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Historical Writings

Ussher's "The Annals of the World"

The Fourth Age: 1491 BC - 1013 BC

2513 AM, 3223 JP, 1491 BC
  1. God appeared to Moses in a burning bush that was not consumed with fire, while he was keeping his father-in-law Jethro's sheep in the mountain of Horeb. He called him to deliver his people Israel from their slavery and bondage in Egypt. Moses sought to avoid doing this with many excuses. At length however, he undertook the work being persuaded partly by miracles and partly by assurance given him of the help of God and his brother Aaron given him for an assistant. (Acts 7:30,35; Exodus 3-4:1,18)
  2. Moses left Jether or Jethro his father-in-law and with his family took his journey for Egypt. Because he neglected to circumcise his son Eliezer, he was stopped by God in the way and not allowed to continue until he done this. He sent back his wife Zipporah and his two sons, Gershom and Eliezer, to her father Jethro. Now freed from all encumbrance, he returned to mount Horeb and met his brother Aaron. He went on and performed his duty, confirmed by miracles, in the public sight of the children of Israel. (Exodus 4:18,31; Exodus 18:1,6)
  3. Moses and Aaron declared to Pharaoh God's message. Pharaoh charged them as being leaders in a rebellion and sent them away angrily. He increased the burden of the Israelites more than ever before. Their overseers were beaten because they could not do all the work. They complained in vain to Pharaoh. They complained to Moses and Aaron and Moses complained to God. God graciously heard him and told him to finish the work he had begun. (Exodus 5:1-22)
  4. Moses returned to the Israelites with further instructions from God. Because of their oppression, it was to no avail. Hence God commanded him to go again to Pharaoh. (Exodus 6:1-30)
  5. Moses was 80 years old and Aaron 83 years old when they were commanded by God to return again to Pharaoh. When the magicians by their sorcery, imitated the miracles of Aaron's rod becoming a serpent, Pharaoh was more obstinate than ever. Ex 7:1,13The leaders of these magicians which opposed Moses, were Jannes and Jambres. as named by the apostle, (2 Timothy 3:8). These names are noted, not only by the Jews in their Talmudical treaty of tyhgm i.e.of Oblations, c.9. where they are called by the names of yghfy and admmw i.e.Jochanne and Mamre. In the Chaldee Paraphrase, they are attributed to Jonathan. (Exodus 1:15; Exodus 7:11) Among some heathen writers, for so Numenius Apamaeus, a Pythagorean Philosopher, in his 3book, wfsituataqhq cited by Euseb. 1. 9. Prepar. Evang. c.8. relates this history: "Jannes and Jambres, interpreters of the mysteries of Egypt, were in great repute at the time when the Jews were sent out of Egypt. It was the opinion of all men that these were inferior to none in the art of magic. For by the common opinion of the Egyptians, these two were chosen to oppose Moses, the ring leader of the Jews. Moses prayers were most prevalent with God. They only were able to undo and frustrate all those most grievous calamities that Moses brought upon all the Egyptians."
  6. Pliny, [1. 30. c.1.] in reference to this states "There is also another sect of Magicians, depending upon Moses, and Jannes and Jotape Jews."
  7. Wherein nevertheless he falls into a double error, a. In reckoning Moses among the magicians. b. In making Jannes and Jotape to be Jews.
  8. But when Pharaoh's magicians could do no more, God through Moses sent his ten plagues upon the Egyptians. These are summarised in (Psalms 78): 1-72 105:1-45. According to the Jews, these plagues lasted a year but in fact they were all sent within one month in this order.
  9. About the 18th day of the 6th month, [which in the previous year and thereafter became the 12th month (Exodus 12:2)] God sent the first plague of the waters turning into blood. After 7 days, (Exodus 7:25) about the 25th day, came the second plague of the frogs which were removed the next day. About the 27th was brought upon them the third plague of flies and lice.
  10. About the 28th day, Moses threatened them with a fourth plague of flies and other vermin. These came on the 29th day and were all taken away on the 30th day.
  11. About the 1st of the 7th month [which shortly after was made the 1st month of the year (Exodus 12:2)] After Moses warned them of a fifth plague, he brought it upon them the next day. This was the plague of murrain in cattle. About the 3day, the sixth plague of boils and botches came upon man and beast. This plague came on the magicians as well. (Exodus 9:11) Hence wrote Justin, from Trogus Pompeius, l.36. "The Egyptians were afflicted with the scab and sores. When they were warned by an Oracle, all, that were infected with that disease, expelled Moses out of Egypt lest the plague should spread further among the people."
  12. Note here too the sayings collected out of Diodorus Sicul. 1. 40. reported in Phati Bibliotheca. p. 620.
  13. About the 4th day, Moses warned them of a seventh plague which came on them on the 5th day of the same month. It was a plague of thunders and rain and grievous hail, mixed with fire which ruined their flax and barley because the barley was then in the ear and the flax bolled. But their wheat and the rye were not harmed, because they were not yet out of the ground. Hence Nicolaus Fullerus, l.3. of his Miscellanies rightly observes, p. 389. that this plague happened in the month of Abib.
  14. About the 7th day Moses threatened them with an eighth plague. The next day the plague of locusts came and devoured all green plants. He removed the plague about the 9th day. (Exodus 10:4,11,19)
  15. The month Abib, which was the 7th month, was from this time on made the first month of the year. (Exodus 12:2; Exodus 13:4) This was for a memorial of their departure out of the land of Egypt. From the beginning of this month we deduce the epochs of the Jewish Calendar. (Numbers 9:1,2; Exodus 40:17)
  16. On the 10th day of this the month, [which was the Thursday April 30th according the Julian Calendar] was instituted the feast of the Passover and unleavened bread. The Pascal lamb was chosen and killed four days later. (Exodus 13:3,6)
  17. Moses now brings upon them the ninth plague of 3 days darkness. It was so dark that none of the Egyptians during that time, once left the place where they were when the darkness came. However, the Israelites had during that time, light in their dwellings. (Exodus 10:22,23)
  18. Upon the 14th day [Monday, May 4th] Moses spoke with Pharaoh for the last time. Moses told him of the tenth plague which should come upon him. This was the death of all the firstborn of Egypt, which came to pass the next night at midnight. Pharaoh, in a rage ordered Moses to get out of his sight and never come back again. (Exodus 10:24-29; Exodus 11:1,4-8) The passover was celebrated that evening. (Exodus 12:11,12)
  19. On the 15th day of the 1st month [Tuesday, May 5th] at midnight, the firstborn of all Egypt were slain. Pharaoh and his servants, quickly sent away the Israelites with all their goods and the plunder which they had received from the Egyptians. (Exodus 12:33,35,36) It was exactly 430 years from the first pilgrimage of Abraham's departure from Canaan, to the day they were set free from bondage. The day after the Passover, they journeyed toward Ramesses with about 600,000 men, besides women and children. (Exodus 12:29-31,37,41,51; Numbers 33:3) From that place the camps are recorded by Moses. From the Hebrew meanings of the words, Jerome, in writing to Fabiola, expounds symbolically, in his Treatise of their 42 camps. I suppose the first camp to be at Ramesses. Thus then: (1). At Ramesses, where the Israelites were placed by Joseph, (Genesis 47:11), they all met who either dwelt among the Egyptians (Exodus 3:2) or who at that time were scattered over all Egypt to gather stubble. (Exodus 5:12; 2). At Succoth, Moses first declared to them the commandments of God for the yearly keeping of the Passover and the sanctifying of the firstborn. (Exodus 13:1-22; 3). At Etham, in the border of the wilderness, the Lord led them with a pillar of a cloud by day and in a pillar of fire by night. (Exodus 13:20,21; 4). At Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, opposite Baalzephon, Pharaoh, with his host overtook them. Here Moses divided the waters with his rod and they passed through the midst of the Trythraean, or Red Sea into the desert of Etham. When Pharaoh and his army tried to follow, they were all drowned when the waters came together again. At dawn, the Israelites were completely freed from the bondage of the Egyptians, whose bodies they saw floating all over the sea and cast up on the shore. (Exodus 14:26-30) They sang a song of praise and thanksgiving to God, for their deliverance. (Exodus 15:22) This song (Revelation 15:3) is called the Song of Moses and is the first song of deliverance by the Hebrews. This happened on the 21st day of the first month on the last day of the feast of unleavened bread, as appointed by God. This is the general opinion of the Jews and most agreeable to truth. From there they marched three whole days through the wilderness of Etham, from Tuesday the 22to Thursday the 24th and they found no water all the way. (Exodus 15:22; Numbers 33:8; 5). At Marah, named from its bitter waters, the people which had gone without water three whole days, began to murmur. Moses threw into the water a piece of wood and made them drinkable. This taught the people in time to come to put their trust in God, (Exodus 15:23,26; 6). At Elim were 12 fountains of water and 70 palm trees. They camped by the side of those fountains. (Exodus 15:27; Numbers 33:9; 7). This camp was by the Red Sea. (Numbers 33:10)
  20. Now we come to the second month. (8). Upon the 15th, [Thursday, June 4th] the Israelites came to the place of their eighth camp in the wilderness of Sin, between Elyma and Sinai. Being hungry they murmured against God and their leaders. About evening, God sent them quails and the next morning rained on them manna from heaven. They lived on manna for 40 years, until they entered the land of promise. (Exodus 16:1-35; 9). They camped at Dophkah. (10). They camped at Alush. (11). At Rephidim the people murmured again because of thirst. [This place was called Meribah and Massa.] Moses gave them water by striking the hard rock with his rod. (Exodus 17:1,7) This Rock followed them throughout the wilderness. (Psalms 78:16,20; Psalms 105:41; 1 Corinthians 10:4; Deuteronomy 8:15) The Amalekites attacked the rear of the Israelites who were all weary and tired from their long journey in the wilderness. They killed some of the stragglers and weakest of them. Moses sent out to fight with them Jehosua or Joshua the son of Nun his servant. (Exodus 33:11) His proper name was Hosea but Moses changed it to Jehosuah. (Numbers 13:16) or Jesus. (Nahum 8:17; Acts 7:45; Hebrews 4:8) Joshua fought and defeated the Amalekites in Rephidim while Moses prayed on top of the hill. The people were commanded by God to utterly destroy and root out that whole nation. For a memorial of this battle they built an altar there. (Deuteronomy 25:17-19; Exodus 17:8-16)
  21. The third month. (12). In the Desert of Sinai, the Israelites camped opposite Horeb and stayed there almost a whole year. They left the wilderness of Sinai, on the 2nd day of the 2nd month, of the 2nd year after coming out of the land of Egypt. Nu 10:11,12They came here on the same day of the 3rd month, of the 1st year, after coming out of Egypt. This was on the third day of the third month [Monday, June 22nd] according to Fr. Ribera, l.5. de Templo. (Exodus 19:1)
  22. When Moses went up into the mount, God declared to him that he would renew his covenant with the Israelites. He would bind them to himself by a law and that he would favour and love all those who would observe and keep that law. This they readily agreed to. God gave them two days to prepare and sanctify themselves to receive that law. He forbid all except Moses and Aaron to approach the mount. Afterward in great majesty God came down to the mount as they all watched and trembled at the sight. (Exodus 19:1-25)
  23. God proclaimed his law as contained in the ten commandments with a terrible voice. (Exodus 20:1-26); De 5:1-33This did not make void the promise of grace made to Abraham 430 years before.(Galatians 3:17)
  24. The people were terrified as God gave them many other laws. (Exodus 20:21-23); De 4:13,14These were written in the book of the covenant Moses gave to the people. After this Moses rose early in the morning and he built an altar at the foot of the mountain. He set up 12 pillars according to the 12 tribes of Israel. He sent 12 young men of the firstborn [as the Chaldee paraphrases it] whom the Lord had consecrated to himself (Exodus 24:4; Numbers 3:13; Numbers 8:16,17) to be ministers of those holy things. (Exodus 19:22) This was before the Levitical priesthood was ordained. These men offered sacrifices, first for sin, and then of thanksgiving to the Lord. Moses read the book of the covenant to the people which contained the commandments found in (Exodus 20:1-23:33). He then took the blood of the calves and goats that were offered and with water scarlet wool and hyssop, he sprinkled the book as well as 12 pillars representing the 12 tribes of Israel. This ratified that solemn covenant between God and his people. (Exodus 24:3-8; Hebrews 9:19,20)
  25. Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu and 70 men of the elders of Israel, went up into the mount and there beheld the glory of God. When the rest returned, Moses, with his servant Joshua, stayed there for six more days. On the seventh day God spoke to Moses and he continued there 40 days and 40 nights (Exodus 24:9-18) This time includes those six days which he spent waiting for the Lord. During this time, he ate no meat nor drank water. (Deuteronomy 9:9) He received God's commands concerning the construction of the tabernacle, the priests garments, their consecration, sacrifices and other things as related in (Exodus 25:1)-Ex 31:18.
