God from the spoil which they had taken, 700 oxen and 7000 cattle and solemnly renewed their covenant with God. Asa continued reformation of his kingdom and removed Maachah his grandmother, a great patroness of idolatry, from the honour of queen mother. He brought into the temple the things which he and his father had consecrated to God. (2 Chronicles 14:8,9; 2 Chronicles 15:1,10,11,13,16); translation="">16:8
3064 AM, 3774 JP, 940 BC, 16 SK, 14 NK
  1. NK - Baasha saw Asa actively restoring religion to Judah and that many of his subjects defected to Asa so that they might be partakers in God's covenant blessings. (2 Chronicles 15:9) He never ceased to make war upon Asa all his days. (1 Kings 15:16,32) In the 36th year since the division of the kingdom, in Asa's 16th year, Baasha started to build Ramah to prevent more of his subjects from defecting to Asa. (2 Chronicles 16:1)
  2. SK - Asa hired Benhadad king of Syria to come and hinder the building of Ramah which he did. Using the stones and timber from the city of Ramah, Asa built Geba and Mizpah. When Hanan the prophet reproved him, for getting help from the king of Syria, he cast him into prison, and at the same time, vexed some of his people. (2 Chronicles 16:1-14)
  3. NK - At the same time Benhadad king of Syria, marched against the cities of Israel. He destroyed Ijon in the tribe of Asher and Dan in Dan, Abelbethmaachah in the tribe of Manasseh and all the borders of Chinnereth, with all the land of Naphtali. This forced Baasha to stop building Ramah and retire to Tirzah. (1 Kings 15:20,21; 2 Chronicles 16:4,5; Isaiah 9:1) Now this Benhadad was son to Tabrimon, the son of Hezion, (1 Kings 15:18) or of Rezon the first king of Syria of Damascus from whom the name of Hadad was passed on to his posterity in the kingdom. This is noted by Nicolaus Damascenus as recorded by Josephus l.7. of his Antiquities, c.6 ul. 5. where, Nicolaus states: "The third of that name seeking to wipe away the blot of the overthrow, received in his grandfather's days, marched into Judah and destroyed Samaria,"
  4. Josephus understands it to be the invasion made upon Samaria, by Benhadad, in the time of Ahab. See notes on 2960 AM and 3103 AM.
3074 AM, 3784 JP, 930 BC, 26 SK, 24 NK
  1. NK - When Baasha died and was buried at Terza, his son Elah succeeded him.
3075 AM, 3785 JP, 929 BC
  1. NK - In the 2nd year of Elah and the 27th of Asa, Zimri destroyed Elah and his entire family. He reigned in Tirzah for seven days. But the soldiers at Gibbethon, a town of the Philistines made Omri, the general of the army, king. He came to besiege Tirzah and Zimri set fire to the king's palace and destroyed it and himself. (1 Kings 16:15-18)
  2. The people of Israel split into two factions, one part followed Tibni, the son of Ginath, the other followed Omri. Omri's side prevailed and Omri became king. (1 Kings 16:8,21,22)
3077 AM, 3787 JP, 927 BC, 29 SK, 3 NK
  1. NK - Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab the son of Omri, as it seems was born 42 years before her son Ahaziah reigned over Judah. (1 Kings 8:26; 2 Chronicles 21:20; 2 Chronicles 22:2) See Gill on " (2 Chronicles 22:2)"
3079 AM, 3789 JP, 925 BC, 31 SK, 5 NK
  1. NK - Omri began to reign in Tirzah over Israel in the 31st year of king Asa. (1 Kings 16:23)
3080 AM, 3790 JP, 924 BC, 32 SK, 6 NK
  1. SK - Jehoram was born to Jehoshaphat 32 years, before his father took him as viceroy of his kingdom. (2 Kings 8:17; 2 Chronicles 21:20)
  2. NK - When Omri had now reigned 6 years in Tirzah, he then moved the capital of his kingdom from Tirzah to Samaria. He built Samaria in the hill of Samaria, a place which he had purchased from Shemer. (1 Kings 16:23,24)
3086 AM, 3796 JP, 918 BC, 38 SK, 1 NK
  1. Omri died and was buried at Samaria. He was a poor father but Ahab the son who succeeded him was much worse. Ahab reigned 22 years. (1 Kings 16:28,29)
3087 AM, 3797 JP, 917 BC, 39 SK, 2 NK
  1. SK - In the 39th year of his reign, Asa was diseased in his feet. He sought for help from the physicians and not from God. (2 Chronicles 16:12)
3090 AM, 3800 JP, 914 BC, 1 SK, 5 NK
  1. SK - In the end of the 41st year of his reign, Asa died and was buried in a sepulchre which he had prepared in the city of David. The tomb was filled with sweet odours and spices. (2 Chronicles 16:13,14) He was a good father and an even better son succeeded him called Jehoshaphat. In the very latter end of the 4th year of Ahab's reign, he started to reign over Judah and ruled for 25 years. (1 Kings 22:41,42; 2 Chronicles 20:31)
3092 AM, 3802 JP, 912 BC, 3 SK, 7 NK
  1. SK - When Jehoshaphat was established in his kingdom, he began by removing the high places and the groves. In the 3year of his reign, he sent out the Levites and other chief men into all cities to instruct the people. God gave him peace. (2 Chronicles 17:7-10)
3097 AM, 3807 JP, 907 BC, 8 SK, 12 NK
  1. SK - Athaliah the daughter of Ahab, king of Israel, married Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat king of Judah. This union resulted from the marriage alliance Jehoshaphat made with Ahab. (2 Chronicles 18:1) She had a son named Ahaziah, who at the age of 22 succeeded him in the kingdom. (2 Kings 8:18,26,27; 2 Chronicles 21:26; 2 Chronicles 22:2)
3099 AM, 3808 JP, 906 BC, 9 SK, 13 NK
  1. SK - The eleventh Jubilee.
3103 AM, 3813 JP, 901 BC, 14 SK, 18 NK
  1. NK - Benhadad, king of Assyria, assembled his army together and with the assistance of 32 petty kings besieged Samaria. He was defeated by Ahab and fled. (1 Kings 20:1-43)
3104 AM, 3814 JP, 900 BC, 15 SK, 19 NK
  1. NK - About a year later, Benhadad came up a second time as far a Aphek to fight with Israel. He was badly defeated and surrendered to Ahab. Ahab received him with all courtesy and honour and after a while let him go in peace. Ahab made a league of friendship with him. For this act, God pronounced judgment upon him by his prophet. (1 Kings 20:1-43) However as a result of this league, there was 3 years of peace between the two nations. (1 Kings 22:1)
3105 AM, 3815 JP, 899 BC, 16 SK, 20 NK
  1. NK - When Ahab could not get Naboth to sell him his vineyard, he was depressed. Jezebel his wife, using false witnesses had Naboth condemned to death and stoned. Ahab got possession of the vineyard. For this wicked deed, the prophet Elijah told him of the destruction which was to befall him, Jezebel and all his posterity. When Ahab trembled at this and by a timely repentance, he obtained a respite of this judgment. (1 Kings 21:1-29)
3106 AM, 3816 JP, 898 BC, 17 SK, 21 NK
  1. SK - As Ahab had done, Jehoshaphat made Jehoram his son, viceroy of the kingdom. Jehoram the son of Ahab succeeded his brother Ahaziah (1 Kings 1:18) as king over the Israelites in the 18th year of Jehoshaphat king of Judah. (2 Kings 3:1) He is said to have begun his reign, in the 2nd year of Jehoram, the son of Jehoshaphat. (2 Kings 1:17)
  2. NK - Ahab in the 17th year of the reign of Jehoshaphat, made his son Ahaziah viceroy in the kingdom. (1 Kings 22:51)
3107 AM, 3817 JP, 897 BC, 18 SK, 22,2 NK
  1. SK - Jehoshaphat visited Ahab at the very end of the third year of peace which Ahab had made with the Assyrians. He was invited by Ahab to go with him to the siege of Ramothgilead. After being entreated he went but barely escaped from there with his life. (1 Kings 22:1-53; 2 Chronicles 18:1-34) When he returned home, the prophet Jehu, the son of Hanani reproved him for helping such a wicked king. (2 Chronicles 19:1,2)
  2. NK - After Ahab convinced Jehoshaphat to go with him, he went to besiege Ramothgilead. Before he went, he asked what the outcome of the war would be from the 400 false prophets and from Micaiah, the true prophet of God. They all told him he would do well but Micaiah foretold his defeat. Ahab disguised himself but was slain in the fight. He was buried in Samaria. (1 Kings 22:1-53; 2 Chronicles 18:1-34)
  3. After he was dead, Moab revolted from the Israelites. (2 Kings 1:1; 2 Kings 3:5) They had been in subjection to them ever since king David's days. (2 Samuel 8:2)
3108 AM, 3817 JP, 897 BC
  1. SK - When Jehoshaphat had built a fleet, he send it to Ophir for gold. Ahaziah the wicked son of Ahab went into partnership with him on this venture. At first Jehoshaphat refused the joint venture (1 Kings 22:49) but later agreed to it. For so doing, God destroyed the fleet and reproved him by his prophet Eliezer, the son of Dodavah. (2 Chronicles 20:35-37)
  2. NK - Ahaziah king of Israel was injured when he fell through a lattice of his dining room in Samaria. He asked Baalzebub, the god of the Ekronites, if he would recover. The prophet Elijah destroyed with fire from heaven 2 captains and their companies of 50 who were sent to capture and bring him to the king. At last, he went voluntarily with the third captain that came for him. He told the king plainly that he would die. (2 Kings 1:1-18) The king did die. He reigned two years, partly with his father, partly by himself. (1 Kings 22:51)
  3. When Ahaziah was dead, his brother Jehoram, the son of Ahab succeeded him in the later end of the 18th year of Jehoshaphat and reigned 12 years. (2 Kings 3:1)
  4. Elijah was taken up into heaven in a fiery chariot. (2 Kings 2:1-25)
3109 AM, 3819 JP, 895 BC, 20 SK, 2 NK
  1. When Edom was still under the control of Judah, the three kings from Israel, Judah and Edom united to subdue the rebellious Moabites. In this war Elisha the prophet, miraculously furnished the army with water and assured them of the victory over their enemies. Mesha king of the Moabites was besieged in Kirhareseth and tried unsuccessfully to break out with the small forces he had left. He captured the firstborn son who would have succeeded his father the king of Edom and is called king of the Edomites by the prophet Amos. (Amos 2:1) He offered him for a whole burnt offering upon the wall of the city. (2 Kings 3:1-27)
3112 AM, 3822 JP, 892 BC, 23 SK, 1 SK, 5 NK
  1. SK - When Jehoshaphat was old, he desired to settle his estate. He gave the rest of his sons, many gifts and fortified cities in Judah. His oldest son Jehoram [whom he had formerly employed as his viceregent] was made consort with him in the kingdom. This was in the 5th year of Jehoram king of Israel and he reigned for 8 years. (2 Chronicles 21:2,3,5,20; 2 Kings 8:16,17)
3115 AM, 3825 JP, 889 BC, 4 SK, 8 NK
  1. Jehoshaphat died and was buried in the city of David. (1 Kings 2:50; 2 Chronicles 21:5) This good king's wicked son, Jehoram ruled alone for 4 years. When he was established in his kingdom, he slew all his brothers and many of the other princes in Judah. (2 Chronicles 21:1-20) The Edomites revolted. They had been under the control of Judah since king David's time. (2 Samuel 8:14) Although they had been smitten by Jehoram, yet, according to the prophecy of Isaac, (Genesis 27:40) they shook off Judah's yoke for ever. Libnah, a city of the priests in the tribe of Judah, (Joshua 12:13) also revolted at this time. (2 Kings 18:20-22; 2 Chronicles 21:8-10)
3116 AM, 3825 JP, 889 BC
  1. SK - Jehoram followed the counsel of his wicked wife Athaliah and set up in Judah and Jerusalem the idolatrous worship of Baal just as Ahab, his father-in-law had done. He forced his subjects to worship Baal and he was reproved by a letter written by the prophet Elijah who foretold what calamities and punishments would happen to him. (2 Chronicles 21:11-15) These events occurred as predicted. (2 Chronicles 21:16-20)
  2. SK - First God stirred up against him the Philistines and Arabians. These attacked Judah and took away whatever was found in the king's house, together with his sons and wives. Since all his other sons were slain, he had only Jehoahaz left. (2 Chronicles 21:1-20) He was also called Ahaziah and Azariah and succeeded his father in the kingdom. (2 Chronicles 22:1,6)
3117 AM, 3827 JP, 887 BC, 6 SK, 10 NK
  1. SK - After this God struck Jehoram with an incurable disease in the bowels, which tormented him for 2 whole years. (2 Chronicles 21:15,18,19)
3118 AM, 3828 JP, 886 BC, 7 SK, 11 NK
  1. SK - When Jehoram was afflicted with this sickness, he made his son, Ahaziah, his viceroy, in the 11th year of Jorum the son of Ahab. (2 Kings 9:29)
3119 AM, 3829 JP, 885 BC, 8 SK, 1 SK, 12 NK
  1. When Jehoram's bowels fell out, he died a miserable death and was buried in the city of David, but without any pomp and not among the kings. (2 Chronicles 25:19,20) After this Ahaziah his son succeeded him in the 12th year of Joram the son of Ahab and he reigned one year in Jerusalem. He followed in the steps of his wicked mother Athaliah and the house of Ahab. He set up and maintained the worship of Baal. (2 Kings 8:25,27; 2 Chronicles 22:1-4)
  2. Ahaziah had a son by Zibia of Beersheba, whose name was Joash or Jehoash. He was proclaimed king at the age of 7. (2 Kings 11:21; 2 Chronicles 24:1)
3120 AM, 3830 JP, 884 BC
  1. NK - Jehoram king of Israel and Ahaziah king of Judah went out together with their armies to Ramothgilead against Hazael. He had recently succeeded Benhadad in the kingdom of Syria, as Elisha the prophet had foretold him. In that fight Jehoram was grievously wounded by the Syrians and he retired to Jezreel to be healed of his wounds. (2 Kings 8:1-29) Meanwhile a certain son of the prophets sent by Elisha came to Ramoth and anointed Jehu the son of Jehoshaphat the son the Nimshi, king over Israel. He told him the will of God for the wiping out of the house of Ahab. As soon as Jehu was proclaimed king by the captains and officers of the army, he marched to Jezreel. There he slew both Jehoram and Jezebel.(2 Kings 9:1-37) Jehu sent letters to Samaria which were responsible for the death of the seventy sons of Ahab as foretold by Elisha. He took with him Jehonadab, the son of Rechab and came to Samaria. There he destroyed all the family of Ahab with all the priests of Baal. Although he destroyed Baal worship, he still maintained the worship of Jeroboam's golden calves and the associated idolatry by the Israelites for all of his 28 year reign. (2 Kings 10:28,29,39)
  2. SK - Ahaziah returned from the battle at Ramothgilead against Hazael. Later he went to Jezreel to see Jehoram the king of Israel who was recovering from his wounds. When Jehu found many of his family attending him there and various princes of Judah, he slew them all. Then he searched for Ahaziah himself who had escaped and fled to Megiddo. When he caught up with him on the way to Gur which is in Ibleam, in the tribe of Manasseh, he killed him in his chariot. Ahaziah was carried from there by his servants and was buried with his fathers in the city of David. (2 Kings 9:2; 2 Chronicles 22:1-9) When Jehu was on his way back to Samaria, he met 42 men of Ahaziah's relatives heading to Jezreel. There they intended to greet the king's children but Jehu had them all killed. (2 Kings 10:13,14)
  3. When Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab, saw that her own son Ahaziah was dead, she killed all the royal family of the house of Judah and took control of the kingdom. Jehosheba, the daughter of king Joram, and wife to Jehoiada, the high priest, took the infant Joash who was the son of her brother Ahaziah. Joash and his nurse were hid for 6 years in the temple while Athaliah ruled. Thus she spared him from the slaughter of the rest of the royal family. (2 Kings 11:1-3; 2 Chronicles 22:10-12)
3126 AM, 3836 JP, 878 BC, 1 SK, 7 NK
  1. Jehoiada the high priest, brought out Joash at the age of 7 and anointed him king. After he had Athaliah killed, he restored the worship of the true God, destroyed the house of Baal and commanded Baal's high priest Mattan to be killed before his altars. (2 Kings 11:4,21); 2Ch 23:4,21Joash began his reign in the 7th year of Jehu and reigned 40 years in Jerusalem. (2 Kings 12:1; 2 Chronicles 24:1)
3140 AM, 3850 JP, 864 BC, 15 SK, 21 NK
  1. Amasiah the son of Joash and Jehoaddan, was born in Jerusalem because he was 25 years old when he began to reign. (2 Kings 14:2; 2 Chronicles 25:1)
3147 AM, 3857 JP, 857 BC, 22 SK, 28 NK
  1. Joash commanded the priests to repair the temple of God using the poll tax that was gathered for that purpose. (2 Kings 12:4-16; 2 Chronicles 24:4-14)