  26. The fourth month.
  27. When those 40 days and 40 nights were over, God gave Moses the two tables of the law in stone written by God's own finger. (Exodus 31:18; Deuteronomy 9:10,11) God ordered him to go down quickly, for the people had already made a molten calf to worship. Moses by prayer pacified God and went down from the mount. When he saw the people keeping a festival in honour of their idol in the camp, he broke the tables of the law at the foot of the mount. Ever since this, the Jews keep a solemn fast to this day on the 14th day of the 4month. This has led some men into the error that the 40 days of Moses in the mount, are to be started from the day immediately following the giving of the ten commandments. Thus omitting altogether the intermediate time, spent in writing and reading the book of the covenant and sanctifying the covenant made between God and his people with solemn rites and ceremonies. (Exodus 24:1-18)
  28. Moses burnt and defaced the idol and the Levites killed 3,000 of the people. (Exodus 32:20-29; Deuteronomy 9:21; Deuteronomy 33:9)
  29. The next day Moses returned again into the mount and there again entreated the Lord for the people. (Exodus 32:30-32)
  30. He commanded them to lay aside their gorgeous apparel and to set up the tent of the congregation outside the camp. This tent was used until the tabernacle was built by Bezaleel. The people out of a deep sense of God's wrath, repented of their sins. Moses prayed that God himself should be their guide and leader in their way and not an angel. This prayer was heard. (Exodus 33:1-23)
  31. God commanded Moses to get new tables of stone and to bring them with him into the mount the next day. Moses brought them the next morning. When Moses stood in the cleft of a rock, God passed by and showed him a glimpse of his glory. (Exodus 34:1-35)
  32. Again Moses stayed another 40 days and 40 nights in the mount without meat or drink and prayed for the people. (Deuteronomy 9:18; Deuteronomy 10:10) God was appeased and renewed his covenant with the people with certain conditions. He gave his laws again and told Moses to write them down. Again, God himself wrote the ten commandments in the tables which Moses brought to him. (Exodus 34:10-28)
  33. The sixth month.
  34. After 40 days, Moses returned from the mount with the tables in his hand. Because his face shone, he covered it with a vail. He proclaimed the laws of God to the people, ordering the observation of the Sabbath. He asked for a free will offering to be made toward the building of the tabernacle. (Exodus 34:1-35:35)
  35. So that this offering could be done in an orderly manner, all males were numbered from 20 years old and upward and they were found to be 603,550. According to the law prescribed by God, (Exodus 30:12,13) each contributed half a shekel. The total sum amounted to 100 talents of silver and 1775 shekels (Exodus 38:25,26). Hence it is gathered, that every talent among the Jews, amounted to 3000 shekels: every pound containing 60 shekels. (Ezekiel 45:12). In addition to this pole tax, from the voluntary offering was the sum of 29 talents of gold, and 730 shekels; and of brass, 70 talents and 2400 shekels. (Exodus 38:24,29) As for other materials needed for the tabernacle, there came in more than enough and the people were commanded to stop giving! (Exodus 36:5-7)
  36. Bezaleel and Aholiab were appointed by God for the chief workmen of the tabernacle. (Exodus 31:2-6); 35:30-35
2514 AM, 3223 JP, 1491 BC
  1. In the first six months of this year the tabernacle, the ark of the covenant, the altar, the table of shewbread, the priest's garments, the holy ointments, the candle sticks and other utensils and vessels belonging to the sacrifices, were finished in the desert at Mount Sinai and were brought to Moses. (Exodus 36:1-39:43)
  2. God commanded Moses to: (1). On the first day of the second month he should set up the tabernacle and furnish it with all things belonging to it.(Exodus 4:2,8; 2). He should anoint them with holy oil and should consecrate Aaron and his sons for the priesthood, (Exodus 9:15)
  3. He did this but not both activities the same time. For upon the very day God appointed, he erected the tabernacle, with all things belonging to it. Ex 40:17,33The second command he performed later at a time appointed by God. (Leviticus 8:1-13) It took seven days for the consecration of the priests and altar. (Exodus 29:35-37)
  4. On the first day of the first month [Wednesday, April 21st] of the second year after they left Egypt, the tabernacle of the covenant was set up and filled with the glory of God. (Exodus 40:2,17,34) From it God uttered his will and commandments to Moses. These are recorded in the first 7 chapters of Leviticus. In the same year and first month, the Israelites, as commanded by God, celebrated the passover at the evening of the 14th day. [Tuesday, May 4th] On this day some of the people complained to Moses and Aaron that they could not keep the passover with the rest of the congregation on the appointed day because they were unclean from touching a dead body. God made a law that all such persons should keep their passover on the 14th day of the second month if they could not keep it on the day first appointed. (Numbers 9:1,14)
  5. On the first day of the second month [Friday, May 21st] God commanded Moses to take the number of all the males of the children of Israel from 20 years old to 60 by their tribes, except the Levites. He appointed the Levites for the service of the tabernacle and assigned the responsibilities for setting it up, taking it down and moving and carrying it from place to place. (Numbers 1:1; Numbers 26:64)
  6. The census came to 603,550; (Numbers 10:1,46) the same number as 7 months earlier, when they were taxed for a contribution to the building of the tabernacle. (Exodus 38:26)
  7. Moses, according to God's command, (Exodus 29:37; Exodus 30:22,30) 40:9,25 anointed the tabernacle and the altar with all things in it with the holy oil, consecrating them to the Lord. He also consecrated Aaron and his four sons with the same oil and with rites and ceremonies necessary for the execution of the priestly office. He commanded them not to stay in the tabernacle for seven days. (Leviticus 8:1-36) This was the time required for the consecration of them and the altar. (Exodus 29:35-37; Leviticus 8:33)
  8. Moses outlined the order and position of the tribes in their march and encampments (Numbers 2:1-34)
  9. The number of Levites from one month old and upward, was found to be 22,300. (Numbers 3:15,35) The 2200 firstborn of the Levites managed the service of God in lieu the firstborn of Israel. The number of the firstborn of the children of Israel, exceeded the whole number of the Levites [their firstborn deducted] by 273. Therefore they were taxed for every additional person, five shekels for redemption money. (Numbers 3:39-50)
  10. The Levites were set apart and consecrated to God for his service. Every man was appointed a certain time when he was to perform his ministry. (Numbers 8:5-26)
  11. 8580 Levites were between 30,50 years old. Their offices and services were assigned among them according to their families. (Numbers 4:1-49)
  12. All leprous and unclean persons were put out of the camp. The laws for restoring of damages and of jealousy were ordained. (Numbers 5:1-31)
  13. The vow, the consecration and manner of the Nazarites was instituted. (Numbers 6:1-27)
  14. Upon the 8th day following the completion of the consecration, Aaron offered sacrifices and oblations, first for himself and then for all the people. All these offerings consumed by fire that fell from heaven upon them. This sign ensured belief of the people that the priestly office among them was ordained by God himself. (Leviticus 9:1-24)
  15. All the tabernacle was completely set up and anointed all over, together with the utensils and things belonging to it. The altar which had been consecrated for 7 days, was now dedicated by Aaron by his first oblation of sacrifices made on it. The seven previous days were for expiation, or cleaning and ordained for the hallowing of the altar. (Exodus 29:36,37)
  16. The heads of the tribes brought six covered wagons and twelve oxen, and jointly offered them before the tabernacle. All this was given to the Levites, the sons of Gershon and Merari for their duties. Every day leaders of the tribes brought their various sacrifices and things belonging to the ministry of the tabernacle and offered them towards the dedication of it. This took twelve days. (Numbers 7:1-11,84,88)
  17. On this first day, Naasson, [from whom David and according to the flesh, Jesus Christ himself] came and made his offering for the tribes of Judah. Then the rest, every one for his tribe, according to the order as they were ranked in their camps, made offerings. (Numbers 7:11-83)
  18. Nadab and Abihu were Aaron's two oldest sons who had gone with their father up into the Mount Sinai and saw the glory of God there. (Exodus 24:1,9,10) They went into the sanctuary with strange or common fire. This was not that fire which fell from heaven, (Leviticus 9:24) and which was perpetually to be kept alive and continued for the burning of the sacrifices and incense in times to come. They were struck dead in the place by fire sent from heaven. (Leviticus 10:1,9); Nu 3:2-4,26,60,61The priests were forbidden to make lamentation for them. Moreover for their neglect of duty, all the priests were ordered to abstain from wine and strong drink before they were to go into the tabernacle. A law also was made, that what was left of the sacrifices should be eaten by the priests. Aaron's excuse for not doing this was allowed by Moses. (Leviticus 10:6-20)
  19. Upon this occasion the law was made [about the tenth day of this month, as it seems] that only the high priest should enter into the sanctuary once in a year. This was only to be on the day of atonement and the general fast which was to be kept on the 10th day of the seventh month. (Leviticus 16:1-34)
  20. On the 14th of this month, [Thursday, June 3rd] at evening, the passover was to be celebrated by those who were unable to keep it a month earlier because of their uncleanness (Numbers 9:1-24)
  21. By God's command, this blasphemous person, was carried out of the camp, and stoned. (Leviticus 24:10-13)
  22. All the laws contained in the 17 last chapters of Leviticus seem to have been made in this month.
  23. God commanded two silver trumpets to be made, to call the congregation together for the times of their moving and marching and sacrificing. (Numbers 10:1-28)
  24. Jethro, who was also called Hobab, brought his daughter Zipporah, with her two sons, Gershon and Eliezer who were left with him, to Moses, his son-in-law. He congratulated him and the people for their deliverance from Egyptian bondage. He publicly declared both by word and deed, his faith and devotion toward the true God. By his advise, Moses delegated the government of the people to some others and ordained magistrates for the deciding of lesser issues. (Exodus 18:1-27; Deuteronomy 1:9-18; Numbers 10:29)
  25. The 19th day of this month seems to have been the last day that the 12 leaders of the tribes made their oblations for the dedication of the altar. This day Ahira made his offering for the tribe of Naphtali. (Numbers 7:78,88)
  26. On the 20th day of the second month [Wednesday, June 9th] God commanded the Israelites to break camp and to start their journey to take possession of the promised land. (Numbers 10:11,12; Deuteronomy 1:6,7) Moses asked Jethro to go along with him, but he refused and returned home. (Numbers 9:29,30; Exodus 18:27)
  27. The cloud rose from the tabernacle and they arranged themselves into four squadrons, or battalions and marched from Sinai. They had been there almost a year. After 3 days journey they came to the wilderness of Paran, (Numbers 10:12,33) where they stayed and rested for 23 days. (13). At their 13th camp, at a place called Kibrothhattaavah, (Numbers 33:16) some who murmured were struck with fire from heaven. Hence that place was called Tabor. They were saved by the intercession of Moses yet again murmured and provoked God by their loathing of manna and desiring of flesh to eat. (Numbers 11:1-10; Psalms 78:19-21)
  28. Moses complained to God of the great burden of this government and desired to be relieved from it. God chose 70 elders to help him. Two of these, Eldad and Medad, prophesied in the camp. (Numbers 11:10-17,24-30)
  29. God gave the people quails for a whole month, not just for a day as he did the year before. (Exodus 16:12,13) He sent a most grievous plague among them. From the graves of those who lusted, that place was called, Kibrothhattaavah, (Numbers 11:31-34; Psalms 78:26-31; Psalms 106:15; 14). The fourteenth camp was at Hazeroth. (Numbers 11:35; Numbers 33:17) Miriam and Aaron spoke evil of Moses their brother because he had married a woman of Ethiopia. Zipporah his wife was from Madian, which was a part of the Eastern Ethiopia, otherwise called Arabia. They made themselves equal in all points with him. God honoured Moses more than they and struck Miriam with leprosy. She was sent outside of the camp. At the prayer of Moses, she was healed after seven days. (Numbers 12:1-15; Deuteronomy 24:9)
  30. Miriam was cleansed some time during the 4month. After she returned to camp, the Israelites left that place. (15). They camped in Hazeroth, in the desert of Paran, (Numbers 12:6; Numbers 33:18) near Kadeshbarnea, (Numbers 13:26)
  31. On the fifth month.
  32. From the wilderness of Paran, (Numbers 13:3) or Kadeshbarnea, (Numbers 32:8; Deuteronomy 1:19,22; Deuteronomy 9:23; Joshua 14:7) at the time of ripened grapes, God commanded Moses to send 12 spies from every tribe (Numbers 13:1,2) to thoroughly spy out the land. Moses and the people were agreeable to this plan. (Deuteronomy 1:22,23) Among these men was 40 year old Caleb, the son of Jephunneh [of the tribe of Judah] (Joshua 14:7) and Oshea [the son of Nun, whom Moses called Joshua, from the tribe of Ephraim. These men entered the land from the south by the desert of Sin, passing through to the very northern part to Rehob. (Numbers 13:21,22; Deuteronomy 1:23)
  33. The sixth month.
  34. The spies spent 40 days in searching out the land and returned to Kadesh in the wilderness of Paran. They brought one branch of a vine with a cluster of grapes on it gathered from the valley of Eshcol. This valley was named for its pomegranates and figs. (Numbers 13:23-27; Deuteronomy 4:24,25) This likely happened before the 7th month before the feast of tabernacles. This feast was kept on the 15th day of that month when the fruits of the barn and winepress, were always gathered. (Exodus 23:16; Leviticus 23:39; Deuteronomy 16:13) Ten of the twelve men spoke illof the country and its barrenness, magnifying the city's strength and the giants living there. This discouraged the people from marching any further toward it. However, Caleb did all he could, to persuade the people to go on. (Numbers 13:28-33; Numbers 32:9)
  35. The people were terrified by the report made by the rest and threatened to return again to Egypt. They were ready to stone Caleb and Joshua for their conflicting report. When God threatened the people with sudden destruction, Moses again prayed and their lives were spared. However, God declared that all of them who were over 20 years old would die in the wilderness and would never see the promised land but wander in the wilderness for forty years. (Numbers 14:1-35) 26:64,65 32:10-13; (Deuteronomy 1:26-36; Deuteronomy 9:23; Joshua 5:6; Psalms 95:8-11; Psalms 106:24-26) Their children entered the promised land in the 39th year. (Numbers 32:13; Deuteronomy 2:14)
  36. God destroyed the 10 rebellious spies by sudden death. (Numbers 14:36,37) In memory of this event, the Jews keep a fast on the seventh day of the sixth month, called Elul.
  37. God commanded them to break camp and return back into the desert near the Red Sea. Instead they disobeyed him by going forward into the mountain and were pursued all the way to Hormah and defeated by the Amalekites and Canaanites. Therefore they sat down and wept before the Lord, but he would not hear them. (Numbers 14:40-45; Deuteronomy 1:40-45)
  38. After this incident, as the Israelites continued to die in the wilderness, Moses composed the 90th Psalm, Lord thou hast been our refuge, &c. He also showed that the normal age of men was reduced to 70 or 80 years. Therefore,
  39. The age of man was shortened to a third of what it was before
2515 AM, 3224 JP, 1490 BC
  1. The Israelites continued in Kadesh many days. (Deuteronomy 1:46) For whether it was for a day, a month, or a year, as long as the cloud continued over the tabernacle, the camp did not move. (Numbers 9:22) In some places the camp stayed for many years since in the 37 years there were only 17 camps mentioned. After leaving Kadesh, they returned into the wilderness toward the Red Sea and camped around the hill country of Seir many days. (Deuteronomy 2:1; Judges 11:16) The 17 camps for this time in the wilderness of Seir were mentioned in the 33chapter of Numbers in this order: 16th at Rimmonparez 17th at Libnah 18th at Rissah 19th at Kehelathah 20th at Mount Shapher 21st at Haradah 22nd at Makheloth 23at Thahash 24th at Thara 25th at Mithcah 26th at Hashmonah 27th at Moseroth 28th at Benehaajan, or Beeroth Bene Jaakan of the well of the sons of Jaakan (Deuteronomy 10:6) 29th at Horhagidgad, or Gudgodah, (Deuteronomy 10:7) 30th at Jotbathah, a place full of springs of water, (Deuteronomy 10:7) 31st was Ebronah 32nd was Eziongaber, which is near to Eloth and by the shore of the Red Sea, in the land of Edom (1 Kings 9:26)
  2. The only mention of these camps are the laws and historical events as recorded in (Numbers 15:1-19:22). (1). (Numbers 15:1-41) A man was stoned by God's command for gathering sticks on the Sabbath. Although the sacrifices were omitted in the wilderness, yet the Sabbath was kept. (2). (Numbers 16:1-50) Korah, Dathan and Abiram rebelled against Moses and Aaron. They were swallowed alive into the earth. When 250 of their associates offered incense, God destroyed them by fire. God commanded their censors to be taken and used for a covering for the alter. This was for a memorial of them to the children of Israel. The people murmured against Moses and Aaron for this calamity and God killed 14700 of them. (3). (Numbers 17:1:13) The twelve rods were brought by the twelve princes and laid in the sanctuary. Aaron's rod was the only one that budded and brought forth almonds. It was set before the ark, for a warning against any future rebellions.
  3. All these events are thought to have happened in the later half of the second year after they left the land of Egypt. Moses wrote only what happened in the first two years and the last year of their travel in the wilderness. For the intervening events of those 37 years see Abulensis, upon Numb. cap 1. Quast. 3.
  4. The scriptures also show that the time, which the Israelites spent in travelling from Kadeshbarnea, till they passed the vale, or brook Zedad, was half a year after they moved from their 32nd camp. Another half year elapsed before they passed the river Jordan making up the full 38 years. During this time, all those ungodly rebels perished. (Deuteronomy 2:14-16)
  5. For the first 9 years the Israelites spent in the wilderness, Armais governed in Egypt and Sethosis invaded the East. Both were brothers and sons of Amenophis who drowned in the Red Sea as before noted in the item under 2494 AM. Manetho in his Egyptiaca, mentioned by Josephus in his first book against Apion, wrote: "Sethosis was well equipped with cavalry and ships and made his brother Armais ruler over all Egypt. He let Armais use all power and authority there except he was not to wear a crown and he charged him not to dishonour his wife the Queen and mother of his children. Armais was also told to abstain from all other concubines of the king. Sethosis himself however made war in Cyprus and Phoenicia and against the Assyrians and the Medes. Some of these he subdued by his powerful army and others he overtook merely caused by the terror his reputation. Puffed up with this great success near home, he went on with greater confidence to ravage and spoil all the kingdoms and countries of the East. A few years after he was gone, Armais whom he left in Egypt, having no fear, did everything the king commanded him not to do. First, he misused the queen and lay continually with the king's concubines. Later, he followed the advice of his friends and wore the crown, plainly rebelling against his brother."
  6. Thus Manetho adds: "Armais, was Danaus; and Sethosis was also called Egyptus,"
  7. and that Egypt was named after him. Ramesses, was named after his grandfather showing that these similar names and events reveal that Tacitus calls him Rhamses and Herodotus, Sesostris. Tacitus says: "A king called Rhamses, conquered all Libya, Ethiopia, the Medes and Persians, Bactria, Scythia and all the lands which the Syrians and Armenians and the Cappadocians held along with Bithynia and Lycia, by the Mediterranean Sea:"
  8. Tacitus records him under the name of Rhamses. Regarding Sesostris, Herodotus in his second book writes that their Egyptian priests say: "He was the first, to bring all nations bordering the Red Sea under his subjection sailing by way of the Arabian gulf. He came back the same way and gathered a mighty army. Marching into the continent of Asia, he subdued all the nations which stood in his way. Leaving Asia he crossed into Europe and conquered the Scythians and Thracians. It seems he went no further because the marks and monuments of his name and victories are found in Palestine of Syria. Two monuments are in Ionia, one at Ephesus, as you go into Phoencea, another one is on the way leading from Sardis to Smyrna."
  9. A similar report comes from Diodorus Siculus, of Sesoosis l.2. but he makes him far more ancient than this. The age of his brother Danaus proves that he was contemporary with Moses. Manetho and Diodorus record the timing of these events nearly the same. They indicate that at the time all foreigners were expelled from Egypt, Danaus and Cadmus, with their companies came into Greece and Moses with his company went into Judea. This we find in the Selections of Phoisus. For the better understanding this 37 year period we include events from Eusebius in his "Tables" as follows:
2520 AM, 3230 JP, 1484 BC
  1. Egypt [which was formerly called Aeria] was named after Egyptus who was there made king after the expulsion of his brother, Danaus. Our account varies only two years from that of Eusibius for:
2522 AM, 3232 JP, 1482 BC
  1. Egyptus was also called Ramesses and Sesostris and Sesoosis. After spending 9 years in many voyages and foreign wars, [as Diodorus Siculus states in his first book] he returned to Pelusium. During this time Armais, who was also called Danaus ruled over Egypt. He first attempted to poison his brother Egyptus at a banquet provided for him but failed in the attempt as both Herodotus l.2. c.107. and also Diodorus Siculus l.1. p. 53. [in the Greek and Latin edition of him] testifies. At which time he fled for fear of his brother from the kingdom which he had in Egypt and came into Greece, [as Georgius Syncillus states in the Greek Eusebius, published by Scanger, page 26,27.]
2530 AM, 3240 JP, 1474 BC
  1. When Danaus came into Greece, he made himself ruler of Argos and made it abound with waters. Danaus by his 50 daughters, destroyed the 50 sons of his brother Egyptus except only his son Lynceus who reigned after him at Argos.
2533 AM, 3243 JP, 1471 BC
  1. Busiris the son of Neptunus and Libya the daughter of Epaphus, were joint tyrants in the area next to the Nile river. He barbarously murdered all strangers who passed that way and fell into his hands. Ovid. [lib. 3. de Tristi.] asked who was more cruel than Busiris? Virgil, [3. Georg.] queried who had not heard of Eurystheus' hard heart? The altars by the unworthy Busiris reared were indeed unworthy to be defended. Much more unworthy he was to have been commended by any man, which yet was his lot to be, according to Socrates the orator, in his, Busiridis Encomium. On this [as after him, also Eusebius did] state that he was the son of Libya, the daughter of Epaphus and Neptunus. Note that this Ramesses, surnamed Myamun, [of whom I spake, in the year of the world 2427] was by mythological writers, surnamed Neptunus and was the man who commanded the new born infants of the Hebrews to be drowned. He had two sons, Amenopis, i.e.Belus of Egypt [the father of Egyptus and Danaus]. He was that enemy of the Almighty God and was drowned in the Red Sea with his army. He had a son Busiris who was so infamous for butchering strangers, [a fitting offspring for such a father] that succeeded him. On this from A. Gellio, l.15. c.21. that the poets were inclined to call men who were barbarous, cruel and devoid of humanity, the sons of Neptune who was born of that merciless element, the sea.
2543 AM, 3253 JP, 1461 BC
  1. According to Eusebius in these times Tat the son of Hermes Trismegistes lived. The Egyptians say that Sesostris learned his wisdom from this Hermes. [Elian, l.12. Var. Histor. c4]
2549 AM, 3259 JP, 1455 BC
  1. Cadmus and Phenix went from Thebez in Egypt into Syria and founded the kingdom in Tyre and Sidon. Eusib. Chron.
2552 AM, 3262 JP, 1452 BC
  1. After the Israelites had wandered around the hill country of Seir and Edom for 37 years, they went from Kadeshbarnea to Eziongaber in Edom. Travelling from the north to the south to the shore of the Red Sea, God then commanded them to turn northward and march straight for the land of promise. When the land of Edom lay directly in their way, he ordered them that they should not fight with the Edomites because they were brothers. God told them how great was his providence and care toward them in preserving them for 40 years in the wilderness. (Deuteronomy 2:1-7) He used the round number of 40 for the actual time of 39 years.
  2. In the first month of the 40th year, after they left Egypt, the Israelites came into the wilderness of Zin and camped there. (33). They camped at Kadesh (Numbers 20:1; Numbers 33:36-38; Judges 11:17) of Zin, near the border of Edom, (Numbers 20:14,15) towards Eziongaber and the Red Sea. This was not at Kadeshbarnea, where they made their 15th camp and which lay near the border of Canaan, toward the south. (Numbers 34:4; Joshua 15:3)
  3. Miriam died (Numbers 21:1) here 4 months before her brother Aaron, and 11 months before her brother Moses. She was the oldest of the three and lived 130 years as appears, (Exodus 2:4,7) so that she was a pretty mature maiden when Moses was born. This was noted before upon the year of the world, 2433. The Jews to this very day keep the memory of her death upon the tenth of the first month.
  4. Again the people complained to Moses and Aaron for lack of water. God commanded to call water out of the hard rock, only by speaking to it. Through impatience and diffidence to God's command, Moses spoke something unadvisedly with his lips and struck the rock twice with Aaron's rod. This was the rod that budded and blossomed. He drew water from it as he had drawn out of another rock, 37 years earlier. (Exodus 17:7) For this occasion the place was called Meribah, or waters of strife. (Numbers 20:2-13). For it is most likely, that the former water, which Tertullian called, Aquam Comtiem, the water that followed them, [mentioned in the eleventh encampment] was swallowed up in the Red Sea. In this second time of want of water, the children complained just like their fathers did many years before.
  5. Moses and Aaron for their diffidence and unbelief in executing the commandment of God were not allowed to enter into the land of Canaan. (Numbers 20:23,24; Numbers 27:14; Psalms 106:32,33)
  6. The Israelites sent messengers to the Edomites and Moabites asking to pass through their land. They refused to let them pass through their countries, (Numbers 20:14-20; Judges 11:17) but allowed them to pass along their borders. (Deuteronomy 2:4,6,29) On this occasion, they stayed a while at Kadesh, (Judges 11:17) then went forward again. (34). The 34th camp was in mount Hor, on the borders of Edom, (Numbers 20:22,23) or Mosera, (Deuteronomy 10:6). To this place the Israelites are said to have come when they left Beeroth Bene Jaakan, or the wells of the sons of Jaakan, their 28th camp. They camped in Gudgodah, or Horhagidgad, Jotbath and other places. For it is said, (Deuteronomy 10:7) that from there they came to Gudgodah and from Gudgodah to Jotbathah. These words "from there" are not to be understood of Mosera, but of Beeroth, as many learned men have long since noted on this passage.
  7. The Israelites mourned for Aaron 30 days, (Numbers 20:29) this is the whole month when he died.
  8. On the sixth month, the king of Arad, who dwelt on the southern part of Canaan, after hearing of the Israelites approach, went and fought against them taking many of them prisoners. For this they vowed, a vow to God and when they defeated them, they destroyed them and their cities. Because of this, that place was called Hormah, i.e.the place where that vow was made of utterly destroying the Canaanites. (Numbers 31:1-3; Numbers 33:40)
  9. They left mount Hor, avoiding the plain country that led from Elath, and Eziongaber and the Red Sea straight into Edom. They went around Edom and came to the east side of it (Numbers 21:4; Deuteronomy 2:40) and there they made another camp. (35). They camped at Zalmonah, (Numbers 33:41) named for the brazen serpent set up there. The people murmured because of the fierce serpents sent among them by God. [Not a little worm, breeding in their flesh, as Fortunius Licentus, in his third book, de spontanco Viventium ortu. c.51. imagines.] These poisoned them with their bite. They were healed by looking upon the image of a brazen serpent that God appointed to be set up on a pole. (Numbers 21:5-9; Joshua 3:14; 1 Corinthians 10:9; 36). They camped at Punon. (Numbers 33:42; 37). They camped at Oboth. (Numbers 21:10,33,43; 38). They camped at Ijeabarim on the borders of Moab (Numbers 33:44) in that desert which lies to the east of Moab (Numbers 21:11) and is called the desert of Moab. (Deuteronomy 2:8) For, they continued their march through that wilderness and came to the east of Moab. (Judges 11:18)
  10. And when they left there to pass by the valley or brook of Zared, God forbade them to make war upon Moab. (Numbers 21:12; Deuteronomy 2:8,13)
  11. They passed over Zared, 38 years after the sending of their spies from Kadeshbarnea.
  12. All those over 20 years old who rebelled against God there, had died. (Deuteronomy 2:6; 39). They camped at Dibongad (Numbers 33:45; 40). They camped at Almondiblathaim, (Numbers 33:46) also called Bethdiblathaim, in the wilderness of Moab. (Jeremiah 48:22; Ezekiel 6:14)
2553 AM, 3262 JP, 1452 BC
  1. When the Israelites were passing the borders of Moab, at Ar and approaching the country of the Ammonites, God forbade them to make any war upon the Ammonites. (Deuteronomy 2:18,19,37) He commanded them to pass over the river Arnon: which at that time was the boundary between Moab and Ammon. (Deuteronomy 2:24; Numbers 21:13) They camped at Arnon and never entered the territory of Moab. (Deuteronomy 2:24; Numbers 21:13; Judges 11:18)
  2. Next they arrived at Beer, where the well was which the princes and nobles of the people, with Moses their law-giver, had dug with their staves. They came to Matthan, Nahaliel, Bamoth and the valley, which is in the country of the Moabites, at the entrance of the hill which looks toward the wilderness (Numbers 21:16-20) of Kedemoth. (Deuteronomy 2:26) Here they camped. (41). They camped at Abarim opposite Nebo. (Numbers 33:47) As for Maanah and the other places, these were not camps, as Tremellius observes in (Numbers 2:12), but only places through which they passed on their march before Moses sent messengers to the Amorites. The Chaldee paraphrases does not take them for proper place names, but only as titles. They interpret them of the waters of the well [as the Rock, (1 Corinthians 10:4)] which followed the Israelites to the brooks and from the brooks to the mountains and from the mountains to the valley of the Moabites.