3148 AM, 3857 JP, 857 BC
  1. The twelfth Jubilee.
  2. In the 23year of his reign, Joash saw that the priests were quite slow in repairing the temple. Therefore he assigned the task to Jehoiada the chief priest and to others to complete that work. (2 Kings 12:6-16)
  3. NK - Jehoahaz succeeded his father Jehu as king over Israel in the 23year of Joash the son of Ahaziah. He reigned 17 years (2 Kings 13:1) and Hazael king of Syria cruelly oppressed the Israelites for his entire reign. (2 Kings 13:3-7,22) as foretold by Elisha. (2 Kings 8:12)
3163 AM, 3873 JP, 841 BC, 38 SK, 16 NK
  1. Joash the son of Jehoahaz, was made viceroy with his father in the latter end of the 37th year of Joash king of Judah. He reigned 16 years. (2 Kings 13:10)
3164 AM, 3874 JP, 840 BC, 39 SK, 17,2 NK
  1. After Jehoiada died, his son Zechariah the priest was stoned to death for reproving the Israelites for backsliding into idolatry. This was done by the king's command in the court of God's house. (2 Chronicles 24:17-22)
3165 AM, 3875 JP, 839 BC, 40 SK, 1 SK, 3 NK
  1. SK - The next year some small bands of Hazael, king of Syria attacked Judah and Jerusalem and killed all the chief of the people. They took away all their spoil to their king. When they were gone, Joash was left very sick. His servants conspired against him and killed him in his bed in revenge for Jehoiada's death at the beginning of the 40th year of his reign. (2 Chronicles 24:1,23-27; 2 Kings 12:17-21) His successor, Amasiah in the latter end of the 2nd year of Joash king of Israel, reigned 29 years. (2 Kings 14:1,2) When he was established in his kingdom he killed the servants who murdered his father. However he spared their children according to the law of God as delivered by Moses. (2 Kings 14:5,6; 2 Chronicles 25:3,4)
  2. NK - When Jehoahaz the son of Jehu had reigned 17 years, he died and was buried in Samaria. (2 Kings 13:1-9) Shortly after his father's funeral, Joash visited Elisha the prophet who was lying on his death bed. Tearfully he asked counsel of him concerning the state of the kingdom. Elisha foretold that he should have 3 victories over the Syrians. (2 Kings 13:14-20)
3168 AM, 3878 JP, 836 BC, 4 SK, 6 NK
  1. NK - Jeroboam the second, seems to have been made viceroy of the kingdom by his father Joash. He went to war and in three battles overthrew Benhadad, who succeeded his father Hazael in the kingdom of Syria. He recovered from Benhadad the cities which Jehoahaz his father had lost. Hence we may gather, that Azariah king of Judah began his reign in the 27th year of this Jeroboam. (2 Kings 13:25; 2 Kings 15:1)
3178 AM, 3888 JP, 826 BC, 14 SK, 16 NK
  1. SK - Uzziah was born to Amasiah by Jecholiah of Jerusalem. He was also called Azariah and was 16 years old when he succeeded his father in the kingdom. (2 Kings 15:2; 2 Chronicles 26:2)
  2. Amasiah became proud of his recent victory over the Edomites. In this fourteenth year of his reign, as Josephus, lib 9. Antiquit. ca. 10. states, he provoked Joash king of the Israelites to battle. In the battle at Bethshemesh he was defeated and taken prisoner. He was released when a payment of a large ransom including hostages was made. (2 Kings 14:8-14; 2 Chronicles 25:17-24)
  3. NK - When Joash defeated Amasiah, king of Judah he took him prisoner. Joash broke down 400 cubits of the wall of Jerusalem from the gate of Ephraim to the corner gate. When he had taken all the treasure from both the temple and the king's house, he returned to Samaria. (2 Kings 14:13,14; 2 Chronicles 25:23,24)
3179 AM, 3889 JP, 825 BC, 15 SK, 1 NK
  1. Joash died 15 years before the death of Amaziah. Jeroboam his son succeeded him and reigned in Samaria 41 years. (2 Kings 14:23)
  2. God used Jeroboam to deliver Israel. He recaptured Damascus and Hamath which rightly belonged to the tribe of Judah. (2 Samuel 8:6; 2 Chronicles 8:3) He restored the former borders (Numbers 13:21) from the entrance into Hamath to the sea of the plain. This fulfilled the prophecy of the Lord which was spoken by Jonah the prophet, the son of Amittai. (2 Kings 14:25,27,28)
3194 AM, 3904 JP, 810 BC, 29 SK, 15 NK
  1. SK - When Amaziah discovered a conspiracy against him at Jerusalem, he fled to Lachish where he was murdered. From there he was carried to the city of David and buried. (2 Kings 14:19,20; 2 Chronicles 25:27,28) Uzziah, or Azariah succeeded him in the 27th year of Jeroboam, king of Israel as reckoning from the time that he began to reign as co-regent with his father as noted in 3168 A.M. He reigned 52 years in Jerusalem (2 Kings 15:1,2) and under him the kingdom of Judah prospered as much as Israel did under Jeroboam the second. As long as he followed the advice of the prophet Zechariah, he applied his heart to religious matters. God prospered him and he subdued the Philistines and his neighbouring enemies. He became mighty in his kingdom. (2 Chronicles 26:2-16)
3197 AM, 3906 JP, 808 BC, 4 SK, 19 NK
  1. SK - Now was the 13th Jubilee held under two most prosperous kings, under whom also lived various great prophets in either kingdom. In Judah, lived that evangelical prophet, Isaiah, the son of Amoz, (Isaiah 1:1) and Joel, the son of Pethuel. He prophesied before Amos, as Codamanus observes because in (Joel 1:20) he predicted a coming drought which Amos in (Amos 4:1-13) said had happened. Amos lived in Judah, among the herdsmen of Tekoa and was called to be a prophet to the kingdom of Israel two years before the earthquake which happened in the days of these two kings Uzziah and Jeroboam the second. (Amos 1:1; Zechariah 11:5)
  2. NK - At the same time, Jonah the son of Amittai and Hosea the son of Beeri prophesied in Israel.
  3. Jonah was from Gathhepher, (2 Kings 14:25) a town of the tribe of Zebulun,(John 7:52) in Galilee of the Gentiles. (Isaiah 9:1) This is referred to by the Pharisees who spoke with Nicodemus. (John 7:52) "Search and know that out of Galilee, never arose any prophet." It seems that at the time the Syrians oppressed Israel, and all were vulnerable to their invasion, that they took great spoil, and no one was able to deliver them. He foretold that Joash his son Jeroboam, would deliver Israel out of their hands and avenge them of the wrong they had endured. (2 Kings 14:25,26) Jonah was later sent to Nineveh, the capital city of Assyria. By his preaching he brought both the king and people to repentance . (Jonah 3:1-10; Matthew 12:41)
  4. When Jeroboam was successfully ruling Israel, Hosea foretold the ruin and desolation of it. He also lived to see its ruin as he continued as a prophet to the time of Hezekiah. (Hosea 1:1) In the 6th year of his reign came the desolation of Israel. (2 Kings 18:10)
  5. Amos was a third prophet taken from Judah as he kept his flocks. He was sent to prophesy to the people of Israel. (Amos 1:1,7,14,15) He was accused by Amasai the priest at Bethel, before Jeroboam, who commanded him to return into Judah. Amos pronounced judgment against Amasai saying "Thy wife, shall play the harlot in the city and thy sons, and thy daughters shall fall by the sword. Thy land shall by divided by line; and thou shalt die in a polluted land. [viz. of Assyria]"
  6. when Israel shall be carried away out of her own land.(Amos 7:10,12,13,17)
3207 AM, 3917 JP, 797 BC, 14 SK, 29 NK
  1. In Lydia, Ardysus of the clan of the Heraclidae, reigned 36 years [Euseb. Chron.]
3210 AM, 3920 JP, 794 BC, 17 SK, 32 NK
  1. The kingdom of Macedonia, was set up by Caranus, a man of the clan of the Heraclidae.
3213 AM, 3923 JP, 791 BC, 20 SK, 35 NK
  1. SK - There was an eclipse of the sun, of about 10 digits this year on the 24th day of June, during the feast of Pentecost. [12 digits indicates a total eclipse, 10 digits would be 10/12 of the sun's disk was covered.] Another eclipse occurred of almost 12 digits, 11 years later, on November 8th 3933 JP, during the Feast of Tabernacles. A third eclipse of over 11 digits happened the next year on May 5th, 3934 JP during the Feast of Unleavened Bread. [3943,3944 in original document] The prophesy of Amos, (Amos 8:8-10) is referenced as he states: "the sun shall set at noonday and I will bring darkness upon the earth in a clear day. I will turn your festivals into mourning and all your solemn songs into lamentations."
  2. Up to this time, the early church fathers took this prophecy to refer to that darkness which came during the Feast of the Passover at the passion of our Saviour. In these three dark eclipses which came during each of these feasts, in which all the males were in Jerusalem before the Lord, that prophesy was thought to have been literally fulfilled. Among the Greeks, Thales the astronomer thought Amos was the first to predict eclipses of the sun. [June 24,791 BC, JD=1432685.1171, middle of the eclipse in Jerusalem - 18.89 hours GMT [for Babylon - 19.13], maximum - 0.92Babylon - 0.63. Data taken from "Solar and Lunar Eclipses of the Ancient Near East from 3000 B.C. to 0 with Maps" by Manfred Kudlek and Erich Mickler, published in Neukirchen in 1971. Unable to confirm data using Canon of Lunar Eclipses", [-2002 - 2526], Jean Meeus, Herman Muche, 1979. Editor.]
3220 AM, 3930 JP, 784 BC, 26 SK, 41 NK
  1. NK - When Jeroboam died, the kingdom seriously declined. Tumults arose which headed them toward their ultimate destruction beginning first with Jeroboam's own family and then the whole kingdom. This was foretold in (Amos 7:1-8:14). All was reduced to anarchy among the Israelites for eleven and an half years and there was no king during this time. This is deduced when the times of these two kingdoms are compared. In Israel we understand that the 6 month reign of Zachariah the son of Jeroboam occurred in the last 6 months of the 38th year of Uzziah. The one month that Shallum reigned was the first month of the 39th year of Uzziah. (2 Kings 15:8-13)
3221 AM, 3931 JP, 783 BC
  1. SK - Uzziah, king of Judah and his wife Jerusha the daughter of Zadok had a son named Jotham. When Uzziah was quarantined because of his leprosy, Jotham ruled in the king's house and judged the people. When Uzziah died Jotham succeeded him as king when he was 25 years old. (2 Kings 15:5,33; 2 Chronicles 26:21; 2 Chronicles 27:1,8) From this we can deduce that a short time later when Menahem, took over the kingdom of Israel, that Uzziah was an old man. It was at this time as he aspired to take the office of a priest that he was stricken with leprosy. This is contrary to what the Jews and Procopius Gaseus affirm, from (Isaiah 7:1-25) that this overtook him about the 25th year of his reign. The earthquake occurred in the days of Uzziah and Jeroboam, (Amos 1:1; Zechariah 11:5) It is clear that when Jeroboam died, Jotham had not yet been born.
3224 AM, 3933 JP, 781 BC
  1. SK - Eclipse of the sun, see note on 3213 AM
  2. SK - Eclipse of the sun, see note on 3213
3228 AM, 3938 JP, 776 BC, 35 SK, 9 NK
  1. In the summer of the year 3228, the first olympiad took place [according to Greek chronologers]. Choraebus of Elis won the race. The Iphitean account dates it the 28th. As Julius Africanus shows out of the writings of Aristodemus Eleus and Polybius [as in the Greek edition of Eusebius by Scaliger, p.13 & p.216] states: And here ends that interval of time which by the learned Varro [as in Censorinus' book, "de die natali", reports is termed mythological because many mythological things are said to have happened. From this time on Greek history begins.
3232 AM, 3941 JP, 773 BC, 38 SK, 1 NK
  1. NK - Zachariah the son of Jeroboam, began his reign in the 38th year of Uzziah king of Judah. He was the fourth and last of the family of Jehu as was foretold by God. He reigned for 6 months. (2 Kings 15:8,12,10,30)
  2. At the end of those 6 months, he was murdered by Shallum the son of Jabesh, in the sight of the people. (2 Kings 15:10) At this time the calamities foretold by Amos the prophet took place. (Amos 7:1-17; Amos 9:1-15) "The high places of Isaac shall be desolate and the sanctuaries of Israel made a wilderness, when I shall arise with a sword against the house of Jeroboam."
  3. Shallum the son of Jabesh, reigned one month in the 39th year of Uzziah king of Judah. (2 Kings 15:13)
  4. When Menahem the son of Gad, was going from Tirzah to Samaria, he killed Shallum and destroyed Tiphsah with its borders. He also violently slaughtered all the pregnant women. (2 Kings 15:14-16)
  5. This Menahem, is by Supitius Severus in his 1st book of "Histo. Sacra", goes by the name of Manes. This person is also called Manichaus later known as the heretic, in that his name means "a comforter"
3233 AM, 3943 JP, 771 BC
  1. Boccaris Saites, reigned in Egypt for 40 years. [African.]
  2. NK - While Menahem spent 11 months fighting to take over the kingdom, God stirred up Pul king of Assyria to invade the land of Israel. (1 Chronicles 5:26; 2 Kings 15:19)
  3. Pul seems to have been the father of Sardanapalus, from whose name he called himself Sardan-pul just as Merodach king of Babylon, from Baladan his father, was called Merodach Baladan. (Isaiah 39:1) The following chronologers agree that he is the same person, but call him by different names. Jul. African. calls him "Acracarnes". Eusebius, calls him "Oceazapes". Stephanus Bysantinus calls him "Cindaraxes". Strabo, Arrian and Suidas, call him "Anacyndaraxes". By others, [as we find in Atheneus, l.2. Deiphosoph.] he is called "Anabaxares". Furthermore, I considered the number of years assigned by Africanus and Eusebius, to the reigns of him and his son. I then counted the years backwards from the beginning of Nabonassar to the end of Sardanapalus' reign. I believe both lived at the same time. This man named Pul seems to have been the same man who was converted and brought to repentance by the preaching of the prophet Jonah. This means that the men of Nineveh may have risen in judgment against this nation. God here raised up a repentant, heathen man to take vengeance on the unrepentent Israel.
  4. Menahem gave Pul a thousand talents of silver to help settle and confirm him in his kingdom. (2 Kings 15:19,20) In reference to this, some refer to (Hosea 5:13) "When Ephraim saw his sickness and Judah saw his wound, then Ephraim went to the Assyrian and sent to king Jareb, who should defend or uphold him."
  5. When Menahem was thus confirmed in the kingdom, he was established in the latter end of the 39th year of the reign of Uzziah. He held the kingdom for 10 years. (2 Kings 15:17)
3237 AM, 3947 JP, 767 BC, 44 SK, 5 NK
  1. Sardanapalus held the kingdom of the Assyrians for 20 years, according to Jul. Africanus. and Euseb. In his Epitaph [which is contained in Atheneus l.12 out of Clirarchus and in Strabo, l.14and in Arrian, 1.3. of the acts of Alexander] he is said to have built two cities in Cilicia in one day. These cities were Anchialus and Tarsus.
3242 AM, 3952 JP, 762 BC, 49 SK, 10 NK
  1. SK - Ahaz the son of Jotham, was born in this year. He was 20 years old, when he started to reign (2 Kings 16:2; 2 Chronicles 28:1) and reigned for 16 years. After his death, his son Hezekiah, is said to have been 25 years old, when he began to reign. Otherwise, Ahaz would only be 11 years old when his son was born. Hence, Tremelius understands that Ahaz was 20 years old not when he himself reigned, but when his father Jotham began his reign. 3243c AM, 3953 JP, 761 BC, 50 SK, 1 NK
  2. NK - Pekahiah succeeded his father Menahem, who died in the 50th year of Uzziah, king of Judah and he reigned for 2 years.(2 Kings 15:22) 3245c AM, 3955 JP, 759 BC, 51 SK, 2 NK
  3. SK - Habyattes the elder, reigned in Lydia 14 years, [Euseb. Chron.]
  4. NK - Pekah, the son of Remaliah, killed Pekahiah in his own palace in Samaria. He then reigned in Pekahiah's place for 20 years reckoning from the 52 years of Uzziah king of Judah. (2 Kings 15:25,27)
3246 AM, 3955 JP, 759 BC
  1. SK - It was during the 14th Jubilee when Isaiah saw the glory of the Lord sitting on his throne. God was surrounded with a guard of angels singing, "Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Sabaoth." The Jewish people grew more and more obstinate and blind every day lest they should understand the words of the prophets sent to them and be converted and healed. Isa 6:1-1(3 John 1:12:40,41)
  2. Isaiah's vision came in the last year of king Uzziah. (Isaiah 6:1) He was buried in the city of David in the burying place of the kings, but apart from the rest because of his leprosy. Jotham his son succeeded him in the 20th year of Pekah, king of Israel. He reigned 16 years in Jerusalem, (2 Kings 15:7,32,33; 2 Chronicles 26:23; 2 Chronicles 27:1,8)
  3. Jotham fought a battle against the Ammonites and overthrew them. They became his tributaries for three years. (2 Chronicles 27:5) He had two successors, Micah the Morasthite and Isaiah. Hosea executed the prophetic function. (Micah 1:1) In his time also, as Josephus l.9. Antiq. c.11. or (12). affirms, Nahum the prophet foretold the subversion of the Assyrians and of Nineveh. This came to pass 115 years later. By that reckoning, Josephus understands that Nahum prophesied in the time of Ahaz, the son of Jotham. 3252c AM, 3962 JP, 752 BC, 7 SK, 7 NK
  4. In this year Hezekiah the son of Ahaz, was born by his mother Abi, the daughter of Zachariah. He was 25 years old when he began to reign. (2 Kings 18:2; 2 Chronicles 29:1)
3254 AM, 3964 JP, 750 BC, 9 SK, 10 NK
  1. Two towns were built in this year. Ardus was one of them. It was constructed on a very small island as Mela notes. The whole circumference of this island was taken up with this one town. Cyzicum was the second town located in Propontis.
  2. Arbaces the governor of Media, scorned the effeminate ways of Sardinapalus. He conspired with Belesus the governor of Babylon by sending a battalion of 400,000 men of Medes, Persia, Babylon and Arabia. He was overthrown in three battles, but in the fourth the Bactrian soldiers defected over to him. He attacked his enemies by night and unawares and drove them from their camp. When Sardanapalus put all the command of the army into the hands of Salaemenus, his wife's brother, he was also defeated twice by the conspirators. As a result he was almost killed and all his army. When Nineveh was besieged, Sardanapalus sent three of his sons and two daughters into Paphlagonia with a great treasure. They gave it to Cotta, governor of that province. With this treasure Cotta dispatched messengers and commissioners throughout the land to conscript soldiers and provide all the necessities needed to endure a siege. [Diod. Sic. l. 2.] 3256c AM, 3966 JP, 748 BC, 11 SK, 12 NK
  3. SK - Rome was founded by Romulus according to the reckoning of Fabius Pictor, the most ancient of all Roman writers. This date is confirmed according to the account of the secular games held by the ancient Romans most religiously. This happened shortly before the beginning of the 8th Olympiad, on the feast of their goddess Pales, on the 10th day of April. However the feast of Pales, according to Varro's account, was a full 5 years earlier than it is according to Fabius. The poet Ovid said of this day: "Urbs oritur [quis tunc hoc ulli credere posses?] Victorem torris impositura pedem." Fal. 4.
  4. That is: A city is born, [which who then would have thought] That since the world Has in subjection brought.
3257 AM, 3967 JP, 747 BC
  1. In the 3year of the siege of Nineveh the river overflowed with continual rains. It flooded a part of the city and undermined two and one half miles of the wall. When Sardanapalus knew this, he made a huge pile of wood in his palace court and set it on fire, which burned himself, his concubines, his eunuchs and all his riches. The palace itself was also burned to ashes.
  2. The conspirators entered by the breach in the wall made by the water, and took the city. They proclaimed Arbaces as their king. [Diod. l.2. and Athena. l.12 from Ctesias.] Therefore the kingdom of the Assyrians was destroyed. From the beginning of the reign of Ninus, they held all of upper Asia for 520 years as Herodus [l. 1. c.95.] affirms.
  3. After the kingdom fell, it was divided. Arbaces, whom Strabo calls "Orbacus" and Velleius Paterculus named "Pharnaces" freed his countrymen the Medes from the Assyrian yoke. Later, he enabled them to live according to their own laws. Herodotus, in the book previously mentioned, affirms this. Belesis, is called Baladan in the scriptures. (Isaiah 39:1; 2 Kings 20:12) Agathias [l. 2. Histo. from Bion & Alex. Polyhist.] calls him "Belessas" or "Beleussus". Nicol. Damascennus, in his Eclogs, set forth by Hen. Valesius, Naminybrus. By Hipparchus, he is called "Ptolomaus". Censorinus is called "Nabonassarus." He held the kingdom of Babylon for 14 years.
  4. From twelve o'clock, on the first day of the Egyptian month Thoth, from Wednesday, February 26th, in the evening, in the year 747 BC, all astronomers unanimously start the calender of Nabonassar.