  3. From the wilderness of Kedemoth Moses sent messengers to Sihon the Amorite, king of Heshbon. He asked permission to pass peacefully through his borders [as the Edomites and Moabites had done] because that was a short cut to the fords of Jordan. When he denied them passage and made war upon them, the Israelites slew Sihon and possessed all his cities and dwelt in them. (Deuteronomy 2:24-36; Numbers 21:21-31; Judges 1:19-22)
  4. Moses sent his spies to Jazer which they conquered with the towns associated with it. They expelled the Amorites from there, from the river of Arnon which is the bound of Moab, (Numbers 21:13) 22:36 to the brook of Jabbok which divides it from Ammon. (Deuteronomy 3:16; Joshua 12:2); 13:10 They never meddled with the country lying next to the river Jabbok, neither with any of the lands belonging at that time to the children of Ammon of Moab, as God had commanded them. (Deuteronomy 2:9) 9:37 Therefore, 264 years later when the Ammonites complained that the Israelites had taken their land from Jabbok to Arnon and even to the brooks of the river Jordan, Jephthah correctly answered them that this was not true. They had not meddled with the lands, either of the Moabites or the Ammonites. When they had slain Sihon, they took all the lands belonging to the Amorites, from the river Arnon, to Jabbok, and possessed it as their own inheritance. (Judges 11:13,15,22,23) It was also true that Sihon king of the Amorites had formerly taken from Vaheb king of the Moabites, Heshbon and all that country of his to Arnon. (Numbers 21:14) Also he had taken from the Ammonites, half their country even to Arnon which lay opposite Rabbah. (Deuteronomy 3:11) All that land belonged formerly to the Ammonites and later was taken from the Amorites and assigned to the tribe of Gad to dwell in. (Joshua 13:25)
  5. When the children of Israel marched on their way to Bashan, Og king of Bashan, one of the giants, met and fought with them at Edrei. He and all his people were utterly destroyed. The Israelites possessed all his country which included 60 cities and all the land as far as Argob. (Deuteronomy 3:1-11; Numbers 21:33-35; Amos 2:9)
  6. Jair, son of Manasseh seized all the country of Argob, stretching to the borders of the Geshurites and Mahacathites and called them Havothjair, after his own name.(Numbers 32:41; Deuteronomy 3:14) This Manasseh was the son of Segub, of the tribe of Judah. However, he was counted among the Manassites both in respect to the inheritance he had among them and also in reference to his grandmother. She was the daughter of Machir of the tribe of Manasseh. He was the father of Gilead who bore Segub the father of this Jair, to Hezron when he was 60 years old. 1Ch 2:21,22This passage states that this Jair possessed 23 cities in the land of Gilead. He took Geshur and Aram [according to the best expositors] with the villages of Jair and Kenath with its villages, 60 cities in all. Nobah who was under him took Kenath with its villages and called it Nobah after his own name. (Numbers 32:42)
  7. After these victories the Israelites left the mountains of Abarim. They camped in the plain of Moab on this side of the ford of Jordan, which led to Jericho from Bethjeshimoth to Abelshittim, (Numbers 22:1); 33:48,49 (42). They camped at Shittim, (Numbers 25:1) or Abelshittim (Numbers 33:49). Here they stayed until Joshua lead them to the bank of Jordan. (Joshua 3:1)
  8. Balak the son of Zippor was the king of Moab. When he saw what the Israelites had done to the Amorites, he was afraid lest under the pretence of passing through his country, they would also take his kingdom from him. Therefore, after taking counsel with the princes of the Midianites who were his neighbours, he sent for Balaam the son of Beor. Balaam was a soothsayer from Mesopotamia. Balak asked him to come and curse the Israelites and promised him a large reward for his labour. He intended afterward to make war upon the Israelites. (Numbers 21:1-6; Deuteronomy 33:4; Joshua 24:9)
  9. Balaam was warned of God and at first refused to come. When he was sent for a second time, he pleaded with God to let him go and went intending to curse Israel. God was offended by his intentions and made the dumb ass on which he was riding to speak in a man's voice to reprove his folly. (Numbers 22:7-35; 2 Peter 2:15,16)
  10. Balaam, offered sacrifices twice and attempted to curse Israel, to gratify Balak but being forced by the Spirit of God, he instead ended up blessing them. He foretold what good fortune was with them and what calamities should befall their enemies. (Numbers 23:1-24:25; Deuteronomy 23:5; Joshua 24:10)
  11. By Balaam's advice, the women of Moab and Midian were sent to turn the Israelites away and to make them commit idolatry with them. (Numbers 25:1-3); 31:16; (Deuteronomy 4:3; Psalms 106:28; Revelation 2:14) Therefore, God commanded Moses, first to hang all the leaders of this rebellion. He then gave orders to the judges, to put to death all who had joined themselves to Baalpeor. Finally, God sent a plague upon the people, in which 23,000 men died in one day. (1 Corinthians 10:8) This number plus those who were hanged and killed with the sword was 24,000. (Numbers 25:4,5,9)
  12. Phinehas the son of Eleazar killed Zimri, the son of Salu, chief of his father's family of the tribe of Simeon. He also slew Cozbi the daughter of Sur a prince of the Midianites. This appeased the wrath of God and the plague was ended. (Numbers 25:1-18; Psalms 106:30) Therefore God assigned for ever the high priesthood to the house of Phinehas. He commanded them to make war against the Midianites. (Numbers 25:12,13,17,18)
  13. God commanded Moses and Eleazar to count the people 20 or more years old. This was done in the plain of Moab, near to Jordan, opposite Jericho. The number of men was 601,730 in addition to the Levites. 23,000 Levites were counted who were at least a month or more old. Moses received God's command for the division of the land of promise among the Israelites. (Numbers 26:1-63)
  14. The daughters of Zelophehad had their father's land divided among them because there was no male heir. Because of this situation, the law of inheritances was made. (Numbers 11:1-11)
  15. God told Moses that he was about to die and Joshua was to be his successor. Moses laid his hands upon him and gave him instructions. (Numbers 27:12-23; Deuteronomy 3:26-28) Various laws were then made. (Deuteronomy 28:29,30)
  16. 12,000 of the Israelites lead by Phinehas, defeated the Midianites and slew all their males including their 5 princes and Sur the father of Cozbi. All were under the subjection of Sihon the Amorite while he lived. Balaam the wizard was killed when he should have returned into his country of Mesopotamia. (Numbers 24:25) Instead he stayed and died with the Midianites. (Numbers 31:1-8; Joshua 13:21,22) From the females, only the virgins were spared. (Numbers 31:9-54)
  17. The lands which belonged to Sihon and Og, Moses divided and gave to the tribes of Reuben and Gad and the half tribe of Manasseh. (Numbers 32:1-42; Deuteronomy 3:12-20; Deuteronomy 29:8; Joshua 13:8-12; Joshua 22:4) This was from the river Arnon, to mount Hermon [which is also called Shenir and Sirion, and Sion] and joins upon Anti-Lebanon, (Deuteronomy 3:8,9; Deuteronomy 4:48; Joshua 12:1; Joshua 13:9,11)
  18. When the Israelites were going into the land of Canaan, God commanded them to drive out the Canaanites and destroy their idols. (Numbers 33:50-56) They were to divide the land west of Jordan among the nine remaining tribes and the other half tribe of Manasseh. (Numbers 34:1-29) Of the 48 cities of the Levites and the 6 cities of refuge, (Numbers 35:1-34), three were assigned by Moses on the east of Jordan. (Deuteronomy 4:41-43)
  19. Moses addressed Israel on the 5th day of the 11th month [Saturday, February 20th] in the 40th year after their departure out of Egypt in the plain of Moab. This is recorded in (Deuteronomy 1:1-27:26).
  20. Moses, with the elders of Israel, commanded the people that after their passage over Jordan they should set up large stones. These were to be plastered and the ten commandments written on them. They were to speak the blessings from Mount Gerizim and the curses from Mount Ebal. (Deuteronomy 27:1-26) He exhorted them to observe the law of God by setting before them the benefits of obedience and the miseries that would happen to them for their disobedience. (Deuteronomy 28:1-68)
  21. God commanded Moses to renew the covenant between God and them, and their children in mount Horeb. Moses again attempted to persuade them to keep that covenant hedged in by all the blessings and curses which would accrue to the keepers or breakers of it. (Deuteronomy 29:1-29) He gave a promise of pardon and deliverance, if at any time, when they broke it, they should repent. He stated that God had declared his will to them so that no one who broke the law should plead ignorance of the law. (Deuteronomy 30:1-20)
  22. When Moses wrote this law, he gave it to the priests the sons of Levi and the elders of the people to be observed. When he finished the book of the law, he ordered it to be put in the ark. (Deuteronomy 31:1-30) The same day he wrote his song and taught it to the children of Israel. (Deuteronomy 32:1-52)
  23. Just before Moses died, he blessed every tribe with a prophecy, except the tribe of Simeon. His last will and testament is contained in (Deuteronomy 32:1-52)
  24. In the 12th month of this year, Moses left the plain of Moab and climbed up Mount Nebo which was a part of the country of Abarim. From the top of it facing Jericho, he beheld all the land of promise and then died at the age of 120 years. (Numbers 27:12,13; Deuteronomy 3:23-29),; (Deuteronomy 32:49,50) 34:1-5 31:2-4,7 Of this time he spent 40 years less a month in governing the people of Israel. This is confirmed by Josephus, in the end of his 4th book of antiquities. He states that Moses died on the first day of the last month of the year. The Macedonians called the month Dystrus but the Hebrews called it Adar. This fits better with the account of historians who wrote shortly thereafter than with the tradition of the Jews of later times. These historians say that he died upon the 7th of Adar, as in Sedar Olam Rabba, c.10. in his hryjp book of the death of Moses. In the preface of Maimonides to the book, called Misnaioth this is mentioned also. In the calendars of the Jews of this time this appears. They still celebrate the memorial of his death by a solemn fast on this day.
  25. God moved the body of Moses from the place where he died, into a valley of the land of Moab, opposite Bethpeor and buried him there. No one knows where the grave of Moses is to this day. (Deuteronomy 34:6) This valley was in the land of Sihon king of the Amorites which the Israelites took from him. (Deuteronomy 4:46) Bethpeor was given to the Reubenites. (Joshua 13:20) Therefore, Moses is said to have been buried in the land of Moab. Likewise (Deuteronomy 29:1) the covenant is said to have been renewed in the land of Moab. It is to be understood that this land formerly did belong to the Moabites but was recently taken from them by Sihon king of the Amorites. (Numbers 21:26) This land was now possessed by the Israelites.
  26. The archangel Michael (Jude 1:1:9) disputed with the devil over the body of Moses. The Devil wanted to expose the body that it might become an object of idolatry to the people of Israel. Chrysostrome in his 1st Homily on Matthew and Thodores, on Deuteronomy, Quest. 43. and Procopius Gazans, on Deuteronomy and others state this. Though no where do we find that the Jews ever gave themselves to the worshipping of relics. This dispute between Michael and the devil about the body of Moses is found in the apocryphal book called "The Assumption of Moses". We read this in Origen peziazcat, lib 3. c.2., in Gelasius Cyricenu, in the Acts of the Council of Nice, part. 1. c.20. and similar stories are found in xwba of Rabbi Nathan.
  27. The Israelites mourned for Moses in the land of Moab, 30 days for the whole 12th month. (Deuteronomy 34:8)
  28. Here ends the Pentateuch, or the five books of Moses, containing the history of 2552 and a half years from the beginning of the world. The book of Joshua begins with the 41st year after the departure of the children of Israel from Egypt.
  29. The first month.
  30. God confirmed the leadership of Joshua. He sent spies from Shittim to the city of Jericho, which were hidden by Rahab in an inn. These were secretly sent away when they were searched for. They hid three days in the mountain and then returned to Joshua. (Joshua 2:1-24)
  31. Joshua commanded the people that in addition to the manna which had not yet ceased, they should take other provisions with them. In three days they were to pass over Jordan (Joshua 1:10,11)
  32. The next morning, they left Shittim and came to the river Jordan. They camped there that night. (Joshua 3:1)
  33. Three days later they were instructed to provide food for the journey. The people were commanded to sanctify and prepare themselves to pass over Jordan on the next day. (Joshua 3:2-5)
  34. On the 10th day of the first month, [Friday, April 30th], the same day that the Pascal lamb was to be chosen out of the flock, Joshua [a type of Christ] led the Israelites through the river Jordan into the promised land of Canaan [a type of that heavenly country.] God divided the waters and they passed through the river dryshod. Normally in that season, the waters would overflow the banks. For a memorial of this miraculous passage, Joshua set up twelve stones in the very channel of Jordan. They took another twelve stones from out of the middle of the river and set them up at Gilgal, where they next camped. (Joshua 3:1-4:24)
  35. The next day, Joshua renewed the use of circumcision in Gilgal, which had been neglected for 40 years. There the people rested and stayed until they were well again. (Joshua 5:2-9)
  36. On the 14th day of the first month [Tuesday, May 4th] in the evening, the Israelites celebrated their first passover in the land of Canaan. (Joshua 5:10)
  37. The next day was passover. [Wednesday, May 5th] They ate of the produce of the land of Canaan, unleavened bread and roasted grain. The manna stopped the very day after they began to live off of the produce of the land. Never again did the children of Israel see manna. That year they lived on the fruits of the land of Canaan. (Joshua 5:11,12)
  38. Our Lord Jesus, the Captain of his Father's Host, appeared to Joshua, [the type of Jesus], before Jericho with a drawn sword in his hand. Jesus there promised to defend his people. (Joshua 5:13-15)
  39. The Ark of God was carried around Jericho for seven days. On the 7th day, the walls of Jericho fell down flat when the priests blew their trumpets. The city was taken and utterly destroyed. All were killed except for Rahab and her family. (Joshua 6:1-27) Later she married Salmon of the tribe of Judah and they had a son called Boaz. (Matthew 1:5)
  40. For the sacrilege of Achan God abandoned Israel and they were defeated at Ai. Achan's sin was determined by the casting of lots and he was found guilty. God was appeased when he and his family and cattle were stoned and burnt with fire. (Joshua 7:1-26) Ai was taken by an ambush and utterly destroyed. 12,000 men of Ai were killed in the battle. (Joshua 8:1-29)
  41. According to the law, in Mount Ebal an altar was erected for sacrifices. The ten commandments were engraved on it. The blessings and cursings were repeated in Mount Ebal and Mount Gerizim. The book of the law was read to all the people. (Joshua 8:30-35)
  42. The kings of Canaan were stirred by this great success of the Israelites. They all united against Israel except the Gibeonites. These craftily found a way to save their own lives by making a league with Israel. However later they were assigned to do the work associated with the house of God. (Joshua 9:1-27)
  43. When Adonizedek, king of Jerusalem, with the kings of Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish and Debir heard that Gibeon allied themselves with Israel, they united their forces and besieged Gibeon. When Joshua raised the siege, he pursued those five kings slaughtering their troops as far as Azekah and Makkedah. At this time the sun stood still over Gibeon and the moon over the valley of Ajalon for almost a whole day until the Israelites were fully avenged of their enemies. (Joshua 10:1-14) On this account Laurentius Codomannu observes two things:
  44. First, since Ajalon was less than a mile west of Gibeon, it is very likely that the moon was then past the full and close to a new moon.
  45. Second, since both those great lights stopped and started together, the astronomical account of this is not invalidated by this event. Even as in music, the harmony is not broken, nor do the voices clash if they all rest at the same time and then begin again, each man playing his part until the end of the piece.