  5. Meles in Lydia reigned 12 years, [Euseb. Chron.] of whom more is to be read about in Herodotus. [l. 1. c.84.]
  6. Ninus the younger, held the kingdom of the Assyrians [reduced now to the old boundaries]. The empire was quite diminished in Sardanapalus' 19 years. Eusebius explained the errors in Chronology in many large volumes of his Greek Chron. out of Castor the Rhodian. This Ninus, for good luck, seemed to have assumed the name of the first founder of the Assyrian kingdom. His own original name was Eliam, as l.12. Histor. Annal. and Thilgamus tell us. In the scriptures he is known as "Tilgathpilneser" (1 Chronicles 28:20) or "Tiglathpileser". (2 Kings 15:29; 2 Kings 16:7,10) 3262c AM, 3972 JP, 742 BC, 17 SK, 18 NK
  7. Ahaz succeeded his father Jotham at the very end of the 17th year of Pekah, the son of Remaliah and reigned 16 years in Jerusalem, (2 Kings 16:1,2; 2 Chronicles 28:1)
  8. Towards the end of the reign of Jotham, God began to stir up Resin the king of Syria and Pekah the son of Remaliah against Judah. (2 Kings 15:37) Judah was terrified at the approach of these enemies and expected a quick defeat at their hands. God sent a gracious message to Ahaz by Isaiah the prophet with a promise of his deliverance and the destruction of his enemies. For a sign of his deliverance [when the incredulous king was asked what sign he wanted, he said none], God made him a promise that a virgin would bear Immanuel. He would be both God and man, or God with us, or dwelling in our flesh. With regard to his office, he is the only Mediator between God and man. (1 Timothy 2:5) He would bring to pass that God would "be with us" (Isaiah 8:10) gracious and propitious to us and a very present help in trouble. (Psalms 46:1,2,7); Ro 8:31,32This message was most befitting the present situation in that all promises of God in Christ, are "Yea and Amen", (2 Corinthians 1:20) to be fulfilled generally in him and for him. Besides this the land of Judah was to be privileged to be Immanuel's land. (Isaiah 8:8) Pertaining to the flesh, he was to be born not only of the Jews but also of the very house of David. According to the prophecy of Jacob. (Genesis 49:10) This would happen before the sceptre would depart from Judah. That is, before Judah would cease to be a nation ruled by kings. Therefore at that time Judah need not fear the destruction of the house of David or the nation of the Jews. However, 65 years later this happened to the Northern Kingdom as predicted by Isaiah. (Isaiah 7:1-8:22)
  9. For a sign of the destruction of those kings who came against Ahaz, the prophet was commanded to bring out Ahaz's son, Shearjashub. He told Ahaz that his son would eat butter and honey until he was old enough to know right from wrong. Before this happened both these kings would be dead. (Isaiah 7:3,15,16) At the same time Isaiah's wife, a prophetess, bore him another son. God named him Mahershalalhashbaz signifying that the Assyrian would hurry and take away the spoil. They would plunder both Syrians and Israelites before the child would be able plainly to pronounce, "My father", or "My mother." So the sons of the prophets were made to serve for signs from God to the Israelites. (Isaiah 8:3,4,18) After these prophecies Rezin and Pekah came up together to besiege Jerusalem where Ahaz was. They could not take it as was predicted by Isaiah. (Isaiah 7:1-7; 2 Kings 16:5) This wicked Ahaz was no sooner delivered out of this imminent danger, but he forsook God his deliverer and walked in the ways of the kings of Israel. He set up the idolatrous worship of Baal and offered incense in the valley of Benhanan. He made his own son to pass through the fire. He offered sacrifices in the high places, upon the hills and under every green tree. (2 Chronicles 28:2-4; 2 Kings 16,3,4) 3263c AM, 3973 JP, 741 BC, 2 SK, 19 NK
  10. SK - When Ahaz forsook God, God also forsook him. When Rezin and Pekah divided their forces, they overcame him. This they could not do when their forces were united. God gave him over into the hands of the Syrians who defeated him and carried away a great multitude of his people captive to Damascus. Also the king of Israel defeated him and slaughtered a great number of his people. (2 Chronicles 28:5)
  11. At the same time, Rezin conquered Elath, which Uzziah had recovered for Judah. Rezin rebuilt it and repopulated it with Syrians. (2 Kings 14:22; 2 Chronicles 26:2; 2 Kings 16:2)
  12. NK - Pekah killed 120,000 valiant men of Judah in one day. Zichri, a mighty man of the tribe of Ephraim, slew Maaseiah the king's son, Azrikam, the steward of the king's house and Elkanah who was next to the king in authority. The Israelites also carried away captive from Judah and Jerusalem 200,000 women, boys and maids. They plundered their goods and carried all away to Samaria. When warned by Hadlai a prophet of God, they released all of the prisoners and restored their goods to them in the presence of their princes and the whole congregation of Samaria. They treated them kindly and escorted them safely to Jericho. (2 Chronicles 28:6-15) 3264c AM, 3974 JP, 740 BC, 3 SK, 20 NK
  13. SK - The Edomites invaded Judah and carried away many captives. The Philistines whom king Uzziah had conquered, (2 Chronicles 26,6,7) now attacked the cities of Judah in the low countries and southern parts and dwelt there. God gave Judah over to their enemies because of Ahaz's sin and because he had led Judah into sin. (2 Chronicles 28:17-19)
  14. Ahaz took all the gold and silver that was found in the Lord's house and in the treasury of the king's house. He sent it for a present to Tiglathpileser king of Assyria wishing him to come and deliver him from the kings of Syria and Israel. He came and took Damascus, and carried away all its inhabitants to Kir and killed Rezin the king of Syria. (2 Kings 16:7-9) This fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah, (2 Kings 7:16; 2 Kings 8:4) 9:11 as well as of Amos who long before had foretold the ruin of the king of Damascus, in these words. "I will send a fire upon the house of Hazael, which shall consume the palaces of Benhadad and I will break in pieces the bars of Damascus and root out the inhabitants of the valley of Aven, and him that beareth the sceptre out of the house of Eden and the people of Syria shall be carried away into Assyria, saith the Lord," (Amos 1:4,5)
  15. So the kingdom of Damascus, of Hamath came to an end. [(Amos 6:2) and of Arpad, (Jeremiah 49:23; Isaiah 10:9; Isaiah 36:19) 37:12,13] This kingdom began with a man called Rezon, (1 Kings 11:23,24) and ended with one of the same name. It lasted for 10 generations, as Nicol. Damascenes, cited by Josephus, l.7. Antiquit. c.6. affirms. See note 2960 A.M.
  16. When Ahaz went to meet Tiglathpileser at Damascus, he congratulated him for his great victory. He saw there an altar and he sent the pattern of it to Uriah, the priest, so that he might make one like it in Jerusalem. When he returned, he and the people offered their sacrifices on it. He moved the brazen altar far from the front of the house so that it would not stand between his altar and the house of the Lord. (2 Kings 16:1-20)
  17. NK - When Ahaz implored the aid of the kings of Assyria, [as it is said in (2 Chronicles 28:16) "kings" in the plural, by a usual analogy, or change of the number, (Psalms 105:30; Jeremiah 19:3; Jeremiah 25:22; Isaiah 1:52)] against Pekah, Tiglathpileser came. He led away the people of Gilead or Peraea, to wit, the Reubenites and the Gadites and the half tribe of Manasseh, to Habor and Hara and the river Gozan. When he then passed over Jordan, he occupied Galilee and carried away all the inhabitants of Naphtali, who Benhadad had left, together with the men of Galilee into Assyria. (1 Chronicles 5:26; 2 Kings 15:29; 1 Kings 15:20; Isaiah 9:1)
3265 AM, 3975 JP, 739 BC, 4 SK, 1 NK
  1. SK - When Ahaz had now made himself a servant to the king of Assyria, then he found that he had received more harm than help from him. (2 Chronicles 28:20,21) Isaiah had previously intimated to him of this using the allegory: "The Lord shall shave off the hair of thy head and feet with an hired razor, from beyond the river, even the king of Assyria, and it shall also consume the beard." (Isaiah 7:20)
  2. Therefore Ahaz built a secret passage between the king's house to the house of the Lord because he feared the king of Assyria. (2 Kings 16:18) Tremelius understands this to mean that for fear lest the king of Assyria would assault him from that way and break into his palace. In the midst of all of his afflictions, he sinned still more and more against the Lord. (2 Chronicles 28:22)
  3. NK - When Hoshea, the son of Elah, murdered Pekah the son of Remaliah, he took over the kingdom 20 years after Jotham started to reign over Judah, (2 Kings 15:30-38) or the 4th year of the reign of Ahaz. See Gill on " (2 Kings 15:30)" However the kingdom was in civildisorder and anarchy for nine years and Hoshea had a troubled reign.
3269 AM, 3979 JP, 735 BC, 8 SK, 5 NK
  1. Candaules, whom the Greek authors call, as Herodotus said, Myrsylus, the son of Myrsus was the last of the family of the Heraclydae. He reigned in Lydia for 17 years. [Euseb. Chron.]
3271 AM, 3981 JP, 733 BC, 10 SK, 7 NK
  1. Nadius, or Nabius reigned over the Babylonians for 2 years. [Ptol. in Reg. Canone.]
3273 AM, 3983 JP, 731 BC, 12 SK, 9 NK
  1. Chinzirus and Porus, reigned over the Babylonians, 5 years. [Ptol. in Reg. Canone.]
3274 AM, 3984 JP, 730 BC, 13 SK, 1 NK
  1. NK - When Hoshea restored order in Israel, he began a peaceful reign in the latter end of the 12th year of Ahaz king of Judah. (2 Kings 17:1)
3276 AM, 3986 JP, 728 BC, 14 SK, 2 NK
  1. NK - Tiglathpileser or Ninus the younger reigned for 19 years according to Castor and died. After him came Shalmaneser, called Evemassar as in the Greek copy of Tobias. This man seems to be that Shalman, who in the prophesy of (Hosea 10:14) is said to have laid waste Betharbel. The place was famous later for the defeat of Darius the Persian. This is the country of Arbella, in the land of Assyria, beneath Arpad. Against Hoshea, king of Israel, Shalmaneser came up. He made him to serve and pay him tribute. (2 Kings 17:3)
3277 AM, 3987 JP, 727 BC, 1 SK, 16 SK, 4 NK
  1. After Sabacon, an Ethiopian, had taken Boccoris king of Egypt alive, he burnt him in the fire and reigned in his place 8 years. [Affica.]
  2. SK - In the last year of his reign, Ahaz made his son Hezekiah viceroy with him in the kingdom. This was in the latter end of the third year of Hoshea king of Israel. Hezekiah reigned 29 years in Jerusalem. (2 Kings 18:1,2)
3278 AM, 3987 JP, 727 BC
  1. Jugaeus or Julaeus, reigned over the Babylonians 5 years, [Ptol. reg. Canon.]
  2. SK - Ahaz died in this year. The prophet Isaiah foretold the destruction of the Philistines [who at that time, unjustly held a part of Judah, as was shown before, in the 3264th AM.] (Isaiah 14:28-32) Likewise he predicted a great disaster to happen to the Moabites within three years. (Isaiah 15:1-16:14) For fulfilment of these prophesies, see 3280 AM and 3284 AM. 3278c AM, 3988 JP, 726 BC, 1 SK
  3. SK - After Ahaz died, Hezekiah, toward the latter end of the first year of his reign in the first month Abib, opened the doors of the Lord's house which his father had shut up. (2 Chronicles 28:24) He commanded the priests and Levites to sanctify themselves and then to clean up the temple. (2 Chronicles 29:3,4)
  4. They were encouraged by Hezekiah and on the first day of the first month, [Sunday, April 21st] they sanctified themselves. According to the king's command, came to cleanse the house of the Lord. On the 8th day of the some month, [Sunday, April 28th.] they entered into the porch of the temple and sanctified the house of the Lord for 8 days. On the 16th day of the first month, [Sunday, May 6th.] they finished that work. (2 Chronicles 29:15-17)
  5. Early next morning [Monday, May 6th.], king Hezekiah called together all the rulers of the city. He went up into the house of the Lord together with the people. With the ministry of the priests and Levites, he offered many sacrifices upon the altar of the Lord with great joy and gladness. (2 Chronicles 29:20-36)
  6. According to the law in (Numbers 9:10,11), the passover was delayed until the second month for the following reasons. The passover could not be kept at the same time when that meeting and the cleansing of the temple was being done. The number of sanctified priests was not enough. All the people were not gathered together from all the country to Jerusalem. Notice was sent to all the people from Beersheba even to Dan. Not only the Jews, but some also out of the tribes of Asher, Manasseh and Zebulun, came together in Jerusalem. The rest of the tribes laughed at the notice. 2Ch 30:1-12The altars for idols and of incense were destroyed first and then thrown into the brook Kidron. They killed the Pascal lambs on the 14th day of the second month, [Sunday, June 3rd.] They kept the feast of unleavened bread for 7 days. They offered their sacrifices of thanksgiving and sang praises to the God of their fathers. (2 Chronicles 30:13-22) As further testimony of their thankfulness to God, they continued 7 more days. This time was kept and celebrated with great glee and joy of heart. (2 Chronicles 30:23)
  7. When they had finished these activities, then all the Israelites, who were present there, about the end of the second month, went out into all the cities of Judah. They broke down the images and cut down the groves and destroyed the high places and altars throughout Ephraim and Manasseh until they had finished the work. When this was done, the Israelites returned home. (2 Chronicles 31:1)
  8. Hezekiah went further. He broke in pieces the very brazen serpent that Moses had set up (Numbers 21:9) because in those days the Israelites burnt incense to it. In contempt of it, he called it by a diminutive term, "Nehushtan", "a little piece of brass." (2 Kings 18:4) He appointed the priests and Levites to their duties. He provided for them food and maintenance by establishing again the law of first fruits and tithes. (2 Chronicles 31:1-21)
  9. On the 3month, every man brought in their first fruits and tithes and gave them to the priests. (2 Chronicles 31:5-7)
3279 AM, 3988 JP, 726 BC
  1. SK - In the 7th month after the harvest of the fruits of the whole year was completed, (Exodus 29:16) the collection of the first fruits and tithes was completed. (2 Chronicles 31:7) Hezekiah appointed officers for the proper distribution of them. (2 Chronicles 31:1-21)
  2. NK - Hoshea the king of Israel, consulted beforehand with So king of Egypt and refused to pay tribute any longer to Shalmaneser. (2 Kings 17:4)
  3. This So or Sua, as Jerome calls him, seems to be none other then Sabacon the Ethiopian.
  4. Chrysostome, in his 30th Homile on John, says that this Hoshea made an alliance with the Ethiopians. Severus Sulpicius, in his sacred History l.1 says "that he allied with the kings of the Ethiopians, who at that time, held the kingdoms of Egypt."
3280 AM, 3990 JP, 724 BC, 4 SK, 7 NK
  1. NK - When Shalmaneser knew that Hoshea had allied himself with the king of Egypt, he first secured all the land of the Moabites. So that he might have no enemy at his rear to annoy his army, he razed to the ground their two chief cities, Arnon and Kirhareseth. This fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah foretold three years earlier. Isa 16:7-11See Tremellius on this. Then he went through and wasted all the land of Israel and marched toward Samaria in the 4th year of Hezekiah. In the 7th year of Hoshea, he besieged Samaria for 3 years, (2 Kings 17:4-6; 2 Kings 18:9)
3283 AM, 3993 JP, 721 BC, 6 SK, 9 NK
  1. After Nabonasser's 26 year reign, Mardocempadus began to reign in Babylon for 12 years according to Ptolemy's Reg. Canon. By the prophet Isaiah, Merodach Baladan, is called the son of Baladan, (Isaiah 39:1) as being Belesis, or the son, or according to a most usual Hebrewism, nephew of Nabonasar. In Mardocempadus' first year the moon was eclipsed at Babylon, according to Ptolemy in his 4th book of his great Syntaxis, c.6. This was in the 27th of Nabonasar, 29th of the month Thoth, as the Egyptians call it, [that is toward the end of our March 19th] two and an half hours before midnight.
  2. NK - Toward the end of the 3year of the siege of Samaria, in the 6th year of the reign of Hezekiah and 9th of Hoshea, Shalmaneser took Samaria. He carried away the Israelites into his own country and settled them in Halah, Habor and the river Gozan and in the cities of the Medes. Tiglathpileser had formerly transported to this place the inhabitants of Perea, or the two tribes and a half living on the other side Jordan. (1 Chronicles 5:26; 2 Kings 17:6; 2 Kings 8:10,11) Anarchy was in Media before the kingdom of Media was taken by "Deioces". This gave occasion to the Assyrians to invade and take over that whole country. This was the place where Tobit or Tobias the elder states that he at this time with Anna his wife and his country men, the Nepthalites, were carried away into the land of the Assyrians. There they provided grain and other food for Shalmaneser's household. Also he was carried into Media and there placed in a principal city of Media called Rages. There he deposited ten talents of silver in the hand and trust of Gabael his near kinsman and one that was carried away captive with him to the same place. /APC (Tobit 1:22) This was the end of the kingdom of Israel after if revolted from the kingdom of Judah 254 years earlier.
3284 AM, 3994 JP, 720 BC
  1. In the second year of Merodach's reign, there was another eclipse of the moon in Babylon. This happened in the 28th year of Nabonasar, on the 18th day of the month of Thoth, at midnight. The Julian calendar dates it on Saturday, March 9th. Exactly 176 days and 20 and an half hours later, a third eclipse of the moon took place. This occurred on the 15th day of the month Phamenoth Sunday, September 1st. three hours and an half before midnight. [Ptolemy l. 4. Magn. Syntax, c.6, and 7.]
3285 AM, 3995 JP, 719 BC
  1. Seuechus the Ethiopian, Sabacon's son, reigned in Egypt for 14 years. [African,] He seems to also be called Sethos, priest to Vulcan who is mentioned by Herodotus in his second book c. 141.
3286 AM, 3996 JP, 718 BC
  1. When Candaules indecently exposed his wife to his courtier named Gyges the son of Dascylus, his wife ordered Gyges to murder him. As a result he married the wife of the murdered king and took over the kingdom of Lydia. This is mentioned in a poem by Archilocus from the Isle of Paros, who lived at the same time. So the kingdom of Lydia went from the clan of the Heraclidae into the clan of Merduades. This clan ruled it for 170 years. Gyges himself reigned 18 years. [Herod. l1] Gyges was but a bondslave as appears by that saying of Cresus his grandchild in Xenophon, [Justit.Cyri. l.7.] "I understand that the first of my ancestors that here reigned, was made a king and a free man both at the same time."
  2. Plato in his 2 de Repub. states that he was master of the king's cattle and his name was Gyges. In the eastern dialect this seems to have been Gug, or Gog.
3287 AM, 3997 JP, 717 BC
  1. When Gyges took over the kingdom, he sent various large offerings to Delphi. He made war upon Miletus and Smyrna and took the city of Colophos by force. [Herod. l.1. c.17.]
  2. When the Gitteans revolted, Eluleus king of Tyre, sailed there and subjected them again. Shalmaneser the king of Assyria marched with his army and invaded all Phoenicia and came against Tyre. Shortly after he made peace with them and returned home again. Not long after, Sidon and Ace [called later Ptolomais] and Poletyrus or old Tyrus, with various other cities defected from the Tyrians to the Assyrians. When only the Tyrians now stood against him, he returned a second time. In this action the Phoenicians furnished him with 60 ships, and 800 sailors. The Tyrians attacked this fleet with only 12 ships, routed all the navy and took 500 prisoners. By this the Tyrians obtained a good reputation as a naval force. Shalmaneser returned to besiege Tyre. He set guards by the river and conduits which served the city and cut them off. This hindered them from getting water. They held out for five years and at last were forced to dig wells within their city walls to get water. This is from Menander of Ephesus, in his Chronicles, translated into Greek, from the Tyrian Annals, cited by Joseph. 9. Antiq. c.ult. Eluleus is called Ayluleus by Rufinus an ancient Latin historian. Hence Scaliger calls him Eliseus. I disagree with him in this that he here says that the Cyprians were by Menander called Kitteans. However he by the name of Gitteans, understood indeed the inhabitants of Gitta, or Gath well known by that name in the Bible. (2 Samuel 15:18; 2 Samuel 21:19; 1 Samuel 17:4) These were also added to Judah by Hezekiah in the very time of this Eluleus or Eliseus, as may be gathered from Josephus. He says that Hezekiah made war on the Philistines and defeated them. He added all their cities [except one] and country from Gath to Gaza to the kingdom of Judah. [9. Antiq. cap ult.] Also from (2 Kings 15:18; 2 Kings 18:8) Hezekiah smote the Philistines as far as Gaza and its territories. Isaiah prophesied against the Tyrians who at this time were grown proud and insolent by reason of their wealth and success in wars. (Isaiah 23:1)
  3. When Shalmaneser died, his son Sennacherib reigned in his stead. /APC (Tobit 1:18) Herodotus in l.2. calls him the king both of Assyria and Arabia too. It could be at that time that the Assyrians ruled over Peraea, or the land of Gilead and Hamath, or Ituraea and held also a part of Arabia, either Petraea, or Deserta. For that Ivah, or Ava, which Sennacherib boasted much of seems to have been conquered by him or his ancestors. (2 Kings 18:34; 2 Kings 19:13; Isaiah 37:13) This was a country lying in the desert of Arabia, Fram. Junius affirms based on (2 Kings 17:24). The prophet Isaiah foretold the calamity which was to fall upon the Moabites by Shalmaneser, [of which I spoke in 3278 AM. and 3280 AM.]. This is taken from Bersus' History of the Chaldeans as cited by Josephus. [lib. 10. c.1.] He says that Sennacherib reigned in Assyria and also that he waged a fierce war on all Asia and Egypt.
3291 AM, 4001 JP, 713 BC
  1. This war of his upon Egypt lasted 3 whole years and Palestina also joined with him in the war. This is deduced from (Isaiah 20:1-6). Isaiah is told to take off his coat of hairy cloth [belonging to his prophetic function, as in (Zechariah 13:4)] from his loins and his shoes from his feet. He was commanded to walk up and down naked and bare foot for 3 years for a sign to the Egyptians and Ethiopians. This intimated that when that time expired, they likewise would be stripped of their clothes and go bare foot into captivity and bondage by the king of Assyria. This command the prophet is said to have received in the year when Tartan was sent by Sargon king of Assyria and besieged Ashdod and took it. (Isaiah 20:1) Sargon is also called Sennacherib. Taran was one of his commanders. (2 Kings 18:17) By Ashdod, that famous city Azotus, a city of the Philistines, we showed before from Josephus that it was conquered by king Hezekiah.
  2. Hezekiah had shaken off the king of Assyria's yoke [which his father Ahaz had taken] and would no longer serve him. (2 Kings 17:7) In the 14th year of his reign, toward the end of it, Sennacherib, came up against the kingdom of Judah. He besieged their fortified cities and took many of them. (Isaiah 36:1; 2 Kings 18:13; 2 Chronicles 32:2) When Hezekiah perceived that he intended also to attack Jerusalem, he consulted with his princes. He plugged up all the fountains that were around the city and diverted the brook Kidron which ran through the region. Then he built up all that part of the wall which Joash the king of Israel had demolished in the time of Amaziah. He fortified the house of David, and provided arrows and shields in great abundance and set captains and colonels over the people. He called them together and he made a very short speech to them. He persuaded them to be of good courage and not to have any fear of the king of Assyria nor of his army. (2 Chronicles 32:2-8,30)
  3. In those days when Hezekiah was very sick he was told by Isaiah that he would die. He poured out his tears and prayers to God and he was healed. Another 15 years were added to his life. (Isaiah 38:1,5,21; 2 Kings 2:1,7; 2 Chronicles 32:24) He composed a song. First he showed the seriousness of his illness and the anxiety he had. He told of his prayer to God and then acknowledged the great benefit of his recovery received from God. Lastly he testified his faith in God, and promised to be everlastingly thankful to him.
  4. It is true that in the scripture this is recorded after the story of the slaughter of Sennacherib and his army. However not precisely but with a general annotation only of the time, "In those days." For this happened before his sickness, these scriptures plainly show. "I will add unto thy days fifteen years and will deliver thee and this city out of the hand of the king of Assyria and I will defend this city."
  5. (Isaiah 38:5,6; 2 Kings 20:6) Now if we subtract from the 29 years which Hezekiah reigned, these 15 years, we shall find that the slaughter of Sennacherib and his army happened in the latter end of the 14th year of his reign.
  6. The sign of Hezekiah's recovery which God at his request gave to him, was that miraculous going back of the shadow of the sun, upon the dial of Ahaz as recorded in (Isaiah 38:8) "Behold I will bring again the shadow of the degrees, which is gone down in the sundial of Ahaz, 10 degrees backward, so the sun returned ten degrees, by which degrees it was gone down."
  7. As Jonathan the Chaldee Paraphraser interprets, "the stone of the hours" and renders it by the hours of the clock. Yet in his commentary on this passage he observes that the Hebrew word signifies degrees. Also in (2 Kings 20:9) he states: "wilt thou that the shadow ascend 10 degrees, or that it return back 10 degrees?"
  8. Nor may we ignore the Greek LXX interpretation of this passage since it is more ancient than any of these writings. It states that by these words used here, no other thing is meant in this history but the degrees of those scales or stairs which were made by Ahaz. Since it cannot be shown that until after their return from the captivity of Babylon, there was any observation or use at all of hours among the Jews. Others also attribute the invention of the Gnomon in the dial among the Greeks to men of a later date as Anaximadder or Anaximener. This I shall show later in the note on 3457 AM. However it seems that they received it originally from the Babylonians as noted by Herodotus, when he says, [lib. 2. c.109.] "The pole and the dial and the dividing of the day into twelve hours, all these the Greeks learned from the Babylonians."
  9. As concerning the retrograde motion of the Sun as mentioned in, (Isaiah 38:8) /APC (Sirach 48:23) it is when the sun stood still at the prayer of Joshua the moon also stood still at the same time. (Joshua 10:12,13) It is apparent that with the sun the moon also, and all the frame of heaven went backward and that there was as much subtracted from the night, as there was added to the day. There was a miraculous alteration in the parts of the normal day. By divine providence things were so ordered that no harm or hinderance did happen to the constant and ever self-like motion and harmony of the heavenly bodies. This is evident by those three solar eclipses, of which I spoke earlier, from Ptolemy. The account of these if calculated from our times backward yields the same result of the times as was formerly observed by the Chaldeans and in the same manner as if no such retrogradation or going back of the sun had ever happened.
  10. Now in the beginning of the 15th year of Hezekiah's reign, Merodach, or Berodach Baladan, the son Baladan, the king of Babylon, sent messengers with presents to him. They wanted to know the reason for the miraculous retrogradation of the sun which happened in the world. Hezekiah from pride and vain ostentation showed them all his treasures and pomp of riches. God presently foretold him of the captivity of Babylon which was to happen: "Behold the days come, that all that is in thine house and that which thy fathers have laid up in store until this day, shall be carried away into Babylon; nothing shall be left, saith the Lord."
  11. He added further that his sons which were not yet born should also be carried into captivity. "Thy sons also, that shall issue from thee and which thou shalt beget, shall they take away and they shall be eunuchs in the palace of the king of Babylon,"(Isaiah 39:1-8; 2 Kings 20:12-19)
  12. Nevertheless when Hezekiah with the inhabitants of Jerusalem, had humbled himself for his former pride, the fierce wrath of the Lord fell not upon them in the days of Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles 32:25,26,31)
  13. Micah also the Morasthite, prophesied to the people in Hezekiah's days: "That Zion should be plowed and Jerusalem laid in heaps and the mountain itself of the house of the Lord, as the high places in a forest" (Micah 3:12; Jeremiah 26:18,19) [The important thing to note is that the earlier eclipse data was not disturbed by the events in Hezekiah's day. Whatever happened, effected at the very least the sun, earth and moon system. God made time go backward not just have the earth rotate backward. Otherwise the eclipse data would be thrown off for eclipses that occurred before Hezekiah's event happened. An undesigned coincidence in the sciptures verifies their authority. Of all the people in the world, it is only recorded that the Chaldeans visited Hezekiah. They were very careful in noting astronomical events and had noticed something strange as far away as Babylon. They no doubt heard that Hezekiah had something to do with it and hence they went to him to learn more of this event. In 331 BC they turned over 1903 years of astronomical observations to Callisthenes when Alexander the Great was in Babylon. Editor]
3292 AM, 4002 JP, 712 BC
  1. Memnon writes that Astacum in Bithynia, was built by the Megarenses, in the beginning of the 17th Olympiad. [Biblioth Photii. p. 347.]
  2. Herodotus, [lib. 2. c.141.] tells us, that Sennacherib invaded Egypt, with a vast army and made war upon Sethon, the priest of Vulcan. This man was a weak king and famous for nothing except for being devoutly or rather superstitiously addicted to the worship of his petty god, Vulcan. Herodotus also adds that even in his time, there remained a stone image of Sethon holding a mouse in his hand. These words were engraved on the statue. "Let every man that looks on me, Learn godly and devout to be."
  3. For his and their countries and their own priesthood's honour, the priests in that area expound it this way. Sethon who was both king and priest, had by virtue of his piety and prayers to his god Vulcan prevailed with the god. For when Pelussum, which stands in the very entrance of Egypt was besieged by the enemy, their horse bridles, and buckles of their buckler, were so gnawn to pieces by mice that the next day they fled with the loss of many of their men. However, whatever the matter was at Pelusium, the undoubted word of the prophet assures us, that the Assyrians marched far into the very heart of Egypt and led away a great many captives.
  4. Nahum's prophecy against No was likely fulfilled by this expedition of Sennacherib's. No was a large and strong city in Egypt. The prophecy was: "yet was she carried away; she went into captivity, her young children also were dashed in pieces in the top of every street, and they cast lots for their honourable men and all her great men were bound in chains" (Nahum 3:10)
3294 AM, 4004 JP, 710 BC
  1. The prophecy made by (Isaiah 3) years earlier concerning the rest of Egypt was fulfilled at this time. (Isaiah 24:1-23) "The king of Assyria shall carry away a great multitude of the Egyptians captive; and of the Ethiopians young and old prisoners, naked and barefoot":
  2. I do not see why the next two verses should not refer to the Jews. "And they shall be ashamed of Ethiopia their expectation and of Egypt their glory: and the inhabitants of this country shall say in that day: Behold such is our expectation, whither we flee for help to be delivered from the king of Assyria and how shall we escape?" (Isaiah 20:5,6)
  3. The Assyrian messenger had a good reason to remind them of Egypt when he said: "Now behold, you trust in the staff of this bruised reed Egypt, on which if a man lean, it will go into his hand and pierce it; for even so is Pharaoh, to all such as trust upon him," (2 Kings 18:27)
  4. For we find the same simile used by God of the Egyptians and Israelites, in (Ezekiel 29:6,7) and in (Isaiah 30:1-31:9). Here many things were spoken against the vain hope which the Jews had of help from Egypt. "Therefore, saith he, shall the strength of Pharaoh be your shame, and your trust in the shadow of Egypt your confusion, for the Egyptians shall help in vain and to no purpose: therefore have I cried concerning this, Their strength is to stay at home." (Isaiah 30:3,7)
  5. When Sennacherib returned from Egypt into Palestine, he besieged Lachish with all his forces. (2 Chronicles 32:9) Hezekiah sent to him at Lachish to buy his peace and agreed with him for peace at a certain price. Therefore he drained all his own treasure of which he had formerly been so proud as well as the treasury of the temple. He paid him 300 talents of silver and 30 talents of gold. When he took the money, he broke his agreement and sent from Lachish to Jerusalem Tartan, who had now taken Azotus and Rabsaris and Rabshakeh with a large army. (2 Kings 18:14-17)
  6. When these came to Jerusalem, they stood at the conduit of the upper pool by the highway of the fullers field. After they called out to speak with the king, Eliakim, the son of Hilkiah and Shebna the recorder went out to them. When they would not surrender the city, Rabshakeh then cried out that Hezekiah did vainly rely on God for help and that he himself was sent by God. After he reviled the God of Israel and Hezekiah his servant with many reproachful sayings, he tried to make the people rebel and defect to the king of Assyria. This they spoke loudly in the Hebrew language so that the people who stood on the wall might hear and understand what they said. This they did to frighten and cause them anxiety so that in the resulting tumult they might easily assault and take the city. (Isaiah 36:1-22; 2 Kings 18:17-37; 2 Chronicles 32:9-18)
  7. When Hezekiah heard of this, he tore his clothes, put on sackcloth and went into the house of the Lord. He sent Eliakim, Shebna and the elders of the priests, clothed likewise in sackcloth, to Isaiah the prophet. They asked him to seek counsel of God for this sad situation and to pray to God for help. The prophet encouraged them. He said that after the king of Assyria heard a rumour, he would lift his siege and return to his country and be murdered. This all came to pass. (Isaiah 37:1-7; 2 Kings 19:1-7)
  8. When Rabshakeh could not take Jerusalem, he returned to Sennacherib. He left Lachish and besieged Libnah. (Isaiah 37:8; 2 Kings 19:8)
  9. Tirhakah king of Ethiopia did not invade Egypt and Syria as Scaliger groundlessly asserts in his notes on Eusibius [p. 72.] and in his Isagogical Canons, page 311. Rather he sent forces to assist and help the Egyptians and Jews. For the Scripture is clear, that he came to fight against Sennacherib. (Isaiah 37:9; 2 Kings 19:9) This Tirhakah, Strabo [lib. 1. and 15.] calls, Tearcon the Ethiopian and further notes from Megasthenes, a writer of the history of India, that he passed over into Europe and went as far as the pillars of Hercules.
  10. When Sennacherib at Libnah heard a report of Tirhakah coming, he sent his commander with railing letters to Hezekiah. He spoke of the God of Israel as if he were like one of the gods of the nations, mere works of men's hands. Hezekiah took it before the Lord in his temple and with many tears sought help and deliverance from God against the Assyrians. God answered him by Isaiah the prophet. He said that God would defend that city and that the king of Assyria should not so much as come there, but should return by the way he came. (Isaiah 37:9-35; 2 Kings 19:9-34; 2 Chronicles 32:17,19,20)
  11. The very same night after these things happened at Jerusalem and a few days after his victory over the Ethiopians which happened about this time as some gather from, (Isaiah 18:1-19:25) God sent his angel to their camp. He destroyed every man of valour, every commander, and chief man in the Assyrian army. The next morning there were found 185,000 dead men. After this Sennacherib shamefully broke camp and returned into his own land to rest at Nineveh. It came to pass that as he was worshipping before his god Nisroch, Adrammelech and Sharezer slew him with the sword. They fled immediately into the land of Ararat, or Armenia. and Esarhaddon his son reigned in his stead. (Isaiah 37:36-38; 2 Kings 19:35-37; 2 Chronicles 32:21) All this was foretold by the prophet. (Isaiah 38:1-22; Isaiah 31:8,9)
  12. In the first chapter of the book of Tobit, there are these things found which belong to this story. When Sennacherib fled from Judah, he slew many of the Jews for the hatred he had toward the Israelites. Tobit, or Tobia the elder, stole away the dead bodies and gave them a proper burial. When he was accused of this to the king of Nineveh, he fled into hiding for a time. They plundered and spoiled of all his goods leaving him only Anne his wife and Tobias his son. After 45 days, or as the Greek copy has it, before 55 days, Sennacherib was murdered by his sons. When they fled into the mountains of Ararat, Esarhaddon his son reigned in his stead. Some copies incorrectly call him Achirdon or Sarchedon. The new king set Achiacarus, the son of Hananeel, Tobit's brother, over all his father's affairs and his own. He was his steward and keeper of his accounts and the cupbearer having the privy seal and was the second man after the king.
  13. Hezekiah had his son Manasseh, by Hephzibah, 3 years after his life was lengthened and 12 years before his death.
  14. The Medes had up until now lived without a king. After Dejoces would not judge their causes and controversies any longer, civildisorder ensued. The Assyrians used this occasion to take possession of many cities and places in Media as I noted before on 3283 AM. The people did not like the resulting anarchy and they submitted unanimously to Dejoces. This was 150 years before Cyrus began his reign as Herodotus in his first book states quoting from Ctesias on this point. Both Dionysius, Halicarnasseus and Appianus Alexandrinus, in the beginning of his Roman Histories agree. Though Diodorus Siculus, in his second book, whether through faulty memory or poor copying puts Cyazaris for Dejoces. He is said to have been elected king over the Medes, about the second year of the 17th Olympiad according to Herodotus. For subtracting 150 years from the beginning of the reign of Cyrus which he supposed happened in the beginning of the 55th Olympiad results in the middle of the year 4154 JP or 560 BC. It follows that the 1st year of Dejoces the first king of the Medes must be in the 3year of the 17th Olympiad in the middle of the year 4004 JP. This allowed the latter end of the second year of the same Olympiad to have been spent in the transaction of this business and election of the new king. This is the first epoch or point of the beginning of this new kingdom of the Medes. Herodotus correctly determined and recorded this fact. The precise times of every king's reign when compared with the eclipse of the sun, which happened in the reign of Cyaxares described later in the 3403 AM. will be shown as we proceed.
3295 AM, 4004 JP, 710 BC
  1. The 15th Jubilee which was the middle most of all the jubilees, was the most joyful except for the one at Solomon's dedication of the temple. The fresh memory of so great a deliverance and for the prosperity that happened made this one of the best jubilees ever. Many brought offerings and gifts to the Lord at Jerusalem and rich presents for the king. He was magnified later among all nations, and prospered in whatever he undertook to do. (2 Chronicles 32:23,27,30)
  2. After this great deliverance God prospered Judah greatly. (2 Chronicles 32:22) Isa 37:31,32That this was a jubilee is necessary to understand the sign of God's mercy given the year before to Hezekiah: "You shall eat saith God, this year, that which groweth of itself, the second year, that which springeth of the same; and in the third year, sow ye and reap ye and plant vineyards and eat of the fruit thereof, (Isaiah 37:30; 2 Kings 19:29)
  3. The previous year's harvest was either gathered by the enemy which roved all over the country, [according to God's threatening, (Leviticus 27:16; Deuteronomy 28:33; Jeremiah 5:17)] or spoiled and trodden underfoot by them. It would be necessary for the people to live that year upon that which grew by itself. Because this year was a Jubilee, it was not lawful either to sow or reap. Otherwise, if no Sabbatical year intervened, they might have done this. Since the Assyrian army was destroyed by the angel, there was nothing to hinder them from planting a crop. But the following year when there was neither enemy to frighten them, nor Sabbatical year to prevent them, they might legally resume farming as at other times.
  4. After Mardosempadus, or Merodach Baladan had reigned 12 years in Babylon, he was succeeded by Arkianus in the 29th year of Nabonaser and reigned 5 years [Ptol. in Reg. Can.]
  5. According to Eusub. Chron., Parion in the coast of Hellespont, near to Lampsacus was built or rather re-established by the Milesians and Erythreans who sent a colony there at this time.
3296 AM, 4006 JP, 708 BC
  1. Dejoces king of the Medes built Ecbatane this year in the first year of the 18th Olympiad according to Eusebius' Greek Chronicle. This city in (Ezra 6:2) is called Achmetha, but Ctesias in his Persica, as Stephanus Byzantinus states, called it Agbatam. A fuller description of the construction of it is in /APC (Judges 1:1-16) where it is said that it was built by Arphaxad king of Medes. Herodotus and other writers attributed it to Dejoces. It appears that the same man was called by both names. More will be said on this in the notes on 3448 AM.