  46. The five kings hid themselves in a cave at Makkedah and Joshua commanded the entrance to be blocked with stones and a guard set up until the enemies were defeated. After the enemies fled into fortified cities and when all the army was safely returned to Joshua at Makkedah, the stones were removed. The five kings were taken from the cave and each of the captains of the host was bidden to put his foot upon their necks. The kings were hung on five trees until evening and then their bodies were thrown into the same cave and the mouth of the cave blocked with stones. (Joshua 10:16,17)
  47. And thus ended that most busy year of the world, 2553. In the first six months Moses conquered all that land east of Jordan. The rest of the year Joshua conquered most of the land west of Jordan. In the middle of the year the manna ceased and the people of Israel began to live off the food in the land of Canaan.
2554 AM, 3263 JP, 1451 BC
  1. From the autumn of this year after the manna stopped, the Israelites began to till the ground and sow it. This year was to be reckoned the first year of their tillage. The sabbatical years are reckoned from this year. (Exodus 23:10,11; Leviticus 25:2-7; Deuteronomy 15:1-9; Deuteronomy 31:10)
  2. When the five kings were defeated, all the rest of the kings united and fought against the Israelites. Joshua fought against them for six years. (Joshua 11:1-18)
2559 AM, 3268 JP, 1446 BC
  1. Joshua was now grown old. He was commanded by God to divide all the land west of Jordan among the nine remaining tribes and the other half tribe of Manasseh. (Joshua 13:1-7) He first divided the land of Gilgal, [where the tabernacle of God then was and the army then stayed] among the tribes of Judah and Ephraim and the half tribe of Manasseh. (Joshua 14:6; Joshua 15:16,17) At this time Caleb the son of Jephunneh, 45 years after the time that he was sent to spy out the land by Moses, desired to have Hebron with the mountain countries of Judah. This was assigned to him for his part in undertaking to expel the Anakims from there. (Joshua 14:5,10,13)
  2. Tremellius observed correctly that Joshua did not permit Caleb and his company to take Hebron alone but he went with the army to take it. When Hebron was conquered, Joshua gave Caleb the adjoining lands and villages. Joshua set apart the city with its common lands for a city of refuge and for the priests. (Joshua 21:11-13; 1 Chronicles 6:55-57) Neither Hebron or Debir were yet taken by the Israelites, though both were within the inheritance assigned to Caleb. The Anakims were not expelled from there. (Joshua 14:1-15:63) Hence the passages in (Joshua 10:28-11:23; Judges 1:9-15) seem to be refer to this place because the subject matter is the same.
  3. When the children of Judah and Joseph were settled in their possessions according to their tribes, a large part of the land of Canaan still remained in the hands of the Gentiles. Before dividing up more land, Joshua took the army from Gilgal and attacked Makkedah and Libnah and utterly destroyed the kings and people of both these cities. (Joshua 10:28-30)
  4. From there he marched with his army to Lachish and took it after a two day battle. All the inhabitants were killed. When Horam king of Gezer came to help Lachish, Joshua defeated him and killed all his people. Joshua then marched to Eglon and took it the same day and killed its inhabitants. (Joshua 10:31-35)
  5. After this Joshua with all Israel went up from Eglon to Hebron and took it. He killed the new king of it, for the old one was hanged six years before. The inhabitants of Hebron with all its cities were killed. (Joshua 10:36,37) Caleb also expelled the three giants, the sons of Anak, Sheshai, Ahiman and Talmai. (Joshua 15:14) These giants were among the reasons Israel refused to enter the land 45 years earlier. (Numbers 13:22,23)
  6. Joshua with the army marched from the south of Canaan to Debir, (Joshua 10:38) which formerly was called Kirjathsepher. Here Caleb had proclaimed that whoever took it should have his daughter for a wife. His first cousin Othniel the son of Kenaz took it and married his daughter Achsah. Her dowry was a piece of land with its springs. (Joshua 15:15,19; Judges 1:11,15) When Othniel took the city he killed the inhabitants and their new king. The previous king was hanged with the rest, six years earlier. (Joshua 10:39)
  7. Joshua destroyed all the hill country, all the south parts, plain and valley and all their kings, from Kadeshbarnea, to Gaza and all the country of Goshen, [which was in the lot of the tribe of Judah] as far as Gibeon. All these kings and all their lands Joshua took at one time in one expedition for God himself fought for Israel. When this was done, he and the host of Israel returned to Gilgal. (Joshua 10:40-43)
  8. The rest of the kings united their forces and came to the waters of Merom to fight with Israel. Joshua, in a surprise attack, defeated and slew them. He took all their land (Joshua 11:1-16) from the mountain which goes to Seir which is the frontier of Edom, to Baalgad in the valley of Lebanon beside the hill of Hermon. (Joshua 11:17; Joshua 12:7)
  9. Then Joshua expelled the giants, the Anakims from their cities, the hill countries, Hebron, Debir, Anab and generally from the mountains of Judah and all Israel. Hebron was taken by the tribe of Judah. (Judges 1:10)
  10. When the whole land was conquered, the next year he divided it among the children of Israel according to their tribes. The land rested from war. (Joshua 11:23; Joshua 14:15)
2560 AM, 3269 JP, 1445 BC
  1. The first Sabbatical year they kept was the seventh year from the first year when they began tilling the ground in Canaan. Joshua, a type of Jesus, had brought them into this place of rest, which was a type of that Sabbath and rest which the true Jesus was to give to God's people. (Hebrews 4:9) From this time is reckoned the years of Jubilee, which was every fifty years. (Leviticus 25:8-13)
  2. On the 15th day of the month, [Saturday, November 5th] according to the law, the Levites kept the feast of tabernacles in booths made from boughs of trees. (Leviticus 23:39,40) This was done more solemnly than in the later times of the judges and kings (Nehemiah 8:17)
  3. God was now about to give the Israelites rest from all their enemies around them so that they could live there securely. It was necessary that a place should be chosen which God himself would select to place his name there. (Deuteronomy 12:10,11) After the whole land was subdued, they came together at Shiloh and set up the tabernacle of the congregation. (Joshua 18:1) The tabernacle with the ark of the covenant stayed there for 328 years. The meaning of the name and the city called Shiloh seems to be the same place as Salem, for, as ~lf signifies Peace or Rest (Genesis 34:21; Nahum 1:12) so also doth hlf (Daniel 4:1). Also the Messiah is thought to have been called Shiloh, (Genesis 49:10) because not only was he to be peaceable and quiet but also he was the author of our eternal rest and peace. As well, Melchizedek, the king of Salem, the king of peace (Hebrews 7:2) lived here according to Jerome in his 126th Epistle to Enagrius. In Jerome's time the city was near the place where John baptized. (John 3:23; Genesis 33:18) According to Jerome's account and the Septuagint translation, Shiloh was called Sichem because it was located (Joshua 24:25,26; Joshua 18:1; Genesis 35:4; Judges 9:6) 21:8-19 in the country of the Sichemites.
  4. The remaining land was divided among the other seven tribes for their inheritance and the boundaries were recorded in a book. (Joshua 18:1-19:51) After the seven nations of the Canaanites were destroyed, their lands were all distributed among the Israelites.
  5. In the year after God's choosing Isaac until now, was about 450 years. (Acts 13:17,19,20) Since from the birth of the promised seed Isaac, to this time, are 452 years and from the rejection of Ishmael, 447. Hence the time was approximately 450 years.
  6. Out of the land from both sides of the Jordan 48 cities were selected for the inheritance of the Levites. 6 of these were made cities of refuge. Sanctuaries were made there where those who had not committed wilful murder might flee for protection. (Joshua 20:1-21:45) The Israelites now possessed the land promised to their fathers. God gave them rest and peace on every side according to all that he had sworn to their fathers. Jos 21:43,44The companies of the Reubenites, Gadites and the half tribe of Manasseh that came over the Jordan to help their brethren conquer the land, returned to their possessions on the other side of the Jordan. (Joshua 22:4) 1:12-15; (Numbers 32:21,22)
  7. On their return journey, they came to Gilead at the passage of Jordan, in the borders of the land of Canaan. There they built a large altar. The other tribes thought they intended to revolt so they resolved to make war against these two tribes. They sent Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the high priest, with ten other princes of the people, to find out why the alter was built. When they understood that the altar was not built to offer sacrifices but only a memorial and as a token of the fellowship which they had with the rest of the tribes of Israel, they changed their minds and did not fight with them. (Joshua 22:1-34)
2561 AM, 3271 JP, 1443 BC
  1. Joshua built the city of Timnathserah in mount Ephraim where he lived for many years after God had given rest to Israel. Like Joseph, he lived to the age of 110 years (Genesis 50:26) and was buried in Timnathserah. (Joshua 23:1; Joshua 24:29,30)
2591 AM, 3301 JP, 1413 BC
  1. After the death of Joshua and the elders who outlived him, the disorders happened that are recorded in (Judges 17:1-21:25). These were the idolatry of Micah and the children of Dan and the war of the Benjamites and its causes. This was a time of anarchy, ever man doing what seemed right in his own eyes. The elders who died were less than 20 years old when they came out of Egypt. They were eye-witnesses to all that God had done. However the next generation forgot God and married the Canaanites and worshipped their idols. God was angry and gave them into the hands of Cushan, king of Mesopotamia. This was the first calamity of theirs and lasted eight years. (Judges 2:7; Judges 3:6-8)
2599 AM, 3309 JP, 1405 BC
  1. Othniel, the son of Kenaz and son-in-law to Joshua, (Joshua 15:17; Judges 1:31) of the tribe of Judah was raised up by God to judge and avenge his people. He defeated Cushan and delivered the Israelites from their bondage. And the land had rest 40 years, after the first rest which Joshua procured for them. (Judges 3:9-11)
2609 AM, 3318 JP, 1396 BC
  1. The first Jubilee was celebrated in the land of Canaan in the 49th year. [Note, a jubliee year fell on the seventh sabbatical year and occurred every 49 years. In (Leviticus 25:8-10) it says the jubliee was in the 50th year. Also a jubilee and sabbatical year started in the autumn. (Leviticus 25:9) If a jubilee occurred every 50 years, the text would have to say in the 51st year. If a child is one year old, is in his second year. Likewise if a man (Isaiah 49) years old, he is in his 50th year. In /APC (1 Maccabees 6:49) it says that this was a sabbatical year. From the associated text we know that year was 163 BC. If the sabbatical and jubliee cycle was 50 years long, 163 BC would not be a sabbatical year. Likewise Josephus stated that 37 BC was a sabbatical year when Herod captured Jerusalem. This would not have been the case if the cycle was 50 years long and not 49. This confirms the accuracy of Ussher's work. See note on 3841d AM <<3482>>. See note on 3967b <<4959>> Editor.]
2658 AM, 3367 JP, 1347 BC
  1. The second Jubilee.
2661 AM, 3371 JP, 1343 BC
  1. After Othniel died, the Israelites again sinned against God and were delivered into the hands of Eglon, king of Moab. He along with the Ammonites and Amalekites, defeated the Israelites and took Jericho. This was their second oppression and it lasted for 18 years. (Judges 3:12-14)
2679 AM, 3389 JP, 1325 BC
  1. Just before the tribe of Benjamin was almost entirely wiped out, God raised up Ehud, the son of Gera a Benjamite, to avenge his people. While feigning a message to Eglon from God, he stabbed him in the belly with his dagger and left him dead in his own dining room. After he escaped he gathered all Israel together in Mount Ephraim and slew 10,000 valiant men of Moab. And the land had rest 40 years; after the former rest and deliverance by Othniel.(Judges 3:15,30)
  2. Later, Shamgar, the son on Anath, also avenged Israel by killing 600 Philistines with an Ox goad.
2682 AM, 3392 JP, 1322 BC
  1. Belus the Assyrian reigned over the Assyrians in Babylon, for 55 years. saith Jul. Africanus.
2699 AM, 3409 JP, 1305 BC
  1. After the death of Ehud, the Israelites sinned again. God gave them up into the hand of Jabin of Canaan who reigned in Hazor. Jabin had 900 chariots of iron and oppressed Israel for 20 years. (Judges 4:1-3)
2707 AM, 3416 JP, 1298 BC
  1. The 3Jubilee.
2719 AM, 3429 JP, 1285 BC
  1. Deborah, the wife of Lapidoth, a prophetess, judged Israel at that time in mount Ephraim. Barak of the tribe of Naphtali, son of Abinoam, was made captain of the host of Israel. In a fight at Megiddo, they defeated Sisera, who was captain of Jabin's army. Jabin was killed by Jael the wife of Heber the Kenite. She did this in her own tent by hammering a nail into the temples of Jabin's head. Deborah wrote a song in memorial of that victory, and the land rested 40 years, after the former rest restored by Ehud, (Judges 4:1-5:31)
2737 AM, 3447 JP, 1267 BC
  1. Ninus, the son of Belus, founded the Assyrian Empire. This empire continued in Asia for 520 years. Herod in his first book, c.95. affirms this and Appian Alexander in the beginning of his work follows the same account. However, Dionysius Halicarnassus, who is known for diligent research into such matters, in his first book of Antiquities, says, that they had a very small part of Asia under their command. Diodorus Siculus in his Bibliotheca, reports that Ninus, joined with Arieus king of Arabia and possessed all Asia and ruled India and Bactria for 17 years. Finally, he took in the Bactrians with their king Zoroastres. Justin writes of him, from Trogus Pompeius, in book 1. "When Ninus had conquered his adjacent neighbours, he added their forces to his own. By this he became stronger still to conquer the next enemy. Every victory was a step to another and by this means, he subdued all the people of the east. His last war was with Zoroastoes king of Bactria. This king is said to have been the first to find out the art of magic and to have most diligently looked into the nature of the world and the motion of the stars. Ninus slew him and died later after this."