3299 AM, 4009 JP, 705 BC
  1. Taracas or Tirhaka the Ethiopian reigned in Egypt 18 years. See note on 3294 AM. [Africanus.]
3300 AM, 4010 JP, 704 BC
  1. After Arkianus, there was no king for 2 years.
3302 AM, 4012 JP, 702 BC
  1. Belibus, or Belithus and Belelus, held the kingdom of Babylon for 3 years. [Ptol. Reg. Canon.]
3305 AM, 4015 JP, 699 BC
  1. Apronadius reigned in Babylon for 6 years. [Ptol. Reg. Canon.]
3306 AM, 4016 JP, 698 BC
  1. Hezekiah was buried in the upper part of the sepulchres of the family of David. All Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem paid him every honour possible. (2 Chronicles 32:33) After Hezekiah, came his son Manasseh who reigned 55 years. (2 Kings 21:1) He again set up the high places which his father Hezekiah had pulled down. He built altars to all the host of heaven in the two courts of the house of the Lord. He made his son pass through the fire in the valley of the son of Hinnom. He used divinations and sorceries and soothsayings and set up a molten image in the house of the Lord. He made Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem to sin and do worse than all the nations, whom God had driven out before the Israelites. (2 Kings 21:2,11; 2 Chronicles 33:2,9) He also shed much innocent blood, insomuch that he filled Jerusalem with it. In addition to his own sin, he made Judah to sin and to do that which was evil in the sight of the Lord. (2 Kings 21:16; 2 Kings 24:4) Manasseh is thought to have cut the prophet Isaiah into two pieces with a wooden saw. The Babylonian Talmud in their treatise, Justin Martyr in his Coloquie with Tryphon, Jerome upon (Isaiah 20:57) and others of our men, explain the passage in (Hebrews 11:37) "were sawed in pieces",
  2. as referring to Isaiah. For all this God threatened that: "he would stretch out over Jerusalem, the line of Samaria and the plumb of the house of Ahab: and that he would wipe Jerusalem, as one useth to do, when he wipes a dish and turneth it upside down," (2 Kings 21:13)
3311 AM, 4021 JP, 693 BC
  1. Rigibelus reigned over the Babylonians for one year. [Ptol. Reg. Can.]
3312 AM, 4022 JP, 692 BC
  1. Mesissimordacus reigned over the Babylonians for 4 years. [Ptol. Reg. Can.]
3316 AM, 4026 JP, 688 BC
  1. There was a vacancy of a king in Babylon for 8 years. [Ptol. Reg. Can.]
  2. According to Herodotus, [lib. 1. c.130] Dejoces extended the kingdom of the Medes, as far as the river Halys, 128 years before the end of the reign of Aastyages.
  3. In the 23Olympiad, Herostratus Naucraties a merchant of Egypt, went to Paphos in the island of Cyprus. There he bought a little image of Venus about the size of the palm of a man's hand and of very ancient workmanship. By its power he was miraculously delivered from a storm at sea. He consecrated the image at Naucratis in the temple of Venus, with great solemnity. This is according to Atheneus, who was born in the same place, in his 15th book Deipnosophist. However, according to Scrabo, l.17., there was no such town as Naucratis in Egypt at that time nor until later when it was built by the Milesians. This was in the time of Cyaxeris king of Medes and of Psamyticus king of Egypt, who both lived at the same time.
3317 AM, 4027 JP, 687 BC
  1. Civil disorder increased in Egypt for there was no king for 2 years. [Diod. Sic. l.1.]
3319 AM, 4029 JP, 685 BC
  1. After this Egypt was ruled by an aristocracy of 12 men who governed the kingdom by a Common Council. This government according by Herod. [l. 2. c.147] and Diod. Sic. [l. 1.] is said to have lasted 15 years. Tremellius is of the opinion, that the burden of Egypt, spoken of by the prophet (Isaiah 19:5,6) refers to the drying up of the river Nile as foretold in: "They shall want of their waters, to run into the sea, so that their river shall be dried up and turning away their waters, they shall empty and dry up their channels fenced with banks"
  2. Based on Herodotus, Tremellius states: "The 12 petty kings using the labour of this poor people, shall strive to overrule the very works of nature and shall turn away the waters of Nile. Even to make its channels dry. They did this so that they might finish their pond or lake of Marios with their Pyramides and Labyrinth solely for their lust and pleasure's sake."
  3. But Scaliger in his Canon. Isagog. understands it, that there should be there so great a drought that their river Nile in the summer season would not rise nor flow nor water Egypt as it normally did. He refers this prophesy to the earlier times of Soij or Sabbacon.
3323 AM, 4033 JP, 681 BC
  1. When the family of the Babylonian kings died out, after 8 years of no kings, Esarhaddon the king of Assyria conquered them and held that kingdom for 13 years. [Ptolemy's, Can. Reg.] It appears Assaradinus is the same person as Esarhaddon. This is from the similarity in the names and by the word of the Holy Scripture. It intimates that he was king both of Assyria and Babylon at the same time. (2 Kings 17:24; 2 Kings 19:37) See note on 3327 AM.
3324 AM, 4034 JP, 680 BC
  1. Ardys the son of Gyges, reigned in Lydia for 49 years. He captured Pryene and invaded Miletus. [Herod. l.1. c.15.]
3327 AM, 4037 JP, 677 BC
  1. In Sicily, the city Gela was built and in Pamphilia, Phaselis by two brothers, Antiphemus and Lacius. [Euseb. Chron.] They consulted the oracle at Delphi concerning a place to live. It answered that the one should sail westward and the other eastward, as Stephanus Byzantinus in the word "Gela", reports, from Aristenetus on his first commentary of Phaselis. Heropythus in his book of the "Borders of the Colophonians", said concerning the building of Phaselis, that Lacius who transported a colony there, met Cylabra, a shepherd with his flock. He gave him the price of the ground where he built his city from his provisions. Philostephanus in his book entitled, "Of the Cities of Asia", gives a more detailed account of Lacius and a man from Argos. One of them went with Mopsus [the founder of the city Colophos] and whom some call Lindius, brother to Antiphemus the builder of Gela. [Lindius is said to have been of Rhodes by Herodotus l.7. and by Thucidides l.6.] Lacius was sent by Mopsus with another man, by the oracle and wish of Mantus and Mopsus, his mother. Because the decks of his ships were smashed in a tempest about the Chelidonian Isles, he could not arrive till late at night. There he bought the plot of ground where he built his city, as Mantus had foretold. He gave certain salt meats for it to Bylabra the owner of it. This is what he desired most from all their ship's provisions. [Athens Deipnosoph. l.7.]
  2. In this year the prophecy was fulfilled that was spoken by Isaiah (Isaiah 7:1-8:22). In the beginning of the reign of Ahaz, within 65 years, Ephraim shall be conquered and never be a nation again. For although most of them were carried away by Shalmaneser 44 years earlier and the kingdom utterly destroyed, yet among them who were left there was some form of government. Now they ceased to be a distinct people because of the many foreigners who came to live there. Compared to the total population, the small number of the Ephraimites was not significant. A few remained in their country as appears from the story of Josiah. (2 Chronicles 34:6,7,33) 35:18; (2 Kings 23:19,20) There were every now and then new colonies of people sent from Babel, Cush, Halvah and Sepharvaim. These dwelt in Samaria and its cities. (2 Kings 17:24) This was done by Esarhaddon king of Assyria [who was also called, Asnappar the Great and magnificent]. This is evident by the confession of the Cushites in (Ezra 4:2,10)
  3. At the same time as Israel was conquered, the same Assyrian army attacked Judah. They captured Manasseh the king, as he was hiding in a thicket. They bound him with chains of brass and carried him captive into Babylon. (2 Chronicles 33:11) Some think this calamity was foretold by the prophet Isaiah, when he says: "within sixty five years Ephraim shall be so broken in pieces, that it shall be no more a people. And the head of Ephraim is Samaria, is the son of Remaliah: And if you will not believe, you shall not be established," (Isaiah 7:8,9)
  4. Jacobus Capellus has noted in his Chron. that you yourselves also shall be broken in pieces. Further, he adds that also the Jews in Seder Olams Rabba and the Talmudists, cited by Rabbi Kimchi, on (Ezekiel 4:1-17) state this.
  5. In the 22nd year of Manasseh's reign, he was carried away captive into Babylon. After he repented of his sin, 33 years before his death, God restored him again to his kingdom. (2 Chronicles 33:12,13) His captivity likely did not last very long for no notice of it is taken in (2 Kings 21:1-18) It is recorded that he reigned 55 years in Jerusalem. (2 Kings 21:1; 2 Chronicles 33:1)
  6. When the new inhabitants of Samaria did not serve the God of Israel, some were killed by lions. When the king of Assyria was told this, he ordered that one of the priests, which were brought from there in the captivity, should be sent back. When the priest returned he made his residence at Bethel. There he taught them how to worship God but according to Jeroboam's religion. They worshipped the calf at Bethel as well as their old idols. They are said to have feared God and not to have feared him. There is little difference between worshipping many gods and no God at all. 2Ki 17:25,33,41This was the beginning of the animosity which grew later between the Samaritans and the Jews. (Ezra 4:1; Nehemiah 4:2; John 4:9)
3329 AM, 4039 JP, 675 BC
  1. According to Euseb. Chron., Chalcedon, or Calcedon, [as it is found on some old coins] was built by the Megarenses at the mouth of the Euxine Sea among the Thracians. They had possession of Bithynia in Asia. [Thucidid. l.4. Strabo l.12.]
3334 AM, 4044 JP, 670 BC
  1. Psammiticus Saits, the son of Pharaohnecho, was murdered by Sabbacon the Ethiopian and one of those twelve tyrants of Egypt. Sabbacon took over the kingdom and reigned there 54 years. [Herod. l.2. c.152. and c.157.] Isaiah seems to allude to this when he says: "And the Egyptians will I give up into the hands of lords, which shall lord it cruelly over them, till a fierce king shall come to rule them," (Isaiah 19:4)
  2. Psammitichus was sent away and confined in the low country near the sea. He hired soldiers out of Arabia and a number of pirates from Ionia and Carions, who roved about that shore and assembled the Egyptians who sided with him. In the main battle fought near to Memphis, he overthrew the rest of those domineering lords. For their good service, the Ionians and Carions had land assigned to them to live in. This land was around the cities of Bubastis and Pelusius, which stood upon the mouth of the river Nile. From that time on, the Greeks and other foreigners were always welcome in Egypt. [Herod. l.2. Diod. Sic. l.1.] The same Herodotus also reports, that after a 29 year siege, this Psammiticus took by force a large city in Syria called Azotus. [ib. c.157.] That is the city of Ashdod. I showed perviously on the note on 2391 AM that it was taken by Tartan the commander of the king of Assyria and his army in one year. It was so destroyed by Psammitichus that as the prophet Jeremiah says there was but a remnant of its people left in his days. (Jeremiah 25:20)
3336 AM, 4046 JP, 668 BC
  1. After Assaridinus or Esarhaddon, Saosduchinus ruled both of the empires of Assyria and Babylon for 20 years. [Ptol. Can. Reg.] In the book of Judith that was written in the Chaldee language by some Jew living in Babylon, he is called Nabuchodonosor, a name common to all kings of Babylon. However he was called the king of Assyria and is said to have reigned in the great city of Nineveh. /APC (Judges 1:7) The learned Franc. Junius thinks that Saosduchinus is the same person as Merodach-Baladan of the Bible, the grandfather of that Nebucadnetzar and great grandfather of Nebuchadnezzar. Hence he thinks it was Merodach-Baladan who took king Manasseh prisoner to Babylon and released him later. For he states: "this man was the first king of Babylon and was later made king of Assyria, succeeding in that kingdom after Esarhaddon the Great. When his brothers were found guilty of murdering their father, they were deemed unworthy of the kingdom. After this, all Asia was in a tumult from a war which lasted a long time after."
  2. The succession of Asar-Adon Merodach, Ben-Merodach and Nebuchadnezzar, first and second, is only based on Anianus, that false Metasthenus. According to Junius, Merodach was not grandfather of Nebuchadnezzar or rather Nabopolastar of Nebuchadnezzar the great. Neither was he at first only a trustee of the king of Assyria and later came to be king both of Assyria and Babylon. (2 Kings 20:12) Nor did he ever succeed Esarhaddon the great in any kingdom of his, since this Mardocempadus or Merodach died 11 years before ever Manasseh became king. Also 42 years after his death, Aassaradinus or Essarchaddon left Saosduchinus to succeed him in both the Assyrian and the Babylonian kingdom as we noted from Ptolemy's Canon, Reg. If Junius, a man of no less modesty than learning, had seen this, no doubt he would have altered his opinion in this point. Therefore I thought it good in this place to have the reader note that from an event that never happened he should not seek to interpret the prophecy of (Ezekiel 31:11,18) as Junius distinguishes them. This is: "Esarhaddon the Assyrian, was put down, or thrust out of his kingdom, by Merodach Baladan. Therefore, all defected from him and many of them fled to the king of Babylon,"
  3. As in the sentence following: "So that now the land of Assyria, was most shamefully trodden under foot and brought into contempt of all men" [Ver 20]
3339 AM, 4049 JP, 665 BC
  1. Meshullemeth the daughter of Haruz of Jotbah, bore to Manasseh his son Ammon. He was 22 years old when he began to reign. (2 Kings 21:19)
3344 AM, 4053 JP, 661 BC
  1. This was the 16th Jubilee.
3347 AM, 4057 JP, 657 BC
  1. In /APC (Judges 1:1-16) we read that Nabuchadonosor, king of Assyria, in the 12th year of his reign overcome Arphaxad the king of the Medes, the founder of the city Ecbatan. This battle was in the great plain of Ragau near to Euphrates and Tigris and Jadason in the plain of the country of Erioch king of the Elicians. [We read this in the first chapter of the book of Judith which Jerome at the request of Paula and Eustochiam translated into Latin.] However, whoever first published that book in Greek with many alterations and additions of his own, tells us that Nabuchodanosor in the 12th year of his reign fought a battle with king Arphaxad. This was in a great plain near Ragau. Arphaxad was helped in the battle by all that inhabited the hill countries, all that bordered on the river of Euphrates and Tigris, and Hydaspes and that dwelt in the plain of Arioch king of the Elymeans. /APC (Tobit 1:5-6). After reviewing the battles mentioned before, he tells us, that he fought this battle against Arphaxad in the 17th year. He conquered all of Ecbatan and in the hill country of Ragan, thrust Arphaxad through with his own spear. When he had accomplished his aim in the war, he returned to Nineveh to feast and celebrate with his army for 120 days. According to Herodotus, Dejoces' death occurred in the 12th year of Saosduchinus' reign. One would argue that Saosduchinus and Dejoces are named Nabuchadonosor and Arphaxad in the book of Judith. In trying to render a reliable succession of kings in Media, to the fables of Cresias, Franc. Junius would need to divide the Median empire into two parts. However, Herodotus known as "the father of histories" sees no division of the kingdoms at all. Fr. Junius gives one of the kingdoms to Dejoces [also called Arioch] (Jeremiah 49:14) / APC (Judges 1:6-16). The other part of Media he assigns to Artecarmins [whom Ctesias calls Articam and who is here called Arphaxed]. This king Arphaxed, established his kingdom at Ecbatan to the end. He thought this to be a strong place in which he would best withstand the assault of Dejoces and all other enemies. Since no division ever was made of Media, both the name of Arphaxad and the Ecbatan kingdom should have been given to Dejoces and not to Arioch or Atticarmes. The book of Judith states that Arphaxad was the founder of Ecbatan. Herodotus and others affirm that Dejoces [also called Arphaxad] was indeed the founder. No one ever wrote that Arioch or Artecarmes built it.
  2. After Dejoces died, Phraortes, his son succeeded him and reigned for 22 years. [Herodotus, l.1. c.102.]
3348 AM, 4058 JP, 656 BC
  1. According to the Chaldee copy of /APC (Judges 2:1) Arphaxad [or Dejoces] is said to be the 13th king of Ecbatan but in the Greek, the 18th]. One year after Dejoces was overthrown, on the 22nd day of the first month, Nabuchadonosor made plans to subdue nations and add countries to his dominion. He made Holophernes general of all his armies. Holophernes besieged Bethhoglah, also called Bethulia, a city of Judah. While this was happening he was beheaded by Judith, a woman of the tribe of Simeon. After the death of her husband Manasseh, who died in the time of the barley harvest, she spent 3 years of widowhood in that city. The Greek copy says she was a widow for 4 years. /APC (Judges 2:8,13)
3349 AM, 4059 JP, 655 BC
  1. In this year, Isthemus and Borysthenes were built in the country of Pontus. Also, Lampsacus in Hellespont and Abdera in Thrace, were built according to Euseb. Chron. that is, Borysthenes by the Milesians of Ionia, Lampsacus by the Pheonceans and Abdera by the citizens of Clazomene. Solinus c.10 explains that the sister of Diomedes first built Abdera. After it fell into ruin it was rebuilt and enlarged by the Clazomenians. This took place in the 51st Olympiad which ended a year prior to this date. The leader of the Clazomene colony, was Timesius a citizen of Clazomene, [Herodotus, l1 c.168.]. Herodotus also adds that Timesius was not able to complete the work because he was attacked by the Thracians.
3355 AM, 4065 JP, 649 BC
  1. Amon and Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah had a son in Boscath, called Joash who was eight years old when he began to reign. (2 Kings 22:1)
3356 AM, 4066 JP, 648 BC
  1. Chyladanus succeeded Saosduchinus both in the Assyrian and Babylonian kingdoms. He reigned 22 years. [Cano. Reg. Ptolemy]. Alexander Polyhistor calls him Saracus [or Saracen], which means "robber", or "spoiler".
  2. By the oracle of Delphi, Grinus the son of Esanius, king of the island of Thera, was commanded to go build a city in Libya. This city was in ruins because no one knew where Libya was. It is said that for 7 years there was no rain in that island. All the trees there died in that drought except one. [Herodotus l.4. c.150,151.]
3361 AM, 4071 JP, 643 BC
  1. In this year king Manasseh returned from his captivity. He had partly restored the true worship of God, which he had formerly discredited. When he died he was buried in the garden of his own house. (2 Chronicles 33:1-16; 2 Kings 21:18) According to his last will or testament, as if he repented for his former evil doings, he deemed himself unworthy to lie among his own royal ancestors. [Tremelius.]
3363 AM, 4073 JP, 641 BC
  1. After Manasseh died his son Amon reigned for 2 years. Amon forsook the Lord God and offered sacrifices to all the graven images, which his father had set up and he worshipped them. He never repented of this as his father did but sinned more than ever his father had. (2 Kings 21:19-22; 2 Chronicles 33:21-23)
  2. This wicked Amon was murdered in his house by his own servants. He was buried with Manasseh his father, in the garden of Uzzah. The people slew all that conspired against him. (2 Kings 21:23,24,26; 2 Chronicles 33:24,25)
  3. And to him succeeded his son Josias, a child of 8 years old, and reigned 31 years (2 Kings 22:1; 2 Chronicles 34:1)
3364 AM, 4074 JP, 640 BC
  1. Those of the isle of Thera, wearied by their seven years of drought, hired Corobius, a merchant in scarlet of the city of Itanus in the isle of Crete. He had formerly been driven by a tempest into a place called Platea, an isle of Libya. They sent him a second time with some of their own countrymen to find that isle. When they found it they left Corobius there with provisions for some months. They returned quickly to let their countrymen know what they had found. When they did not return to Platea at the appointed time, it happened that a ship of Samos, whose captain was Coleus came from Egypt. It put in there and left Corobius and his men another year of provisions. It then put out to sea again. It was caught by a strong wind and driven beyond Hercules' pillars into the main ocean and finally came to Tarteslus in Spain. [Herod. l.4. c.151,152.]
  2. The Thereans chose by lot from their seven towns people to establish a new colony. They sent them away to Platea in two ships under the command of one Battus, otherwise called Aristoteles, or Aristeus. [Herod. l.4. c.151,152.]
  3. Thales the son of Examius, was this year also born at Miletus in Ionia. This was the first year of the 35th Olympiad according to Laertius notes in Apollodorus' Chronicle.
  4. After the Commerians were driven out of their dwellings by the Scythian Shepherds [called Nomads], they left Europe and went into Asia. Following the coast to Sardis, they captured all the city except the citadel. This was the time when Ardys, the son of Gyges, reigned there. [Her. l.1. c.15,130 and in his 4th book, c.1. and 12.]
  5. When the Thereans had lived in Platea for two years, they left one of their company behind and all sailed to Delphi. There they enquired of the oracle why things were no better since they came into Libya. The oracle answered that they were not yet come to the city of Libya, where they were told to go. Therefore they returned again to Platea. They took the one they left there and they established a colony in a place in the land of Libya, opposite the isle of Platea, called Aziristus. This place was surrounded with most scenic hills and a river running around it on either side. [Herod. l.4. c.157.]
  6. In that place next to the gardens of the Hesperides and the greater Syrtus, or quicksand, the earth was covered with a shower of rain of pitch, or sulphur. Presently there grew up an herb called Sylphius or Laser i.e.Benjamin, as the Cyreneans say. This occurred seven years before the building of their city. [Theophrast. in his History of Plants, l.6. Pliny in his Nature. Hist. l. 19. c.3.]
3369 AM, 4079 JP, 635 BC
  1. Phraortes king of the Medes perished in the siege of Nineveh with a large number of his army. His son Cyaxares reigned for 40 years after him. In the beginning of his reign, he wished to avenge his father's death. He compelled all Asia as far as the river Halys to join with him in his war against the Assyrians. [Herod. l.1.]
3370 AM, 4079 JP, 635 BC
  1. When Josiah was 16 years old, he had a son called Jehoiakim by Zebudah the daughter of Pedaiah, of Rumah. He was 25 years old when started his reign. (2 Kings 23:36)
  2. The same year his son was born he began to seek the God of his father David. (2 Chronicles 34:3)
  3. Cyaxares defeated the Assyrians in battle but as he went to besiege Nineveh, a vast army of the Scythians attacked him. These were those Scythians who drove the Cimmerians from Europe. Pressing their advantage, they departed from the Lake of Meotis and left the mountain Caucasus on their left. They entered Media, under the command of their king Madois the son of Ptotothya. [Herd. l.1. c.104. l.2. c.1. and l.7. c.20] Mados was also called Indathyrsus the Scythian who storming out Scythia, went over the country of all Asia until he came into Egypt. Strabo states this in the beginning of his Geography from Megasthenes and Arrian in his book "Of the Affairs of Judah". Mados was the same man as Indathirsus, against whom Darius the son of Hystaspes later made such an unlucky voyage. [Herod, l.4. c.76. 126,127] When the Medes were defeated by the Scythians, they lost control of Asia. The Scythians held Asia for 28 years. [Herod. l.1. c.104. and l.4. c.1.] Tremellius and Junius refer that prophecy of (Nahum 2:5) "He [that is, Cyaxares, besieging Nineveh] shall reckon up his great men; but they shall fall in their journey. [that is] in the journey of the Scythians"
  4. Their coming at this time to Asia is better called a journey through Asia rather than an established government or kingdom in Asia. In 28 years, they overran, possessed and lost Media, Assyria and all Asia. "they shall hasten to his wall, as if they would be his protector, i.e.they shall come hastily to Nineveh, as if they had delivered it out of the hand of Cyaxares and would deliver it."
3371 AM, 4081 JP, 633 BC
  1. In this year, Josiah had a son called Shallum or Jehoahaz by Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. He was made king after his father at the age of 23 years. The people chose him for king passing over his older brothers. (2 Kings 23:30,31) It seems the name of Shallum was changed to Jehoahaz for good luck. The other Shallum, the son of Jabesh, only ruled one month before he was murdered by Menahem. (2 Kings 15:13,14) Of the four sons which Josiah had that are mentioned in (1 Chronicles 3:15) this Shallum was named last not Johanan the firstborn, as some have thought. It is easily deduced that Jehoahaz was not the firstborn. For it is said that he was anointed by the people. (2 Kings 23:30) However the firstborn of kings were not normally so anointed because the kingdom was theirs by common right. Also, Jehoahaz was 23 years old when he was anointed king. However, three months earlier his brother, Eliakim was made king at the at the age of 25. Hence he was older by two years than Jehoahaz. This is confirmed by Josephus, in his tenth book of Antiquities, c.6. & 7.
3373 AM, 4083 JP, 631 BC
  1. Sadyattes, the son of Ardyis, reigned in Lydia for 12 years. [Herodot. l.1. c.16.]
  2. When the Scythians had subjected all of upper Asia, they went straight into Egypt. When they came as far as Syria Palestina, Psamitichus the king of Egypt met them in person. He persuaded them by gifts and presents not to go any farther.
  3. On their return, they came to Askelon which is in Syria. The greater part of the army passed through the area without doing any damage. However some stragglers at the rear, robbed the temple of Venus Urania. For this all their posterity were smitten with the emerods. [Herod. l. 1. c.105.] In this year, which was the second of the 37th Olympiad, the Scythians invaded Syria Palestina. [Eusebius Chron.] Also Sinope, was built by the Milesians this year. It was the chief city in all the kingdom of Pontus. [Strabo 12th book] Phlegon says, [cited by Stephanus de Tribibus,] the Sinope was built by Macritius of the isle of Coos. It is certain that when the Cimmerians came to Asia after they fled from the Sythians, they built Chersonesus, in the same place where Sinope a city of the Greeks now stands. [Herod. l.4. c.12.] After settling in Aziristus for 7 years, the people of Thera were persuaded by the Libyans to leave. They moved to a place called Irasa and settled there near a fountain named after Apollos. [Herod. l.4. c. 158.]
  4. In the 2nd year of the 37th Olympiad, Battus built the city of Cyrene there. He reigned for 40 years and after him his son Arcesilaus for 16 years with those of the first colony only. Later in the reign of Battus, Arcesilaus, his son, went there with a great number of other Greeks who were stirred up by the oracle of Delphi. The city of Cyrene was built when Apryas reigned among the Egyptians. [Herod. l.4. c.159.] This is a better account of events than others have given.
3374 AM, 4084 JP, 630 BC
  1. In the 12th year of Josiah's reign, he began to cleanse Judah and Jerusalem from idolatry. He destroyed the high places, groves, and altars of Baal with the images. He burned the bones of their priests upon their own altars. He even went as far as to the cites in Manasseh, Ephraim, Simeon and Naphtali and destroyed all the altars, groves and carved images he found. (2 Chronicles 34:3-7)
3375 AM, 4085 JP, 629 BC
  1. In the 13th year of king Josiah, Jeremiah was called by God to be a prophet. He refused. God called him again and encouraged him with promises and signs belonging to the office and function of a prophet. He was bid to prophesy to the Jews of the calamity which was to happen there by the king of Babylon. (Jeremiah 1:2,17; Jeremiah 28:3) At the same time, Zephaniah and others warned the rebellious people to repent which they did not. (Zephaniah 1:1; Jeremiah 25:3-5)
  2. Prosias, or Prusa was built in Bithynia. [Euseb. Chron.]
3378 AM, 4088 JP, 626 BC
  1. Nabopolasur of Babylon, [who was made general of the army by Saraco also called Chinaladanus, king of Assyria and Chaldea,] and Astyages, [who was made governor of Media, by his father Cyaxares,] made an alliance together. Astyages gave his daughter Amyitis in marriage to Nebuchadnezzar the son of Nabopolasur. The two men joined their forces and took the city of Nineveh with Saraco its king. [We gather this from a fragment of Alexander Polyhistors that was misunderstood by Georgius Symelius, who cites it in Grac. Scalig. p. 38. (39).] We find in the end of the book of the Greek copy of Tobit that Nabuchodonosor is called Nabopolasur and Assuerus is Astyages and is also called Ahasuerus. (Daniel 9:1) Nineveh was taken while Tobit the younger was still living. When Shalmaneser took Samaria, he carried Tobit and his father captive to Assyria. Tobit is said to have lived 127 years. Since only 95 years passed from the captivity of Israel to this time, Tobit must still have been alive. When Josiah was reigning, [as Jerom in his commentaries upon the prophet Jonah affirms] Nineveh was destroyed. Thus the prophecies of both Nahum and Isaiah, concerning the destruction of Nineveh were fulfilled. This is also described in (Ezekiel 31:1-18)
  2. When Saraco was killed, Nabopolasur ruled the kingdom of Chaldea for 21 years. [Polyhistor, Berosus in his 3book of the Affairs of Chaldea, Ptolemy, in Reg. Can.]
3379 AM, 4089 JP, 625 BC
  1. Sadyattes king of Lydia, invaded the territory of the Milesians and started a war that lasted for 6 years.
3380 AM, 4090 JP, 624 BC
  1. In the 18th year of Josiah's reign, he charged Hilkiah the high priest to use the money which had been collected to repair the house of the Lord. When he was doing this he found the original book of the law, which was first laid up in the side of the Ark of the Covenant. (Deuteronomy 31:26) This book seems to have disappeared ever since the beginning of Manasseh's reign. When he found it, he sent it by Shaphan the scribe to the king. After Josiah heard the book entirely read to him, he asked counsel of Huldah the prophetess. She prophesied to him that that kingdom should certainly be destroyed but not in his lifetime. (2 Kings 22:3-20; 2 Chronicles 34:8-28) The king called the elders of Judah and Jerusalem, with the priests and prophets. He had the book of the law read to all the people and renewed the covenant between God and the people. Again, he cleansed the city from idolatry, and throughly restored the worship of God. 2Ki 33:1-14,(2 Chronicles 34:29,30) He demolished the altar and high place which Jeroboam the son of Nebat had set up. He burnt the bones of the dead upon the altar as had been foretold 350 years earlier. (2 Kings 13:2) When he had destroyed the altars which the kings of Israel had built in the cities of Samaria, slain all their priests and burnt dead men's bones upon them, he then returned to Jerusalem. (2 Kings 23:15-20) Even with this renewing of the covenant and general reformation of religion, the inevitable decree of desolation to follow because of the people's sins still stood. From this time of renewing is the beginning both of the 30 years spoken of in the first of the prophecy of Ezekiel and also the 40 years of the iniquity of Judah. (Ezekiel 4:6)
3381 AM, 4091 JP, 623 BC
  1. Josiah kept the passover in the same 18th year of his reign, on the 14th day of the first month [Monday, May 4th] in the presence of all Judah and Israel and the inhabitants of Jerusalem. He kept this with more solemnity than ever had been done by any of the kings of Israel or Judah in olden times. (2 Kings 23:21-23; 2 Chronicles 35:1-19) He took away all witches and soothsayers, all images and gods and all the abominations, which were found in the land of Judah and in Jerusalem. He obeyed all the words which were written in the book of the law that was found by Hilkiah. (2 Kings 33:24; Deuteronomy 18:9-11)
3383 AM, 4093 JP, 621 BC
  1. Toward the end of the 5th year of Nabopolassur, [which is the 127th from the Epoch of Nabonazar,] on the 27th day of Eygptian month of Athyr, toward the 28th of the month, the moon was eclipsed at Babylon, beginning 5 hours after midnight. [Ptol. Syntax. p. 125. Greek edition] This was on Saturday, April 22nd or the 27th of Athyr as it drew to a close. This is Ptolemy's meaning, when he says, that it was from the 27th to the 28th, lasting in all six hours after the midnight of the 27th day to the sun-rising when the 28th day was to begin.
3384 AM, 4094 JP, 620 BC
  1. Hamutal bare to Josiah, after Shallum, or Jehoahaz, Mattaniah. He was later called Zedekiah and was 21 years old when he began to reign. (Jeremiah 51:1; 2 Kings 24:17,18)
  2. Xenophanes Colophonius, founder of the sect of the Eleatic discipline in philosophy, was born in the 40th Olymiad. [Elius Empiricus, in his first book, contra Mathematicos, c.12.] [More correctly related from Apollodorus, as cited by Clemens Alexandrinus, l.1. Strommat.]
3385 AM, 4095 JP, 619 BC
  1. The son of Sadyattes called Halyattes the younger reigned in Lydia for 57 years. He spent the first 5 years fighting the war against the Libyans that his father had started. [Herod. l.1. c. 17. 18,25.]
3387 AM, 4097 JP, 617 BC
  1. Jehoiakim son of Josiah, had a son, by Nehushta, the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem, called Jehoiakim or Jeconiah. He was 18 years old when he began to reign. (2 Kings 28:8)
3388 AM, 4098 JP, 616 BC
  1. Necho, the son of Psammitichus, reigned in Egypt 16 years. [Herod. l.20. c.159.] The Bible calls him Necho or Pharaohnecho. (2 Chronicles 35:24; 2 Kings 23:29; Jeremiah 46:2) This man began a channel from the Nile to the gulf of Arabia, which cost the lives of 120,000 Egyptians. He abandoned the work when it was half done. He sent certain Phoenicians to sail round Africa. They set sail from the Gulf of Arabia or the Red Sea. They went into the southern sea and sailed around the coast. They finally came to the strait of Gibraltar and returned into Egypt, three years after they started out. [Herod. l.1. c.158. and l.4. c.52]
3390 AM, 4100 JP, 614 BC
  1. In the 12th year of the war between the Lydians and the Milesians, the Lydian army had burnt the harvest of the Milesians, as they normally did each year. It happened, that the wind caught the flames and set the temple of Minerva in Assesus on fire and burnt it to the ground. After the army returned, Halyattes, became sick for a long time. Finally he sent to consult the Oracle at Delphi. The prophetess refused to entertain his request until the temple which his men had destroyed was rebuilt. Periander the son of Cyphelus, ruler of Corinth, found out the reply and told it to his good friend Thrasibulus, king of the Milesians. He cleverly ordered that when Halyattes and his ambassadors came about rebuilding the temple, the Milesians should be feasting and revelling using all the remaining grain and supplies in the city. Halyattes expected to find that the Milesians would be starving from the long war. However, when he saw they appeared to have plenty to eat, he made peace and a league of friendship with the Milesians. Halyattes built two temples of Minerva at Assesus to replace the one he destroyed. When he got well, he sent rich presents and offerings to Delphi. [Herod. l.1. ca.19,20,22,23,24. with Polyanus, l.6. Stratag.]
3393 AM, 4102 JP, 612 BC
  1. The 17th Jubilee.
  2. Anaximander Milesius, the son of Praxidemus, was born in Ionia. See note on 3457 AM.
3394 AM, 4104 JP, 610 BC
  1. By God's command, Necho king of Egypt went against the king of Assyria, who at that time made war with him and planned to besiege Carchemish on the river Euphrates. (2 Kings 23:29); 2Ch 35:20-22Josephus states that he went to fight against the Medes and Babylonians, who had overthrown the empire of the Assyrians. [lib. 10. Antiq. ca. 6.] Carchemish, at the time of Sennacherib belonged to and was occupied by the Assyrians. (Isaiah 10:5-19) However when that kingdom was destroyed, it returned to the hands of the Babylonians. Just as when king of Persia defeated Babylon and Assyria, (Ezra 6:22) he was called king of the Assyrians, so when the king of Babylon defeated Assyria, was likewise called king of Assyria. In addition the heathen authors also tell us, that Babylon was in olden times part of Assyria and the Holy Scriptures state that the kingdom of Chaldea was founded by the king of Assyria.(Isaiah 23:13; Numbers 24:22; Isaiah 52:4; Nahum 9:22)
  2. When Josiah unadvisedly entered into this war, he was slain. (2 Kings 23:29,30); 2Ch 32:22,23This happened in the valley of Megiddo which belonged to the tribe of Manasseh. (Joshua 17:11; Judges 1:17) [Herod. l.2.] Herodotus refers to this story saying, Necho attacked the Syrians with an army on foot and overthrew them in Magdala. After the fight he took a great city of Syria named Cadytis. Scaliger notes that this Cadytis was actually Kadesh which is mentioned in (Numbers 21:16). Scaliger also believes that Magdala and Megiddo, were located near each other. Because Magdala was the more noted place of the two, the fight was said to have taken place there. In the same way it is commonly understood that the battle between Alexander and Darius at Gaugamela, is said to have been fought at Arbela since Gaugamela was an obscure place. It may be that Magdala and Megiddo were the same place since that is the place from which that other Mary obtained her surname of Magdalene. In (Matthew 15:39) we see Magdalam is how the name is rendered. The Syrian renders it Mageda and the old Latin translates it Magedan, which appears to be similar to Megiddo.
  3. Since the good king was killed in this way and the fact that he lived postponed the Babylonish captivity from that nation, (2 Kings 22:20) the last year's jubilee was turned into a year of lamentation. It almost became a common proverb, "The lamentation of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddo". (Zechariah 12:11) Not only all the people at that time bewailed the death of Josiah, but even later, a public mourning for him was voluntarily kept. The prophet Jeremiah also, wrote a song of memorial called "Song of Threnes", or "Lamentations" (2 Chronicles 35:24,25) In this song he bewailed the calamities which were shortly to befall that people. Jeremiah wrote: "The breath of our nostrils, the anointed of the Lord, is taken in their pits: of whom we said, under the shadow of his wings we shall live among the heathen." (Lamentations 4:20)
  4. So that we may very justly question the first verse, or poem of that book which we find in the Greek and common Latin translation but disagrees with Jerome. It is prefixed before the Threnes or Lamentations of Jeremiah. "And it came to pass after that Israel was carried into captivity, and Jerusalem laid waste, Jeremiah the prophet sat down and wept, and made this lamentation in Jerusalem and sighing and howling, out of the bitterness of his heart, said:"
  5. Whoever added this should have noted the verse: " Add not to his words, that he blame thee not and thou be found a liar," (Proverbs 30:6)
  6. There was also a second Song of Lamentations for the miserable condition of the kingdom of the Jews after the death of Josiah. It was composed by the prophet Ezekiel and appointed to be sung, (Ezekiel 19:1-14)
  7. After the death of Josiah the people feared that the king of Egypt would invade when there was no king. They anointed as king his youngest son Shallum or Jehoahaz. He soon did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord even as his forefathers had done. (2 Kings 23:30-32; 2 Chronicles 36:1) See note in 3371 AM.