  2. Julius Africanus and Eusebius say, that he reigned 52 years.
2752 AM, 3462 JP, 1252 BC
  1. The Israelites sinning again, were delivered into the hands of the Midianites. This fourth oppression lasted 7 years. (Judges 6:1)
2756 AM, 3465 JP, 1249 BC
  1. The 4th Jubilee.
2759 AM, 3469 JP, 1245 BC
  1. When the Israelites fell into this fourth bondage, they cried to God for help and were reproved by a prophet. Then was Gideon of Manasseh, son of Joash the Abiezrite chosen to deliver them by an angel sent from God. By God's command, he overturned the altar of Baal and burnt its grove. As a result of the strife between him and the people, he was called Jerubbaal and Jerubbesheth. (Judges 6:32; 2 Samuel 11:21). From 32,000 volunteers, he selected 300 men according to God's criteria. Gideon and these men equipped with their trumpets, pitchers and torches so frightened the Midianites, that he put to flight all their host. After this the Ephraimites pursued them and slew their princes, Oreb and Zeeb. After this Gideon first pacified the Ephraimites, who complained that they were not called to the battle at first. Then he passed the river Jordan and defeated the remainder of the Midianitish army. He chastised also the men of Succoth and Penuel who had refused him provisions for his journey. He slew the two kings of the Moabites, Zebah and Zalmunna. After these great victories, he refused the Israelites offer to make him and his posterity king. Using the enemies golden earrings he made an ephod. Later, this led them to fall into idolatry. After the Midianites were conquered, the land had rest 40 years, after the former rest restored to them by Deborah and Barak (Judges 6:1-8:28)
2768 AM, 3478 JP, 1236 BC
  1. As soon as Gideon was dead, the Israelites fell into idolatry and worshipped Baalberith for their god. (Judges 8:33) Abimelech the son of Gideon, [born by his concubine from Sichem] purposed to be king and slew 70 of his brothers all upon one stone. (Judges 9:15,18,24,56)
2769 AM, 3479 JP, 1235 BC
  1. When Abimelech was made king with the Sichemites' help, Jotham the youngest son of Gideon, having escaped Abimelech's clutches, challenged them from the top of the mount Gerizim, about the wrong they had done to his father's house. By way of a parable he prophesied their ruin and then fled from there and dwelt quietly in Beeroth. (Judges 9:1-57)
2771 AM, 3481 JP, 1233 BC
  1. After Abimelech reigned over the Israelites three years, Gaal, a man of Sichem, made a conspiracy against him. When Zebul discovered this, the city of Sichem was utterly destroyed and sowed with salt. The inhabitants were all killed and the temple of their god Beeroth was burnt with fire. From there Abimelech went to besiege Thebez. He was hit on the head with a piece of a millstone thrown by a woman and then he was killed by his own armour bearer, (Judges 9:50-54; 2 Samuel 11:21)
2772 AM, 3481 JP, 1233 BC
  1. After Abimelech, Tola, the son of Puah, of the tribe of Issachar, judged Israel 23 years. (Judges 10:1,2)
2781 AM, 3491 JP, 1223 BC
  1. After the Atyadans first reigned in Sardis, Argon, the son of Ninus reigned. His posterity held the kingdom of Lydia for 505 years or 22 generations. Each son succeeded his father to the throne until Candaules the son of Myrsus. Herod. l.1. c.7.
2789 AM, 3499 JP, 1215 BC
  1. Semiramis, the daughter of Derces, was wife first of Menon and later of Ninus. Diodorus Siculus in the second book of his Bibliotheca states that she reigned for 42 years over all Asia except India and lived 62 years. From Cresias Cnidius describes at length her noble acts especially against Strabrobates king of India. From Megasthenes, who writes expressly of the Indian affairs, as we find in Strabo, l.15. and from Arrians in his book De Indicus said that she died before she ever came into India. Herod. l.1. c.184. reports that she cast up huge works round about Babylon. Formerly the river [Euphrates] overflowed all the lower parts it. Justin also, speaking of Semiramis in l.10. out of Trogus Pompeius, says this: "She built Babylon and walled it round with bricks, laying the stones with brimstone, instead of sand. This brimstone erupts naturally from the earth everywhere in that area. This queen did many other very memorable acts. Not content to keep her husband's conquests, she added Ethiopia to her dominions and she also made war on India. She was the first to enter India and Alexander the great the next."
  2. All other writers agree with Dionysius also, that Bacchus, is reported to have conquered India. It was Diodorus and Troghus, who falsely reported that this queen enclosed Babylon with a wall of brick. Stabo also, in his 2nd and 16th books of his Geography is refuted by the sacred history of (Genesis 11:1-32) and Eupolemus. It was Nebuchadnezzar and his daughter-in-law, Nectoris who built the wall of Babylon many ages after. Eupolemus states in his book, pri tofdaiwt Assisicx
  3. Erranius mentiones by Stephanus Bysantinus, in his book, de Vrbibus, in the word of Babylon: and Eustatius in Dionys. Perieg. p. 126. noting, that Babylon was built 1002 years before Semiramis was born. If he had said 1022 years, this date would nearly agree with the Babylonish calendar sent from there by Calisthenes, out of Porphyrie, in the year of the world, (1770). The same Porphyrie also, l.4. cont. Christianos, was cited by Eusebius. l.1. Prepar. Evangel. Eusebius spoke of Sancuniathon Berution, a most ancient writer, about the beginning of the Phoenicians, who said he took his argument from Hierombal or Jerubbaal from the year of the world 2759. This Jerubbaal [Gideon] was a priest of Jevo, that is Jehovah, the God of the Jews, whose history was dedicated to Abibalus, king of the Berutians. Eusebius states further, that this Sancuniathon, lived in the days of Semiranis, Queen of the Assyrians who is said to have been before the Trojan wars at that time. This agrees with my account allowing her to have lived after the war of Troy by eleven years.
2790 AM, 3500 JP, 1214 BC
  1. Eli, the priest was born, for he died at the age of 98 years, (1 Samuel 14:15) in the year of the world 2888.
2795 AM, 3504 JP, 1210 BC
  1. After Tola died, he was buried at Shamir, in mount Ephraim. Jair a Gileadite from the tribe of Manasseh, succeeded him. Beyond Jordan, Jair judged Israel for 22 years (Judges 10:1-3). Jair's son took the cities of Argob, naming them Havothjair (Numbers 32:41; Deuteronomy 3:14) after whose example, the thirty sons of this second Jair; [who, to distinguish him from the former, (1 Samuel 12:11; 1 Chronicles 7:17) seems to have been surnamed Bedan by the 30 cities which they possessed by the name of Havothjair. (Judges 10:4)
2799 AM, 3508 JP, 1206 BC
  1. Because the Israelites forsook God and worshipped the gods of other nations, God gave them up into the hands of the Philistines and the Ammonites. This was their fifth oppression lasting 18 years. (Judges 10:8) The bondage ended in victory over the Ammonites when Jephthah began his rule over Israel.
2805 AM, 3514 JP, 1200 BC
  1. The fifth Jubilee.
2816 AM, 3526 JP, 1188 BC
  1. During the 8th year of their slavery, the enemies defeated the Israelites, who lived beyond Jordan. The Ammonites passed over the river and attacked Judah, Benjamin and Ephraim, whom the Philistines had already crushed. The Israelites called on God and were grievously rebuked by him. However, they showed their repentance by abandoning their idols and obtained mercy. (Judges 10:8)
2817 AM, 3526 JP, 1188 BC
  1. Jair died and was buried at Camon.(Judges 10:5)
  2. That same year the Ammonites camped in Gilead. The Israelites camped in Mizpah, which is also in Gilead. (Judges 10:17; Judges 11:11) Jephthah the Gileadite was called to be captain of the host of Israel by the men of Gilead. He made war upon the Ammonites and subdued them. He vowed to God that if God would give him the victory, he would offer as a burnt offering whatever came from his house to meet him. His daughter was unaware of the vow and greeted him first. She was offered as a burnt offering to God. Jephthah also killed 42,000 Ephraimites, who behaved themselves insolently against him. He judged Israel 6 years. (Judges 11:1-12:7)
2820 AM, 3530 JP, 1184 BC
  1. Troy was destroyed by the Greeks 408 years before the first Olympiad.
2823 AM, 3533 JP, 1181 BC
  1. When Jephthah was dead and buried in Gilead, Ibzan, the Bethlehemite, judged Israel 7 years. (Judges 12:7-9)
2830 AM, 3539 JP, 1175 BC
  1. Ibzan died and was buried at Bethlehem. Elon the Zebulonite succeeded him and judged Israel 10 years. (Judges 12:10,11)
2831 AM, 3541 JP, 1173 BC
  1. When Semiramis tried to lay carnally with her son, he killed her. She had ruled for 42 years after Ninus. Justin l.1. c.2. Although it seems incredible that a woman of 62 years of age would commit such an act of incest, St. Austin, l.18 de Civita. Dei, seemed to believe it. More about Semiramis and her death can be read in Diodor. Sicu. l.2. Biblio.
  2. Semiramis' son, Ninus or Ninyus was content with the empire which his parents had and laid aside all cares of military affairs. Ninus was very effeminate in that he seldom kept company with men. He spent most of his years in the company of women and eunuchs. Justin. l. 1. c.2. out of Trogus, Diodor. Sic. l.2. and Atheneus l.12. out of Cresias; l.3. Persicorum.
2840 AM, 3549 JP, 1165 BC
  1. Elon died and was buried at Ajalon in the tribe of Zebulun. Abdon the Ephraimite, the son of Hillel the Pirathonite succeeded him. He judged Israel 8 years. (Judges 12:12-14)
2848 AM, 3557 JP, 1157 BC
  1. When Abdon died he was buried at Pirathon in mount Ephraim. (Judges 12:15) After him came Eli who judged Israel 40 years. (1 Samuel 4:18) He was also the high priest. This high priesthood was transferred from the descendants of Eleazar to Ithamar. When Israel sinned again, God delivered them into the hands of the Philistines for the next 40 years. (Judges 13:1) This was the Israelites' sixth oppression which we think ended seven months after the death of Eli when the Ark was brought back again. Hence, it was about the beginning of the third month, called Sivan, when Eli began to judge Israel.
  2. An angel appeared to the wife of Manoah of the tribe of Dan at Zorah. He told her that she, though barren, would conceive and bear a son. This child would be a Nazarite who would begin to deliver Israel out of the hands of the Philistines.(Judges 13:5)
2849 AM, 3559 JP, 1155 BC
  1. As foretold by the angel, Samson the Nazarite was born at Zorah. (Judges 13:24,25) It seems he was conceived after their 40 years oppression had begun by the Philistines.(Judges 13:1-5) He avenged the Israelites of the Philistines for 20 years.(Judges 15:20) Obviously, Samson's birth could not have happened later unless he was judging Israel before he was 18 years old which seems unlikely.
2854 AM, 3563 JP, 1151 BC
  1. The sixth Jubilee.
2867 AM, 3577 JP, 1137 BC
  1. While Eli was executing the office of a judge in civilcauses, under the Philistines, Samson picked a quarrel against him because he was engaged to marry a woman of Timnah. Samson had begun to judge the Israelites at the age of 22.(Judges 14:4) On the day of his betrothal, he had killed a lion with his bare hands. He made a bet at the wedding feast and propounded a riddle to the guests. When he had lost, because his wife had told them what the meaning of the riddle was, in a rage he went and slew 30 men of Askelon. He gave these wedding guests the suits of clothing which he had stript off their bodies to fulfil the terms of the wager and returned home to his father.
2868 AM, 3578 JP, 1136 BC
  1. At harvest time, Samson went to present his wife with a kid, at her father's house, but found that she had been given away to another man in marriage. He then sought revenge by catching 300 foxes and tying fire brands to their tails. He turned them all loose into the Philistines grain fields, vineyards and olive gardens, setting them all ablaze. The Philistines were very angry so they took Samson's wife and father-in-law and burned them to death. In revenge, Samson killed a great multitude of them and sat down upon the rock of Etam. From there 3000 Jews arrested him and delivered him to the Philistines. He then killed a 1000 of these Philistine men with the jawbone of an ass. When Samson prayed in that place called Lehi, God opened a hole in the jawbone and from it came a fountain of water. This fountain was called Enhakkore meaning the fountain of him which called upon God. With the water from this fountain, he refreshed himself because he was thirsty and ready to faint. (Judges 15:1-20)
2887 AM, 3597 JP, 1117 BC
  1. Delilah, Samson's concubine, betrayed him by cutting his hair, the symbol of his Nazarite vow and delivered him to the Philistines. They plucked out his eyes and carried him away prisoner to Gaza. They put him in prison there binding him with chains of brass. In prison his hair grew again and his strength was renewed. He pulled down the temple of Dagon while the princes of the Philistines and a great multitude of the people were in it. More men were killed when the temple fell, including himself, than he had slain in all his lifetime. He was buried with his father, between Zoar and Eshtaol, when he had judged Israel for 20 years. (Judges 16:30,31)
2888 AM, 3598 JP, 1116 BC
  1. The Israelites took courage by this great loss of the Philistines and gathered together to camp near Ebenezer [named by the prophet Samuel, when twenty years later the Philistines were overthrown by him in the very same place]. (1 Samuel 7:12) There the Israelites lost 4,000 men. When they sent for the ark of the covenant from Shiloh to be brought into the camp, the Philistines saw all that was at stake. During that battle the Philistines encouraged one another lest they said: "we be forced hereafter to live in slavery under the Hebrews as they have been under us."
  2. In that second battle, 30,000 Israelites were killed. The ark of God was taken by the Philistines and Hophni and Phinehas, the two priests and the sons of Eli were slain there. When Eli heard the news, he fell off his chair backwards and broke his neck [for he was very fat]. His daughter-in-law also, the wife of his son Phinehas went into labour because she was pregnant and she delivered a son, called Ichabod and died. (1 Samuel 4:1-22) When the Philistines took the ark of God, they carried it to Ashdod and placed it in the temple of their god Dagon.
  3. Twice Dagon was found grovelling before the ark on the ground. Some of the inhabitants of the place died of the plague and some were struck with filthy emerods in their secret parts.(Psalms 78:66) They moved the ark from there first to the Gittites and later to the Ekronites. However, the same plagues occurred wherever it went. After seven months, by the advice of their priests, the Philistines sent the ark home again with gifts into the land of the Israelites. About the beginning of the third month, during wheat harvest time 50,070 men of Bethshemesh were killed for looking inside the ark. (1 Samuel 5:1-6:1,13-19) From there the ark was moved and carried to the house of Aminadab in Gibeah atthe Hill of the city of Kirjathjearim. 1Sa 7:1,2,2Sa 6:3,4This place was inhabited by the tribe of Judah and was also called Baalah and Kirjathbaal. (1 Chronicles 13:6; Joshua 15:9,60) However, all this time the tabernacle where God was worshipped, stayed at Shiloh in the tribe of Ephraim. (Judges 18:31; 1 Samuel 14:3)
2894 AM, 3604 JP, 1110 BC
  1. Barzillai the Gileadite was born, for he was 80 years of age, when Absalom rebelled against David. (2 Samuel 19:35)
2903 AM, 3612 JP, 1102 BC
  1. The seventh Jubilee.
2908 AM, 3618 JP, 1096 BC
  1. For 20 years after the ark came to Kirjathjearim, (1 Samuel 7:2) the Israelites were grievously oppressed by the Philistines. Finally being persuaded by Samuel, they returned to the Lord after they abandoned all their idols. They came together at Mizpah where they are said to have drawn water to have drawn tears from the bottom of their hearts and to have poured them out before the Lord. (1 Samuel 7:6) This perhaps symbolized some external effusion or pouring forth of water to signify their inward repentance and mourning for their sins. (2 Samuel 14:14) Some would understand this of the repentants themselves. (Genesis 35:2; Exodus 19:14) After their repentance, God immediately delivered the people of the Israelites from the invasion of the Philistines. (1 Samuel 7:10; Joshua 10:10,11) God sent a terrible thunder which terrified the Philistines. They abandoned all the cities of the Israelites which they held formerly. (1 Samuel 7:14) Several small garrisons were left in only a few places. (1 Samuel 10:5) No more did they come to invade their borders because they saw that the hand of the Lord was against them all the days of Samuel until Saul became king. (1 Samuel 7:12) However after Saul became king, they returned again and oppressed Israel. When Samuel was old he made his two sons to be judges over Israel at Beersheba. They did not serve the Lord like their father but perverted judgment for rewards and bribes. (1 Samuel 8:1-3) He did not retire completely for from the passage (1 Samuel 7:15-17) it appears that he continued judging the people by himself to his dying day.
2909 AM, 3619 JP, 1095 BC
  1. Because Samuel's sons were taking bribes and perverting justice, the Israelites began to make light of Samuel's leadership which troubled him and offended God. (1 Samuel 8:6-8) The Israelites were disgusted by the excessive behaviour of Samuel's sons and requested that they should have a king as other nations had. (1 Samuel 8:4,5) In additions to this, the Philistines still had some garrisons in their land. Nahash, king of the Ammonites had also assembled men in preparation for war against them. This caused them great fear so they resolved to no longer rely on Samuel's wisdom, or on the power of God, who had up to that time been their king and avenger. In spite of the fact that they had expelled the Philistines out of their land, they still expressed their desire to have a king. (1 Samuel 12:12,17,19) Though God was angered by their request he gave them a king (Hosea 13:10,11) whose name was Saul, the son of Kish, of the tribe of Benjamin. Saul reigned for 40 years. (Acts 13:21) Saul's son Ishbosheth was 40 years old when he succeeded his father in the kingdom.(2 Samuel 2:10) Ishbosheth is said to have been born when Saul was anointed king. Saul was first anointed privately and afterward publicly before all the people at Mizpah by Samuel. It was 21 years since the death of Eli (1 Samuel 7:2) that Samuel had judged Israel. (1 Samuel 10:1,24,25) About 1 month later,(1 Samuel 12:12,16) [as the Septuagint and Jospehus, lib. 6. Antiquis. records] Jabeshgilead was besieged by Nahash king of the Ammonites. This siege was lifted by Saul when he defeated the Ammonites. The whole congregation of Israel came together at Gilgal and Saul was again proclaimed king there. (1 Samuel 11:14,15) Samuel however, questioned Saul's sincerity in fulfilling his royal position and complained of the wrong that had been done him. Samuel called upon God to send thunder and rain which terrified the people. Then he comforted them with the promises of God's mercies. (1 Samuel 12:17) This appears to have happened during their wheat harvest season, around the time of the feast of Pentecost, in the beginning of the third month, 21 years after the ark arrived from the country of the Philistines.(1 Samuel 6:13) It seems that a full 20 years passed between the bringing back of the ark and the subduing of the Philistines.(1 Samuel 7:2,13) and that one year passed between the expelling of the Philistines from out of Israel and Saul's anointing as king. As (1 Samuel 13:1) states in the Hebrew: "Saul was the son of one year when he reigned; and he reigned two years over Israel."
  2. Hence, Saul reigned for two years; free from the subjection of the Philistines.
2911 AM, 3621 JP, 1093 BC
  1. The Philistines attacked Israel and took them captive. Saul shook off their yoke and recovered his kingdom again from their hands. (1 Samuel 14:47) War with the Philistines continued many years during Saul's reign. Since the war began eight years before David was born, before it ended Samuel prophesied of David succeeding the throne after Saul. The Lord hath sought him a man according to his own heart, and God hath commanded him to be ruler over his people, (1 Samuel 13:14) The Philistines took from them all their smiths so they would have no weapons to fight with or no one to make them. Hence, when the day of battle came only Saul and his son Jonathan had weapons. (1 Samuel 13:19-22)
2919 AM, 3629 JP, 1085 BC
  1. David was born to Jesse the Ephrathite in his old age.(1 Samuel 17:12) David was the youngest of eight sons born to Jesse. Bethlehem was called the City of David (1 Samuel 20:6; Luke 2:4) 30 years before he succeeded Saul in the kingdom. (2 Samuel 5:4; 1 Samuel 16:1)
2941 AM, 3651 JP, 1063 BC
  1. God had rejected Saul and his family from the kingdom. After mourning a long time about this, Samuel was sent by God to Bethlehem to anoint David as king. This occurred 40 years before the rebellion of Absalom. (1 Samuel 16:1; 2 Samuel 15:7) David was a handsome looking lad who was called away from shepherding his father's sheep. (1 Samuel 16:12) Because David was preferred before his older brothers and being anointed in their presence,(1 Samuel 16:13) they were envious of him.(1 Samuel 17:28) David's brothers were as envious of him as Joseph's brother's were of him. He was also made king over Judah at the same age that Joseph was made ruler over Egypt. (Genesis 41:46; 2 Samuel 5:4) From the day of his anointing, the Spirit of God came upon him giving him his courage and wisdom.(1 Samuel 18:5,13; 2 Samuel 5:2) As a result of this, while Saul lived, he was made general over all Israel and became a great warrior to fight the Lord's battles.(1 Samuel 25:28) He became known as a prophet and the sweet Singer of Israel who by his divine Psalms would teach and instruct the people of God. (Acts 2:30; 2 Samuel 23:1,2)
  2. Mephibosheth [or Meribbaal] (1 Chronicles 8:34; 1 Chronicles 9:40) the son of Jonathan was born five years before the death of his father (2 Samuel 4:4)
2944 AM, 3654 JP, 1060 BC
  1. David feared that he might at last fall into Saul's hands, so he fled to king Achish in Gath taking 600 men with him. (1 Samuel 21:10) Achish gave him the town of Ziklag to dwell in and he lived there for one year and four months in the land of the Philistines.
2948 AM, 3657 JP, 1057 BC
  1. From there he attacked and killed all the Geshurites, Gezrites and the Amalekites, leaving no one alive to carry news of the slaughter to king Achish. (1 Samuel 27:1-12)
  2. While David was at Ziklag, many who were relatives of Saul came to stay with him. Also many valiant men of the tribe of Benjamin, the tribe of Gad and various good soldiers came over Jordan to him in the first month when it overflowed all its banks. They were accompanied by many other captains and commanders of the tribes of Benjamin and Judah.(1 Chronicles 12:1,15,18)
2949 AM, 3659 JP, 1055 BC
  1. King Achish planned to invade the Israelites with his Philistine army. He took David along with him.(1 Samuel 28:1,2) While David was on the march with his 600 men, he gathered a number of others from the tribe of Manasseh who joined him.(1 Chronicles 12:19) The Philistines were then encamped at Shunem and the Israelites were in Gilboa. (1 Samuel 28:4)
  2. When Saul saw the army of the Philistines, he became afraid and sought counsel from the Lord. Receiving no answer by a dream, or by Urim, or by his prophets, he went to Endor by night to consult with a witch. When she conjured up a vision of Samuel, Saul received the dreadful message, God shall deliver Israel, together with thyself, into the hands of the Philistines; and tomorrow, thou and thy children shall be with me (1 Samuel 28:5,6,19; 1 Chronicles 10:13,14)
  3. While David was away on his march, the Amalekites took Ziklag, plundered it and burnt it. They carried away David's two wives Ahinoam of Jezreel and Abigail, the widow of Nabal, along with the rest of the wives and children of his men.(1 Samuel 30:1-31)
  4. When Saul returned the same night from the witch, the Israelites moved to the fountain of Jezreel and the Philistines went to Aphek. The princes of the Philistines became jealous of David so he and his men left their army early the next morning and returned to Ziklag. The Philistines in the interim marched up to Jezreel to fight with the Israelites.(1 Samuel 29:1,3,10,11) It seems that Saul and his sons were not slain the next day after his communication with the apparition of Samuel [since all that day David was with the army of the Philistines] but Saul's death occurred some while after David's departure from them.
  5. When David was returning to Ziklag, there came to him seven captains of the Manassites. 1Ch 12:20,21They had arrived three days later, and found the town plundered and consumed with fire. The last 200 of his company were tired of marching and rested at the brook Besor. With the other 400 David followed after the Amalekites, overtook them. The battle lasted from the twilight of the first day to the evening of the next. They recovered all that was lost and returned home with joy.(1 Samuel 30:1-31)
  6. The host of Israel were soundly trounced. The three sons of Saul, Jonathan, Abinadab and Melchishua were also killed. Saul and his armourbearer fell on their own swords. The following day the Philistines took off the head of Saul and hung up his armour in the temple of their idol Ashtaroth. His body and the bodies of his three sons were also left to hang on the walls of Bethshemesh. However, the men of Jabeshgilead remembered the deed of valour which Saul had done for them at the beginning of his reign. They stole away their bodies from there and burnt them. They buried their bones under an oak at Jabesh and fasted for them for seven days. (1 Samuel 31:1-13; 1 Chronicles 10:1-14)
  7. Mephibosheth, was the son of Jonathan who was now dead. When his nurse heard the news of his death she ran away with Mephibosheth. Because she was very afraid and in a great haste, he fell out of her arms and became lame in his feet ever since. (2 Samuel 4:4)
  8. When David returned from the slaughter of the Amalekites, three days later he heard of the defeat of the army of the Israelites. A boy of the Amalekites who was in the fight told him and brought Saul's crown and bracelet which he had removed from Saul's body. (2 Samuel 1:1-16) From this news, though quickly brought to David, it is inferred that the defeat in Gilboa happened a number of days after David left the Philistine army. This was not unusual that the battle was so delayed. Much later the Syrians camped against the Israelites at the same place at Aphek and waited seven days before fighting with them. (1 Kings 21:20,26,29)
  9. David executed the Amalekite who claimed to have slain Saul. In a funeral song, he praised Saul, Jonathan and God's people (2 Samuel 1:13-27) Companies of the Israelites' army flocked daily to him. (1 Chronicles 12:22) He asked counsel of God before he went up to Hebron with his men and their families. Here he was anointed king by the men of his own tribe at the age of 30. He reigned over Judah for 7 years and 6 months. (2 Samuel 2:1-4,11; 2 Samuel 5:4,5)
  10. Abner, the former captain of Saul's army, took Ishbosheth, Saul's son to Mahanaim and there he made him king over the rest of Israel. Ishbostheth was 40 years old and reigned two years over Israel (2 Samuel 2:8-10) He had two years of peace with the house of David, just as his father's two year reign (1 Samuel 13:1) referred to two years of peace with the Philistines. See note on 2909c A.M.
  11. David sent messengers to the men of Jabeshgilead and thanked them for the kindness which they had showed to King Saul. He informed them that he was now king over Judah. (2 Samuel 2:5-7) To strengthen himself, he made an alliance with Talmai, king of Geshur and secured it by marrying his daughter, Maacah. She bore him Absalom and Thamar. (2 Samuel 3:3; 2 Samuel 13:1)
2951 AM, 3661 JP, 1053 BC
  1. After the two years of peace with Ishbosheth, there was a long war between his people and the people of David. Joab the son of Zeruiah, David's sister's son, headed up David's side and Abner the other side. Many battles and skirmishes happened. David's side grew stronger and stronger and Ishbosheth's side became weaker. (2 Samuel 2:26-3:1)
2952 AM, 3661 JP, 1053 BC
  1. The eighth Jubilee.
2956 AM, 3666 JP, 1048 BC
  1. When Abner was disgracefully used by Ishbosheth, he revolted and sided with David. He arranged with the chief men and heads of Israel to transfer the whole kingdom to David. (1 Samuel 25:44; 2 Samuel 3:6-21)
  2. When David fled from Saul, (1 Samuel 19:12) his wife Michal was given by Saul in marriage to Phaltiel. David demanded that Ishbosheth send her back. (1 Samuel 25:44; 2 Samuel 3:14,15)
  3. When Abner came with 20 men to David, he was well received and given a feast. When he returned from David in peace, he treacherously slain by Joab. David made a great mourning and lamentation over him and he was buried at Hebron. (2 Samuel 3:17-39)
  4. All Israel was troubled by the death of Abner. Baanah and Rechab, of the tribe of Benjamin murdered Ishbosheth when he was resting on his bed in the heat of the day. They brought his head to David and he had them executed. (2 Samuel 4:1-12)
  5. The captains and elders of all the tribes came to Hebron and anointed David king over Israel for the third time. (1 Chronicles 12:23-40; 1 Chronicles 11:1-3; 2 Samuel 5:1-3)
2957 AM, 3666 JP, 1048 BC
  1. David with all Israel marched to Jerusalem against the Jebusites. By Joab's valiant actions they captured the fort of Zion. Henceforth it was called the city of David, just as Bethlehem, his birthplace, was called. He made Jerusalem the capital of the kingdom and reigned over all Israel for 33 years. (2 Samuel 5:5-7,9; 1 Chronicles 11:4-7)
  2. When the Philistines heard that David was made king over all Israel by every tribe, they led their army twice against him at the valley of Rephaim and were beaten both times. (2 Samuel 5:22-25; 1 Chronicles 14:1-17) It was here that David, in the time of harvest, desired a drink of water from the well at Bethlehem. To please him, three of the most valiant captains broke through the host of the enemy to get it. When they brought it to him, he would not drink it. (2 Samuel 23:13; 1 Chronicles 11:15)
2958 AM, 3668 JP, 1046 BC
  1. David built up the city of Zion and strengthened the fortifications. Joab repaired the rest of the city. (2 Samuel 5:9; 1 Chronicles 11:8)
  2. Hiram sent messengers to David and cedar wood and carpenters and masons. These built his house. (2 Samuel 5:11; 1 Chronicles 14:1)
2959 AM, 3669 JP, 1045 BC
  1. The ark of the covenant which in the first sabbatical year was brought from Gilgal to Shiloh, was brought from Kirjathjearim in this sabbatical year. It was moved from Shiloh 70 years earlier. From the house of Abinadab, 30,000 choice men from all Israel accompanied the move of the ark by David. He composed the 68th Psalm for the occasion as may be deduced from (Psalms 68:1). This verse appears to have been taken from a prayer which was appointed by Moses to be used and sung every time the ark was moved. (Numbers 10:35) The ark was carried first to the house of Obededom. After three months, it was moved into the city of David, or the fort of Zion. David himself rejoiced before it and sang (Psalms 132:8). Solomon his son, repeated this verse (2 Chronicles 6:41) in the next year of jubilee when he brought the ark into the Holy of Holies of the temple. "Arise O Lord unto thy resting place, thou and the ark of thy strength"
  2. See also (Psalms 132:6,7). From the Hebrew: "Behold we [i.e. the men of Bethlehem dwelling there] have heard of it at Ephratah [our own country] and found it in the fields of Jair, or the wood; [i.e. in the hill of Kirjathjearim, for that signifies a city, bordering upon woods]"
  3. From (Psalms 132:13,14) "The Lord hath chosen Zion, for an habitation for himself; saying, This is my rest for ever here will I dwell, for I have a delight therein."