  8. When Necho returned from Assyria, he disposed Shallum from the throne after he had only reigned 3 months. He made Eliakim his older brother king in the place of his father Josiah and changed his name into Jehoiakim. (2 Kings 23:31,32,34); 2Ch 36:2-4This was a public witness that he attributed the victory he had over the Assyrians to the Lord Jehovah only. He formerly prophesied that it was God who sent him against the Assyrians. (2 Chronicles 35:21,22) He imposed a tribute of one hundred talents of silver and one talent of gold on the land of Judah. He put Shallum or Jehoiakim in fetters at Riblah and carried him away prisoner into Egypt where he eventually died. (2 Kings 23:33-35; 2 Chronicles 36:3,4) Eze 19:3,4
  9. The prophet Jeremiah by God's appointment went to Shallum in the new king's palace. He earnestly entreated the king, his courtiers and all the people the with promises and threats from Almighty God. He foretold that Shallum or Jehoiakim would be carried away captive into Egypt. "Weep not for him that is departed [meaning Josiah] nor make lamentation for him; but weep for him that is to depart: [that is Shallum] because he shall return no more to see his native soil." (Jeremiah 22:1,2,10,-12)
3395 AM, 4104 JP, 610 BC
  1. In the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim, Jeremiah was commanded by God to stand in the court of the temple. He exhorted the people who assembled from all the cities of Judah to bow themselves there before the Lord. It being then the feast of Tabernacles, wherein all the males out of the cities were required to appear at Jerusalem. (Deuteronomy 15:16)] He told them to repent and when they would not, he denounced the judgment of God against them saying: "That that house should become as Shiloh: and that city should be accursed among all the nations of the earth:"
  2. This resulted in his arrest by the priests and prophets and all the people that were then in the court. They accused him to be a man worthy of death, but he was acquitted and set at liberty by the public judgment of the princes and elders. (Jeremiah 26:1,2,19)
  3. Like Jeremiah, Uriah also the son of Shemariah from Kirjathjearim, prophesied against Jerusalem and the land of Judah. When Jehoiakim the king sought to put him to death, he fled into Egypt. The king sent after him Elnathan the son of Achor and other men who overtook him and brought him back to the king. He had him killed and threw his carcass among the vilest sepulchres of the common people. However Ahikam, the son of Shaphan who had formerly been a man of great authority with king Josiah, (2 Kings 22:12; 2 Chronicles 34:20) was a friend of Jeremiah. Ahikam prevented Jeremiah from being turned over to people to be killed. (Jeremiah 26:20,24)
  4. To these I might add the prophet Habakkuk. When he complained of the stubbornness of the Jews, God replied: "That he would shortly send the Chaldeans into Judah";
  5. Further he declared his purpose concerning that matter: "I will do a work in your days, which you will not believe when it shall be old unto you: For behold I will stir up the Chaldeans, a fierce nation and a swift: which shall walk through the breadth of the land, to possess a land which is none of theirs as their own inheritance. " (Habakkuk 1:5,6)
  6. In the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim, Jeremiah foretold that Zedekiah should be king of Judah and Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon. He would conquer his neighbouring nations. (Jeremiah 27:1,11)
3397 AM, 4106 JP, 608 BC
  1. The governor of Coelosyria and Phoenicia revolted from Nabopolassar king of Babylon. When Carchemish was taken, Nabopolassar sent against them his son Nebuchadnezzar [after he made him viceroy in the kingdom] with a large army. This was done in the latter end of the third and beginning of the fourth year of Jehoiakim, king of Judah. (Daniel 1:1; Jeremiah 25:1).
  2. When Nebuchadnezzar was made viceroy in the kingdom, God revealed to Jeremiah these things. First was the defeat of the Egyptians at the river Euphrates then later in their own country. Nebuchadnezzar would make himself master of Egypt. (Jeremiah 46:1-28) The first came to pass almost immediately. Pharaohnecho's forces at Carchemish were cut off by Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, in the 4th year of Jehoiakim. (Jeremiah 46:2) The second happened after the taking of Tyre, in the 27th year of the captivity of Jeconiah. (Ezekiel 29:17-19)
  3. In the 4th year of Jehoiakim, which was the first of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, the prophet Jeremiah reproved the Jews for not obeying the word of the Lord. He had proclaimed this from the 13th year of king Josiah, even to that present 4th year of Jehoiakim, that is for 23 years. All that time they were stubborn and disobedient to his admonitions as well as all the other prophets whom the Lord had sent. Again he told them of the coming of Nebuchadnezzar upon them and of their captivity in Babylon which was to last 70 years. He stated that Judah and the other nations were to serve the king of Babylon.
  4. Lastly, the kingdom of Babylon itself would be destroyed and the land of Chaldea would be desolate. Jer 25:1,3,11,12Many years earlier, this 70 years was mentioned by Isaiah in more obscure terms when he spoke of the destruction of Tyre. (Isaiah 23:15,17)
3398 AM, 4107 JP, 607 BC
  1. In the 4th year of Jehoiakim, Baruch the son of Neriah wrote in a book according to what Jeremiah spoke. It had all the words of the Lord concerning Israel and Judah, from the time of Josiah until that day. He read them in the house of the Lord, in the audience of the men of Jerusalem, and of all the Jews who were assembled there from their cities, in the day of the fast. (Jeremiah 36:1-8) That is that solemn fast which was yearly kept on the 10th day of the 7th month, (Leviticus 16:29) 23:27; (Numbers 29:7) five days before the feast of tabernacles. All the males from all the cities of Judah, were to appear at Jerusalem. See note on 3395 AM. Baruch was extremely amazed and afflicted in his soul, with the horror of these dreadful judgments which he had written. Jeremiah comforted him, by the word of the Lord concerning this calamity which was to be brought upon all the land by the Babylonians and assured him of his own life, in the midst of all these troubles. (Jeremiah 45:1-5) In the passage (Jeremiah 31:1-32:44) may allude to this also as well as the promises made concerning the restoration of the church.
  2. When Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came to Judah, the Rechabites, of the descendants of Jonadab, the son of Rechab, (2 Kings 10:15) for fear of the host of the Chaldeans and Syrians, left their tents and came into Jerusalem. They had dwelt in tents according to the rule of their forefather Jonadab. Jer 35:8-11Since material in this chapter is written in the present tense, we gather that the time of the Rechabites refusing to drink wine occurred when the city was besieged by Nebuchadnezzar. (Daniel 1:1)
  3. God gave Jehoiakim the King of Judah into the hands of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, with part of the furniture of the house of the Lord. (Daniel 1:2) This was in the 9th month called Chisleu, as may be gathered from the anniversary of the fast which was kept in remembrance of this calamity and was a tradition of the Jews. (Zechariah 7:3,5; Zechariah 8:19) It was kept in this month. (Jeremiah 36:9)
  4. Nebuchadnezzar chained Jehoiakim to carry him away to Babylon. (2 Chronicles 36:6) Later upon submission and his promises of subjection, he let him stay in his own house where he lived as his servant for 3 years. From this time of the carrying of the king and people of the Jews into the bondage of Nebuchadnezzar, starts the 70 years of the captivity of Babylon which were foretold by the prophet Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 25:11; Jeremiah 29:10)
  5. Nebuchadnezzar ordered Ashpenash, the overseer of the eunuchs, that he should carry from there the best of the children of Israel, both of royal blood and of the princes. (Daniel 1:3) This was predicted by Isaiah the prophet to Ezekiel. (Isaiah 39:7) They were under his care and to be educated for 3 years in the language and sciences of the Chaldeans. The best of them were to be picked to stand before the king and serve in his palace. Among those taken from the tribe of Judah, were Daniel, who was Belshazzar, Hananiah, who was Shadrach, Mishael, who was Meshach and Anani, who was Abednego. Each had his name changed at the discretion of the prince of the eunuchs, (Daniel 1:3-7)
  6. Now after those Scythians, of whom I spoke before, had taken their pleasure in Asia for 28 years, Cyaxares and the Medes gave them a great feast. When they were all drunk on a certain day, he had most of their throats cut. [Herod. l.1. ca. 106.] In addition to these certain other Scythians of the nomads or shepherds were expelled from their own country by an opposing faction. They had been entertained by Cyaxares and by him employed, partly in hunting , partly in the education of children. After this massacre, when these were poorly treated by him, they killed one of the boys which they had taken to educate. They dressed his flesh like venison and set it before Cyaxares and his guests to eat. After this they quickly fled away to Halyartes the king at Sardis for protection. When Cyaxares demanded Halyartes surrender them to him, Halyattes refused. Hence started a five year war between the Medes and Lydians. [Herod. l.1. ca. 73,74.] Concerning the Cimmerians, [see note on 3368 AM], Halyattes drove them from all Asia. [Herod. l.1. ca. 16.]
3399 AM, 4108 JP, 606 BC
  1. In the 9th month of the 5th year of Jehoiakim, there was a solemn fast before the Lord proclaimed to all the people at Jerusalem. This was in remembrance, it seemeth, of the taking of the city by the Chaldeans the year before in the same month. Baruch stood at the gate of the house of the Lord and read all the words of the Lord. These words were spoken by Jeremiah to him and written in a book. All the people who were assembled at Jerusalem from all the cities of Judah heard Baruch read the book. When the princes were told of this by Micah the son of Gemariah, they called Baruch to them. They heard him read the same book and fearing the king, advised Jeremiah and him, to hide. When the king heard part of the book read, he first cut the book through with a pen-knife and then hurled it into the fire that was in the hearth and burnt it. (Jeremiah 36:9-25) In memory of this detestable act of the king, the Jews to this day keep a fast, upon the 7th day of the 9th month called Chisleu.
  2. When Jehoiakim had burnt the book, he ordered Jerahmeel the son of Hammelech, Seraiah the son of Azriel and Shelemiah the son of Abdiel, to apprehend Baruch the writer and Jeremiah the prophet. God hid them and against that impious king and his kingdom, pronounced this sentence. "...Thou hast burned this roll, saying, Why hast thou written therein, saying, The king of Babylon shall certainly come and destroy this land and shall cause to cease from thence man and beast? Therefore thus saith the LORD of Jehoiakim king of Judah; He shall have none to sit upon the throne of David: and his dead body shall be cast out in the day to the heat and in the night to the frost. And I will punish him and his seed and his servants for their iniquity; and I will bring upon them and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem and upon the men of Judah, all the evil that I have pronounced against them; ..." [(Jeremiah 36:29-31) AV]
  3. Later by God's appointment, Baruch wrote again the words from Jeremiah, the same words, which he had written before and wrote many additional things. (Jeremiah 36:26-32)
  4. Nebuchadnezzar capitalised on his victory over Necho and took from the Egyptians all the lands they possessed between Egypt and Euphrates. From that time on, Necho did not venture out of Egypt. (2 Kings 24:7) Meanwhile his father Nabopolassar, died in the land of Babylon, when he had reigned 21 years.
  5. When Nebuchadnezzar heard this, he ordered the deportation to Babylon of the captives of Jews, Syrians, Phoenicians and Egyptians. His army and equipment were sent there also. He posted a small company at the nearest way through the desert and returned to Babylon before them. He was made king over all his father's large dominions. He distributed the captives when they were brought to Babylon, into various colonies as he saw fit. [Berosus l.3. of the affairs, of Chaldea,] The vessels and other furniture of the temple Nebuchadnezzar took away with him to Babylon were put in the temple of his god, Belus. (Daniel 1:2; 2 Chronicles 36:7) His son was named after this god. According to Abydenus in his "Assyrian History" and Brosus, he did greatly enrich and adorn that temple with the spoil which he had taken in that war.
  6. The rest of the Scythians who had escaped the slaughter of the Medes returning home, were met by a great army of lusty young men. These had been born of their own wives in their long absence by their slaves. With these they fought many a sharp battle but at last, laid aside their swords. Each man took a whip in his hand, as is more fitting for the correction of slaves, and thereby made them all to flee. [Herod, in the beginning of his 4th book.]
3401 AM, 4110 JP, 604 BC
  1. When Jehoiakim had lived 3 years in subjection to the king of Babylon, he rebelled against him. (2 Kings 24:1)
  2. Daniel and his three followers refused the diet provided for them from the king's allowance. They dined only on pulse and water. However they were found to look better and of a more fair complexion than the rest which did eat of the king's food. After three years, they were brought into court to attend the king. They greatly excelled in all matters of knowledge, wisdom, and science, which the king was pleased to ask them about, above all the Magi and astronomers that were in his kingdom. (Daniel 1:5-20)
  3. In the second year of his kingdom, Nebuchadnezzar dreamed of the great image made of various metals. When he forgot his dream, he asked his Magi and astronomers what his dream was and what it meant. When they could not satisfy him in so unreasonable a demand, he commanded them all to be put to death. When Daniel saw the execution being prepared and understood the reason for it, he asked the king to delay for a while. Daniel and his companions prayed to God. God revealed the dream to Daniel and the interpretation of it. He declared to the king what his dream was and also the four monarchies which were to come. This was the meaning of the image which he saw in his dream. After this the king enriched him with great gifts and made him governor of all the province of Babylon and chief over all its wise men. Moreover at his request, he made his three companions, Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego, principal officers in all that province. (Daniel 2:1-49)
3403 AM, 4113 JP, 601 BC
  1. In the beginning of the 6th year of the war between the Medes and the Lydians, the war was stalemated. Thales the philosopher of Miletus had predicted to the Ionians that an eclipse of the sun would happen. When both the armies saw the day grow dark like the night, they stopped fighting. Later they made a peace between themselves by the mediation of Syennesis of Cilicia and of Labynitus the Babylonian [which was Nebuchadnezzar]. Halyattes gave his daughter Ariena, to Astyages the son of Cyaxeres in marriage. [Herod. l.1. ca. 74.] This eclipse as predicted by Thales, happened exactly when Cyaxeres the father of Astyages and king of the Medes and Halyattes Cresus' father and king of the Lydians were fighting together. This is confirmed by Endemus, in his "Astronomical History". Also Pliny speaks of it and gave the following reason for the eclipse: [l. 1. c.12.] "Among the Greeks, the first one that found out how to predict the eclipses was Thales the Milesian. He foretold the eclipse of the sun, in the 4th year of the 48th Olympiad, which was in the reign of Halyattes, "
  2. [For so is the reading in the old copy, not of Astyages, as the common edition has it] 170 years after the building of Rome. Clemens Alexan. [lib. 1. Strom.] places this fight of Cyaxares and eclipse of the sun about the 50th Olympiad. He differs greatly from the opinion of Endemus, whom he cites for it. For both the time assigned by Endemus and Pliny does not agree with Cyaxares, but with the reign of Astyages. Also from Ptolemy's, sun and moon-tables, which are the same with those of Hipparchus, it appears plainly that the sun was eclipsed in the 4th year of the 44th olympiad. That is in the 147th of Nabonasar, on the 4th day of the Egyptian month Pacon, [or Sunday, September 20th according to the Julian Calendar] 3 hours 25 minutes before noon. This eclipse was of 9 digits, [12 digits (Isaiah 100)%] and continued almost two hours.
3404 AM, 4114 JP, 600 BC
  1. Plamnis the son of Neco reigned in Egypt for 6 years [Herod. l.2. c.161.]
  2. The Phocenses set sail from Ionia and built Marseilles on the coast of Liguria in Italy 120 years before the naval battle at Salamis. [According to Marcianus in his Periegesis reports from Timeus.] This was in the first year of the 45th olympiad according to both Eusebius in his Chronicle and Solinus in Polyhistor. However the latter confounds this first colony of the Phocenses made in the days of Tarquinius Priscus with their later one under Servius Tullus. See note on 3461 AM. The story of the wedding which was the occasion for the building of this city, is described in detail by Atheneus, l.3. from Aristotle. He speaks of the commonwealth of the Marseilians. Justin has a similar account in his 43book out of Tro. Pomp. who relates the same thing, though differing in the names of the persons concerned.
  3. Nebuchadnezzar's army of Syrians, Chaldeans, Moabites and Ammonites, attacked Jehoiakim and destroyed all of Judah. (2 Kings 24:2) They took 3023 prisoners from there in the 7th year of Nebuchadnezzar. (Jeremiah 52:28)
  4. Astyages or Ahasuerus, (Daniel 9:1) who married Ariena the year before had a son called Syaxares or Darius, the Mede. He was 62 years old when he succeeded Belshazzar, who was slain, in the kingdom of the Chaldeans. (Daniel 5:30,31) Astyages, in the lifetime of his father, gave in marriage his daughter, Mandanes, who was born by his former wife, to Cambyses son of Achemenes, king of Persia. [This is according to Xenophon, who states this in his first book of the education of Cyrus.] He derives his family pedigree from Perseus. From this union Cyrus was born the next year. Hence we do not believe Ctesias, who contrary to Herodotus and Xenophon and others, states that that Astyages was related to Cyrus in any way.
3405 AM, 4115 JP, 599 BC
  1. After Jehoiakim was taken prisoner by the Chaldeans, he was thrown out without a proper burial, buried like an ass. His body was dragged out of the gate of Jerusalem, according as was foretold by the prophet. (Jeremiah 22:18,19; Jeremiah 36:30) Though in reference to the common course of nature, he also may be said to have slept with his fathers. (2 Kings 24:6)
  2. After him, his son Jehoiachin, who was also called Coniah and Jeconiah, reigned 3 months and ten days in Jerusalem. He also did what was evil in the sight of the Lord, as his father Jehoiakim had done before him. (2 Kings 24:8,9; 2 Chronicles 36:8,9) God pronounced this most dreadful decree against him: "Write this man childless, a man which shall not prosper in his days; for none of his seed shall prosper to sit in the throne of David, nor reign any more in Judah" (Jeremiah 22:30)
  3. Concerning this matter, refer to Christophorus Helvicus' book of the Genealogy of Christ. At this time, the prophecy of Jeremiah contained in (Jeremiah 23:1-40) seems to have been uttered.
  4. In the same year when the former army was sent, the servants of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came to besiege Jerusalem. When Nebuchadnezzar himself came to the city while his servants besieged it. Jehoiachim the king, with his mother Nehushta, a woman of Jerusalem and his servants and officers, with all his courtiers, came forth to the king of Babylon. This happened in the 8th year of Nebuchadnezzar's reign over Babylon. He took from there all the treasure, both of the temple and of the king's house. He broke in pieces all the golden vessels and furniture, which Solomon had made for the temple of the Lord, just as the Lord, (Isaiah 39:6) had foretold. He carried away king Jehoiachim to Babylon with his mother, his wives and his courtiers. From all of Jerusalem he took 10,000 men, the magistrates, every man of strength, all the carpenters and smiths. He left only at Jerusalem the poorer sort of people. From the other parts of the land, he carried away 7000 able bodied men and 1000 of the smiths and carpenters. These were all strong men and fit for war. They were carried prisoners into Babylon. (2 Kings 24:8-16; 2 Chronicles 36:10; Jeremiah 24:1); 29:1,2; (Ezekiel 17:12) Among the captives was Mordecai of the tribe of Benjamin, the son of Jair, (Esther 2:5,6) and Ezekiel the priest, the son of Buzi. Therefore he in his prophecy starts the captivity from this time, (Ezekiel 1:2,3) which he also calls his own banishment. (Ezekiel 40:1) An Epistle, said to be Jeremiah's, is sent to those that were appointed to be carried away to Babylon. It warned them to beware of the idolatry which they should see practised in Babylon. /APC (Baruch 6:1-73)
  5. While the king of Babylon thus ravaged in Judah, God prepared a worm which in due time should eat out this spreading tree. The cry of this poor people came to the Lord. "O daughter of Babylon, wasted with misery, happy shall he be that shall reward thee, as thou hast served us, who shall take thy children and dash them against the stones," (Psalms 137:8)
  6. For in this very year, was Cyrus the Media-Persian born whose father was a Persian and his mother a Mede, as I showed before. This very Nebuchadnezzar, at the hour of his death, as Abydenus has it, uttered this prophecy: "There shall come a Persian Mule, who shall make use of your Devils, as his fellow-soldiers, to bring you into bondage:"
  7. This was also foretold by that Oracle given to Croesus: "When a mule king, shall to the Medes be born, &c."
  8. The Pythian Priests interpreted this to refer to Cyrus, who was to be born of a father and a mother of two different nations, a Persian and a Mede. [Herod. l.2. c.55. and 91.] But most plainly and truly Isaiah foretold, (Isaiah 13:1,2) that the Babylonians also should have a time wherein to endure their hell of slavery. Their children would one day be dashed against the stones before their eyes. (Isaiah 13:16) These miserably captive Jews would one day be restored to their liberty. He called their deliverer many years before by his proper name of Cyrus. (Isaiah 44:28; Isaiah 45:1) God gave him the reason for this unusual revelation: "For my servant Jacob and for Israel my chosen's sake, have I called thee by thy name and given thee a surname, though thou hast not known me," (Isaiah 45:4)
  9. As for the age of this Cyrus, Tully in his 1st book de Divinations, cited it from Dionysius a Persian writer, in this manner: "The sun appeared to Cyrus in his sleep, standing at his feet. When Cyrus endeavoured to take the sun in his hands three times, the sun turned aside and went away. The Magi, who are counted as wise and learned men among the Persians, said that by his three attempts to take hold of the sun meant that he should reign 30 years. This came to pass accordingly, for he started to reign at the age of 40 and lived to the age of 70."
  10. From which dream perhaps, so expounded by the magicians, Cyrus took his name; for, as Ctesias rightly says, "Cyrus in the Persian language, means the sun:"
  11. So also said Plutarch in his work on the life of Artaxerxes as well as Chur or Churshid, in the Persian poets, as it is said to this day. From the work of Tully's compared with (Daniel 5:31) it appears that Darius the Mede or Cyaxares the son of Astyages that Cyrus' uncle was born before him. Therefore Xenophon in his book entitled, "Of the Institution of Cyrus", l.6. coined the expression: "seeing I am here present and am older than Cyrus, it is fitting that I speak first: "
  12. And in book 4 by the same author, when Cyrus wrote to Darius, he used these words: "I advise you, though I be the younger of the two."
  13. Nebuchadnezzar made Mattaniah the son of Josiah, king in place of Jeconiah his uncle and changed his name to Zedekiah, meaning "the justice of the Lord". (Jeremiah 37:1; 2 Kings 24:17) He had made a covenant with him and had taken an oath of allegiance from him and Zedekiah, had taken an oath by God to perform it. (2 Chronicles 36:13; Ezekiel 17:13,14,18) By giving him this new name, he intended to remind Zedekiah of the just judgment of God if he would break the oath.
  14. Zedekiah reigned a full 11 years in Jerusalem and did evil in the sight of the Lord his God. He did not humble himself before Jeremiah the prophet who spoke to him in the name the Lord but stiffened his neck and hardened his heart that he might not return to the Lord God of Israel. (Jeremiah 1:3; Jeremiah 32:1,2; 2 Kings 24:18,19; 2 Chronicles 36:11-13) Indeed, all the leaders of the priests and the people of the whole land transgressed the law and polluted the house of the Lord which God had sanctified in Jerusalem. Nor would they listen to the word of the Lord, which he spoke to them by the mouth of his prophet Jeremiah and other prophets. Instead, they despised them and mocked the messengers which God sent to them until the fire of God's fury burst upon his people. (Jeremiah 37:2; 2 Chronicles 36:14-16).
  15. After Jeconiah was carried away, God revealed to Jeremiah in a vision of two baskets of figs, the captivity of the new king Zedekiah and the remainder of the people. (Jeremiah 24:1,2,8,9),
  16. In the beginning of Zedekiah's reign, Jeremiah prophesied the captivity and restoration of the Elamites. (Jeremiah 49:34-39) For Nebuchadnezzar had taken from Astyages, the whole province of Elam, with the city Susa on the river Ulai and annexed it to his kingdom. (Jeremiah 25:25; Daniel 8:1,2) Later these Elamites combined with the Medes against the Babylonians. (Isaiah 21:2) When Belshazzar was overthrown, they recovered their state again, under Cyrus. Their chief city Susa was made by Cyrus to be the seat of the Persian kingdom. [Strabo, l.15]
  17. When ambassadors came from the various kings of Edom, Moab, Ammon, Tyre and Sidon to Jerusalem, to visit the new king Zedekiah, God told Jeremiah to give to each of them chains and whips to be presented to their masters. He commanded them all to submit to Nebuchadnezzar and stop listening to their wizards and stargazers, who advised them not to submit. He advised Zedekiah to remain loyal to the king of Babylon and to beware of the false prophets. By threats and promises he persuaded many of the people to submit to and obey the king of Babylon. (Jeremiah 39:1-18)
  18. When Jeconiah was carried away with the other captives, Zedekiah sent Elasah, the son of Shaphan and Gemariah the son of Hilkiah, to Nebuchadnezzar in Babylon. Jeremiah sent a letter by them which he had written to the elders and priests and prophets and the rest of the people, who had been carried from there by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon. In the letter, the prophet instructed them how to behave themselves in captivity and comforted them with a gracious promise of deliverance at the end of the 70 years. He predicts the great calamities which were to fall on those whom they had left behind in Jerusalem. He foretold the miserable end which Ahab, the son of Kolaiah and Zedekiah the son of Maaseiah, the two false prophets should come to. (Jeremiah 29:1-23)
3406 AM, 4116 JP, 598 BC
  1. Seraiah sent letters, as it seems, by Zedekiah's messengers, when they returned from Babylon, to Zephaniah, [who was the second chief priest] (2 Kings 25:18) and to the rest of the priests at Jerusalem. He denounced what the prophet Jeremiah had written to them. When this was read to Jeremiah, he pronounced a heavy judgment from God on him. (Jeremiah 29:24,32) At this time also it seems he made those notable prophecies concerning the kingdom of Christ and restoration of the church in (Jeremiah 30:1-31:40).
3407 AM, 4117 JP, 597 BC
  1. Cresus was born. He was the son of Halyattes, king of Lydia and his mother was a woman of Caria. It appears that he was 35 years of age, when he began to reign. [Herod. l.1. c.26. and (92).]
3408 AM, 4118 JP, 596 BC
  1. In the 5th month of the 4th year of Zedekiah, Hananiah a false prophet, made a false prophesy. He said that at the end of two years, all the vessels, and furniture of the house of the Lord and Jeconiah and all the people, who were carried away to Babylon would return and be brought home again. When Jeremiah mocked him, he took a yoke of wood from about Jeremiah's neck and broke it. He said: "Thus shall the Lord break the yoke of Nebuchadnezzar, within two years precisely, from off the neck of all the nations:"
  2. Jeremiah replied, "That God, instead of that wooden yoke, would lay an iron one upon the neck of all these nations, under which they should bow, and serve the king of Babylon, (Jeremiah 28:1-14)
3409 AM, 4118 JP, 596 BC
  1. Hananiah the false prophet died in the seventh month according to the word of Jeremiah. Astyages, after the death of his father Cyaxares, reigned over the Medes 35 years. [Herod. l.1. c.130.] He is also called, Ahasuerus, (Daniel 9:1) or Asuerus. /APC (Tobit 14:15)
  2. God by his prophet Jeremiah foretold that Babylon and the land of Chaldea should be overrun and laid waste by the Medes and Persians. He comforted his people with the sweet promises of their deliverance. (Jeremiah 50:1-51:64)
  3. Zedekiah, in the 4th year of his reign, sent Seraiah, the son of Neriah, the son of Maaseiah to Babylon, to whom Jeremiah delivered the these prophecies of the destruction of Babylon. These were written in a book. He read the book to the people and threw it into the river Euphrates. (Jeremiah 51:59-64) His brother Baruch, son also of Neriah, the son of Maaseiah, (Jeremiah 32:12) 51:59 Jeremiah's scribe, is thought to have gone to Babylon with Seraiah.
  4. Baruch is said to have read all the words of his own book to Jeconiah, the son of Jehoiakim and to all the captives that were then dwelling with him at that time in Babylon. This was in the 5th year, [that is after Jeconiah was carried away to Babylon] in the 7th month, at the time when the Chaldeans took Jerusalem and burnt it with fire. /APC Bar 1:2-4Some think that this was the same month when Jeconiah gave himself up to the king of Babylon and Jerusalem was taken and perhaps partially set on fire by the Chaldeans. For I cannot agree with Severus Salpicius, who perhaps taking it from that text, states in his first book of his Sacred History that at this very time: "Nebuchadnezzar entered Jerusalem with his army and laid both city and walls, temple and all, even with the ground,"
  5. Yet the former guess of Fran. Junius, concerning the quenching of the fire, and the taking of the city is somewhat more tolerable than that of our seminary priests of Downay when they said: "that the whole time of the taking of Jerusalem, lasted eleven years before it was wholly burnt:"
  6. That is from the time, when it was taken under Jeconiah until the time it was taken under Zedekiah. This book was written in the 5th year of that interval of time. Hugo Grotius thinks that the first writer of it means here that the fifth year after the carrying away of Jeconiah. The phrase "the rest of the burning of Jerusalem", was added later by someone else who was of opinion that Baruch never went to Babylon until after the burning of Jerusalem, which happened in the reign of Zedekiah.
  7. Ezekiel had his first vision from God in the beginning of the 30th year from restoration of the worship of God in the 18th year of Josiah's reign, or the 5th year of the captivity of Jehoiakim or Jeconiah, 5th day of the 4month, [on Saturday, July 24th]. He was among the rest of the company that were carried away to Babylon, by the river Chebar or Chaborra according to Strabo and Ptolemy. (Ezekiel 1:1,2,28) From here he was sent to be a prophet among the Jews of the captivity. When he came to those who dwelt at Telabib near the river Chebar, he sat down as a man distressed for 7 days. After this, God reminded him of his call with promises if he obeyed and with threats if he refused. He confirmed him with a new sign and gave him courage and boldness by his word. (Ezekiel 2:1-3:27)
  8. The prophet was commanded to make a drawing of the siege of Jerusalem, and to lie a long time on his side for 390 days. This was to be a type of how many days the siege of the city of Jerusalem would last and of the number of years of the iniquity of the house of Israel from the time of Jeroboam. (Ezekiel 4:1-17)
3410 AM, 4120 JP, 594 BC
  1. Shortly after Plammis king of Egypt returned from his journey which he had made into Ethiopia, he died. His son, Apryes, succeeded him and reigned for 25 years. [Herod. l.2. c.161] The scriptures call him Pharaohhophra. (Jeremiah 44:30) He and a well equipped army made an incursion into the Isle of Cyprus and upon Phoenicia. He took Sidon by force and the rest of that country by the very dread and terror of his name. After a main victory at sea, over both Cyprians and Phoenicians, he returned into Egypt with a huge spoil taken from them. [Diod. Sic. l.1.] It is reported of him, that he said that no God was able to put him out of his kingdom for he thought he made his kingdom very secure. [Herod. 2 c.169] In (Ezekiel 39:3) [as Tremelius has noted] is in that allegorical Prosopopeia, most elegantly expressed, "The river is mine own, for I have made for it myself."
  2. When Ezekiel had lain 390 days upon his left side, he turned to his right and lay there 40 more days. This was a type of the many years of the iniquity of Judah. (Ezekiel 4:6) See also (Ezekiel 5:1-7:27)
  3. In the 6th year of Jeconiah's captivity and 5th day of it, [which was Wednesday, September 22nd] God carried Ezekiel away by the Spirit to Jerusalem. In a vision there, he showed him the infinite idolatry practised there and the plagues which were to befall that city for this. (Ezekiel 8:1) 9:1-11:25
  4. According to his prediction, Pelatia, the son of Benaiah died. God comforted the godly in their captivity in Babylon by the sanctification of his presence and with his evangelical promises for the time to come. When the vision was over, the prophet was brought back by the Spirit to his people in Chaldea and there declares to them all that God had showed him. (Ezekiel 11:13-25)
3411 AM, 4120 JP, 594 BC
  1. God by signs and words predicts Zedekiah's flight by night, the putting out of his eyes, his going into captivity and his dying in Babylon. Also he foretells the captivity of the Jews and the calamities which they were to endure before this captivity. (Ezekiel 12:1-28) In this same year, the next 7 chapters of Ezekiel were written. From his writings we understand that Daniel's name was at that time very famous for his continual prayers which he made for the people of the captivity. (Ezekiel 14:14,20) Zedekiah did not regard the covenant and oath which he had sworn and rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar. (Ezekiel 17:15,17)
  2. In the 7th year of Jeconiah's captivity, the 10th day of the 5th month [Sunday, August 27th], Ezekiel reproved the elders for their gross hypocrisy in coming to ask counsel of God. He prophesied of the calamity that was to come on all flesh. He pronounced God's judgment on the idolaters and comfort to the godly. (Ezekiel 20:1-23:49)
3413 AM, 4123 JP, 591 BC
  1. After Battus founded the kingdom of Cyrene, he was succeeded by his son Arcesilaus who reigned 16 years. [Herod. l.4. c.159.]
3414 AM, 4124 JP, 590 BC
  1. This was a sabbatical year in which the men of Jerusalem, set their servants at liberty according to the law. (Ezekiel 21:2); De 15:1,2,12Jer 34:8-10 The men of Jerusalem also heard that Nebuchadnezzar was approaching with his army. Nebuchadnezzar marched against Zedekiah and ravaged all the country. He took their strong holds and came before the very walls of Jerusalem. [Joseph, Antiq. l.10. c.10.] He had taken all the cities of Judah, except Lachish, Azekah and Jerusalem. All of these cities were besieged by all his forces. (Jeremiah 34:1-7)
  2. The siege of Jerusalem did not begin until the middle of winter. In the 9th year of the reign of Zedekiah on the 10th day, [Thursday, January 30th] Nebuchadnezzar with all his army came before Jerusalem. He built forts all around it. (2 Kings 25:1; Jeremiah 39:1; Jeremiah 52:4) In memorial of this event a yearly fast is kept among the Jews beginning from the captivity until this day.(Zechariah 8:19)
  3. On the same day of the siege of Jerusalem, God revealed to Ezekiel who was in Chaldea its complete destruction. This was represented to him in type to a seething pot. His wife died that day in the evening. He was told not to mourn her death. In this way he was to signify the grievous calamity of the Jews which was to surpass all expressions of grief by mourning.(Ezekiel 24:1-27)
  4. God told the prophet Jeremiah to tell Zedekiah of the complete destruction and burning of Jerusalem brought on by the king of Babylon. Zedekiah was to be carried away prisoner to Babylon. However, he would die in peace and have an honourable burial.(Jeremiah 34:1-7)
  5. Zedekiah imprisoned Jeremiah for his prophecy in the king's prison house. This happened in the 10th year of Zedekiah and the beginning of the 18th year of Nebuchadnezzar. He recovered the land of Hanameel, by right of redemption. (Jeremiah 32:1-16) All things then came to pass which he foretold. These are contained in (Jeremiah 32:1-33:26)
  6. Pharaohhophra, also called Vaphris, came with his army from Egypt, to help Zedekiah and the Chaldeans raised the siege before Jerusalem. Jeremiah was allowed to go free during the siege and had not been thrown into the dungeon until later. Zedekiah sent messengers to Jeremiah to ask him to make intercession to God for the deliverance of the people. Jeremiah told him that the Egyptians would return to their own land and the Chaldeans would return to Jerusalem and destroy the city by fire.(Jeremiah 37:3-10)
  7. When the siege was raised the people took back their Hebrew servants whom they had formerly set free, because they no longer feared the enemy. They made them serve them as before, which was contrary to the law and covenant. For this barbarous act, Jeremiah reproved them, telling them if they released their servants they would escape the sword, famine and pestilence of the returning Chaldeans. He told them the Chaldeans would be returning to make war again and would take their city and burn it to the ground. (Jeremiah 34:11-22)
  8. While the Chaldeans were perusing the Egyptian army, Jeremiah planned to escape but he was stopped by the princes. He was taken and scourged and cast into the dungeon in Jonathan's house for a long time. (Jeremiah 37:11-16) While Nebuchadnezzar was perusing the Egyptians in the 18th year of his reign, he took 832 prisoners from Jerusalem and for safeguard, he sent them all back to Babylon. (Jeremiah 52:29)
  9. Pittacus of Mitylene was one of the 7 wise men. He was sent against Phrynon who was surnamed the Pancratiast, which means "a man excellent in all feats of chivalry". Phrynon was an olympian who won the bell in the games at Olympus. At that time he was serving as a general of the Athenian army. He had taken two towns, Sigeum and Achilleum, from the Lacedemonians, with a Navy to Troas. In this battle, the Athenians were victorious. They took the shield of Abraeus, since the poet of Mitylene, had thrown it away in his efforts to escape. They hung it up in the temple of Minerva in Sigeum. After this, Phrynon challenged any man that dared to encounter him to a single combat. Pittacus accepted the challenge and with a little net which he had hid under the hollow of his shield, he caught him by the head and killed him with his three-forked spear. The Mitylenians offered him a large portion of land for killing Phrynon. He only accepted as much land as he could throw his spear across. On this land he built a temple and called it Pittacium. This story seems to be mangled and is imperfect in Herodotus, [l. 5. c.95.] However that defects in him is supplied by Plutarch, in his book entitled, "De malignitate Herodoti", of the envy, or spitefulness of Herodotus, together with [Strabo, l. 13. Polyenus, l.1.] Festus, in the word, Retiarius "a fighter with a net." and Diogenes Laetius, l. 1.] He tells us, that the Mitylenians for that service made him their sovereign, of their own accord, 20 years before he died. He states this was in the third year of the 52nd Olympiad. In carefully calculating it, I chose to place it in the 3year of the 47th, though Eusebius places it on the 2nd year of the 43Olympiad. This seems to more closely agree because in the Catalogue of the Victorious Runners who won prizes, Phrynon, is said to have gotten the bell in the 36th Olympiad. The war did not end with this duel, but their quarrel was referred to by both parties to Periander of Corinth, who was also reckoned as another of the seven wise men of the world. As an indifferent arbitrator, he ordered that each party should hold what they had in their possession. The Mitylenians were to keep the Town of Achilleum and the Athenians Sigeum. [Herod. l.5. c.94. 54. Strabo l.13.] Periander out of Sosicrates shows that Laertius died 6 years after this and before the 49th Olympiad. This reveals Herodotus' error in his account of times, where he makes this peace between the Athenians and Mitylenians, toward the latter end of the Successors of Pisistratus in Athens' government.
3415 AM, 4125 JP, 589 BC
  1. In the 10th year of the captivity of Jeconiah and on the 12th day of the 10th month, [on Sunday, February 1st.] Ezekiel prophesied against Pharaoh and all Egypt. Ezekiel foretold that Pharaoh would prove to be only a staff or reed to the house of Israel. Pharaoh's attempts to relieve Israel were all in vain. He predicted that Pharaoh himself would be over thrown in the desert of Libya by the Cyreraeans. [see note in the year 3430]. Egypt was to be miserably wasted by the Babylonians and that desolation would last for 40 years, (Ezekiel 29:1-16)
  2. When Nebuchadnezzar had routed the Egyptian army, he presently returned to the siege of Jerusalem about the 15th day of the 3month, that is , 30 days before he took it.(Ezekiel 4:5,8) Jeremiah told Zedekiah that he would be given into the hands of Nebuchadnezzar. Zedekiah then command him to be removed out of the Dungeon of the prison in Jonathan's house and taken into the court of the prison. He was to be given a roll of bread each day as long as there was any bread left in the city, (Jeremiah 37): 17,21
  3. As the siege continued Zedekiah inquired of Jeremiah, but he still sent him the same answer, that both king and people must fall into Nebuchadnezzar's hands. He said if any stayed in the city they would perish by sword, famine or pestilence. However, if any would go out, and submit to the king of Babylon, they would have their lives saved.(Jeremiah 21:1-14)
  4. The princes cast Jeremiah into Malchiah's dungeon, which was in the court of the prison for answering the king in this way. He was delivered by the help of Ebed-Melech, one of the kings Eunuchs, and was again consulted by the king. When he still continued in pronouncing judgment against the land of Judah, he was still kept in the court of the prison until the city was taken. (Jeremiah 38:1-28) He assured Ebedmelech, in the name of the Lord; that he would be free from all harm and danger in that calamity. (Jeremiah 39:15-18)