  4. At Zion the ark is There to have rested, (1 Chronicles 6:31) and was moved into the new tabernacle which David had prepared for it at Jerusalem. (2 Samuel 6:17; 1 Chronicles 16:1; 2 Chronicles 1:4)
  5. The tabernacle of the congregation built by Moses, with the brazen altar used for the daily sacrifices, remained at Gibeon, in the tribe of Judah until the temple of Solomon was built. It was no longer in Shiloh in the tribe of Ephraim. (1 Chronicles 6:32,48,49; 1 Chronicles 16:39,40) 21:29; (2 Chronicles 1:3,5,6; 1 Kings 3:2,4)
  6. The ark was moved from house of Joseph, of which the tribe of Ephraim was a part into the tribe of Judah. Hereafter Shiloh played no part in their worship. (Psalms 78:67,68; Jeremiah 7:12,14; Jeremiah 26:6)
2960 AM, 3670 JP, 1044 BC
  1. David now dwelt in his house of cedar which he had built and had peace on every side. He told Nathan the prophet, that he planned build an house. God replied that this was a work that should be done by a man of peace not war. His son Solomon would build the house not David. (2 Samuel 7:1,2,11,13; 1 Chronicles 17:1-27; 1 Chronicles 22:8-10) 24:3,6; (2 Chronicles 6:8,9; 1 Kings 8:18,19) From now until the birth of Solomon was spent in wars. David subdued the Philistines, the Edomites, the Amalekites, the Moabites, the Ammonites and the Syrians. (2 Samuel 8:3; 1 Chronicles 18:1-17) The borders of Israel stretched not only from Shihor in Egypt to Hamath, (1 Chronicles 13:5) but even from there to the river Euphrates to the borders of Syria Zobah. (2 Samuel 8:3) This was the extreme bound of all that land which had been formerly promised to the seed of Abraham. (Genesis 15:18; Deuteronomy 11:24; Joshua 1:3,4) It was never possessed by any of them except only by David and his son Solomon. (1 Kings 4:21,24; 2 Chronicles 9:28)
  2. At this time Hadadezer, also called Hadarezer, the son of Rehob, was king of Syria Zoba. He united his forces from Damascus with Rezon the son of Eliadah's forces. They prepared to fight against David not far from the river Euphrates. However, after David routed Hadadezer's army, he slew 22,000 of the Syrians from Damascus and put garrisons in all that country. When Rezon saw that David prevailed, he rebelled from Hadadezer and made himself captain over the forces he had recently raised. He marched with them to Damascus and set up there a kingdom for himself and his posterity. He was a very bitter enemy to Solomon, as was his kingdom to the rest of the king's of Israel. (2 Samuel 8:5,6; 1 Kings 11:23-25) Concerning this battle fought by David near to the river Euphrates, Nicolous Damascenus, in Josephus, [lib. 7. Antiq. c.6. or 5.] mentions this battle of David's and calls this Rezon, Adad. He adds that his name was passed on to his successors to the tenth generation, as Ptolemy did to his in Egypt.
2967 AM, 3676 JP, 1038 BC
  1. After Nahash king of the Ammonites died, Hanun his son reigned in his place. He badly abused the messengers that David had sent out of kindness to comfort him over the death of his father.
  2. Therefore, David sent Joab who defeated a huge army of the Ammonites and Syrian mercenaries. David and Joab returned victorious to Jerusalem. (2 Samuel 10:1-19; 1 Chronicles 19:1-19)
2968 AM, 3678 JP, 1036 BC
  1. David crossed Jordan with his army and slaughtered a vast number of the Syrians who were led by Shophach, general of the army of Hadadezer, king of Syria Zoba. A time of peace between David and the petty kings of Syria followed so that they sent no more aid to the Ammonites, but served David. (2 Samuel 10:1-19; 1 Chronicles 19:1-19)
2969 AM, 3679 JP, 1035 BC
  1. At the end of the year, when kings went to battle, Joab, with his army fought with the Ammonites and besieged Rabbah, the capital city of Ammon. In the mean time, David took his ease at Jerusalem, (2 Samuel 11:1; 1 Chronicles 20:1) and there defiled himself in an adulterous relationship with Bathsheba the wife of Uriah the Hittite. Uriah was then in the army. Consequently, David arranged to have Uriah slain at the hand of the Ammonites. (2 Samuel 11:1-27)
2970 AM, 3680 JP, 1034 BC
  1. When David's child by adultery, was born, David was convicted by Nathan the prophet of his sin and repented. David composed the psalm (Psalms 51:1-19), for a memorial of his sin with Bathsheba, but the child died.(2 Samuel 12:1-31)
2971 AM, 3680 JP, 1034 BC
  1. Bathsheba who was now David's wife, bore David another son whose name was given to him by God called Solomon. This child proved to be a man of peace.(1 Chronicles 22:9) His name means one beloved of God, the name of Jedidiah. (2 Samuel 12:25)
2972 AM, 3682 JP, 1032 BC
  1. Ammon, David's oldest son, raped his sister Tamar. (2 Samuel 13:1-39)
2974 AM, 3684 JP, 1030 BC
  1. Two years after he raped his sister, Ammon was slain by his brother Absalom at the time of sheep shearing, before grain harvest. (2 Samuel 13:23) This occurred at the end of the spring, shortly after the middle of the first month during the second mowing of the grass. Codomanus notes this from (Amos 7:1; Joshua 3:15; Joshua 4:9) 5:10-12.
  2. After Absalom killed Ammon, he fled to Geshur in Syria. He continued 3 years with king Talmai his grandfather on his mother's side. (2 Samuel 13:37,38; 2 Samuel 15:8)
2977 AM, 3687 JP, 1027 BC
  1. After 3 years of exile, Absalom returned to Jerusalem. His father was pacified towards him by the speech of the woman of Tekoa, who was employed by Joab. (2 Samuel 13:38; 2 Samuel 14:1-23)
2979 AM, 3689 JP, 1025 BC
  1. Absalom set Joab's barley on fire just before harvest time that year [for the following year was a sabbatical year, when there was no harvest in Judah]. By this means he was admitted to his father's presence, whom he had not seen in the two years since his return from exile.(2 Samuel 14:28,30,33)
2980 AM, 3690 JP, 1024 BC
  1. This sabbatical year came between the burning of Joab's corn field, and the rebellion of Absalom against his father. In his rebellion, Absalom obtained chariots, horses and a band of ruffians around him, and insinuated himself into the favour of the people. He stole away their hearts from his father David. (2 Samuel 15:1-6)
2981 AM, 3691 JP, 1023 BC
  1. 40 years after the anointing of David by Samuel, Absalom followed the advise of his chief counsellor Ahithophel and took possession of his father's kingdom. This happened between the Passover and the Feast of Pentecost. Codomanus assumes this to be the season from Barzillai having provided David [when he fled] with new fruits and roasted grain. (2 Samuel 17:28)
  2. Against the practices of Absalom and Ahithophel, David composed the 3and 55th Psalms. Also Shimei, of the tribe of Benjamin, railed against David, as he fled. (2 Samuel 16:5)
  3. When Ahithophel saw that his counsel was not followed by Absalom, he went and hanged himself. (2 Samuel 17:23)
  4. In the battle with David, Absalom lost 20,000 men and fled. A bough of a thick oak caught hold of his long hair so he hung there until Joab came and thrust him through with darts, killing him. (2 Samuel 18:9-14)
  5. After this victory, David was brought home again by the men of Judah and one half of the people of Israel. The Israelites rebelled, because they had not participated in that work so a new rebellion grew among them. This rebellion was soon over when the head of Sheba the son of Gera, was thrown over the walls to Joab, by the people of Abel. (2 Samuel 20:1-22)
2983 AM, 3693 JP, 1021 BC
  1. The harvest of this year failed and there was a famine, which afflicted the land for three years. This famine was sent because the blood of the Gibeonites was shed by Saul and his family. (2 Samuel 21:1,2)
2986 AM, 3696 JP, 1018 BC
  1. The famine still continued so the Gibeonites hung two of Saul's sons and five of his grandchildren in the beginning of barley harvest. Rizpah, Saul's concubine, watched their bodies and kept them from being devoured by ravenous birds or beasts, until water dropped from heaven upon them.(2 Samuel 21:8-10)
  2. David took the bones of Saul and Jonathan his son and moved them from Jabeshgilead along with the bones of the seven that were hanged. They were buried a Zelah in the sepulchre of Kish the father of Saul. (2 Samuel 21:12-14)
  3. Many battles were fought with the Philistines and their giants. In one battle, David who was now old, fainted in the fight and would have been slain by the giant, Ishbibenob and barely escaped. This was the last fight that David took part in.(2 Samuel 21:16-22; 1 Chronicles 20:4-8)
2987 AM, 3697 JP, 1017 BC
  1. David desired to have a census taken; whether from Satan or his pride, God's wrath was kindled against the Israelites. Therefore of all the tribes, [except the tribes of Levi and Benjamin], (1 Chronicles 21:6; 1 Chronicles 27:24) the men older than 20 years were counted. (1 Chronicles 27:23). This census took 9 months and 20 days. (2 Samuel 24:8) God sent the prophet Gad to David and gave him the choice of one of three punishments. He was to chose famine, sword or pestilence. (2 Samuel 2:48) The famine was to last 3 years, that is in addition to the previous famine (1 Chronicles 21:12) or of 7 years, as from (2 Samuel 24:13). This included the 3 years of the previous famine (2 Samuel 21:1) and this present sabbatical year in which no sowing would take place to compensate for the losses of the previous years, for a fourth year of dearth. Three years of famine for the slaughter of the Gibeonites were already past and after this there was a poor harvest for lack of seed. This harvest would not be able to supply the needs of the next two years which the intervening sabbatical year would require. So the famine would still continue in the land, especially among the poor. Now to these past years of famine, God proposed to David three more years of famine, to choose, if he would. The reason for reconciling these two different passages, has led me in these texts (1 Chronicles 21:12; 2 Samuel 24:13), to refer this history of David's numbering the people to this Sabbatical year.
  2. Now of the three choices, David chose the plague. 70,000 men died in one day. When the angel was about to destroy Jerusalem, God in his mercy bade him withhold his hand. He commanded David to offer whole burnt offerings and peace offerings in the threshing floor of Araunah or Ornan the Jebusite. (2 Samuel 24:1-25; 1 Chronicles 21:1-30)
2988 AM, 3697 JP, 1017 BC
  1. David foresaw that the house of God would be built in the threshing floor of Araunah. (1 Chronicles 22:1; 2 Chronicles 3:1) He began to prepare the materials necessary for so great a work. He exhorted his son Solomon and all the heads of Israel to carry the project through to a successful completion. (1 Chronicles 22:1-19)
  2. He took the number of the Levites, first from 30 and then from 20 years old and upwards. He divided them into many ranks and appointed to every one of them their offices. He established a set form both for ecclesiastical and civilgovernment in the 40th year of his reign. (1 Chronicles 23:1-27:34) That is the beginning of the year, a year and an half before his death.
  3. Rehoboam was born to Solomon by Naaman, an Ammonite woman. He was 41 years old when he began to reign. (1 Kings 14:21; 1 Chronicles 12:13) For though Solomon called himself a little child, (1 Kings 3:7) and David his father said, he was a child, young and tender, (1 Chronicles 22:5; 1 Chronicles 29:1) yet in another place, he calls him a man of wisdom. (1 Kings 2:9) This was even before God granted him extraordinary knowledge and wisdom. These three things, tender years, a son born and perfect wisdom were not unique to Solomon at 18. For the same were attributed to king Josiah when he was only 16,(2 Chronicles 34:1-3; 2 Chronicles 36:2,5) for Jehoiakim was born when Josiah was only 14 years old and Jehoahaz was born when Josiah was 16.
2989 AM, 3699 JP, 1015 BC
  1. David was now seventy years old. Broken with continual cares and wars, he was so weak and feeble that wearing extra cloths would hardly keep him warm. So Abishag, a young Shunammite maiden was sent for, to keep him warm.
  2. When Adonijah saw his father's decline, he took counsel and advise from Joab and Abiathar the high priest and made himself king. When Bathsheba and Nathan told David of this, he ordered his son Solomon to be anointed king in Gihon by Zadok the priest, Nathan the prophet and Benaiah, the son of Jehoiada. As soon as Adonijah heard this, he fled to the sanctuary and lay hold on the horns of the altar. He was pardoned by the grace and favour of Solomon and set at liberty. (1 Kings 1:1-53)
  3. David assembled all the governors, captains and commanders of Israel with his sons and servants. He exhorted them all to the fear and worship of God and especially Solomon his son. He ordered them to proceed with the building of the temple. He gave them the pattern of the temple and consigned into Solomon's hands the gold and silver by weight for making every vessel and implement to be used in the temple. (1 Chronicles 28:1-21) After this, by David's example and his exhortation, every man was moved to give gold, silver, brass, iron and stones all in great abundance towards the building of God's house. They gave thanks to God. The next day, they offered a 1000 young bullocks, 1000 rams and 1000 lambs, with the meat offerings. Solomon was anointed as king the second time and Zadok confirmed as the high priest. (1 Chronicles 29:1-23)
2990 AM, 3699 JP, 1015 BC
  1. After David gave instructions to his son Solomon, he died. (1 Kings 2:1-10). He had reigned in Hebron for 7 years 6 months and 33 years in Jerusalem over all Israel. (2 Samuel 5:5) Concerning the forty years which the scripture attributes to his reign, we must take for the term which he reigned before he made Solomon king in his place and after that he lived for 6 more months. So that the years of Solomon's reign as mentioned in the scriptures, are to be reckoned from the first month, a full half year, before David's death.
  2. Adonijah used Bathsheba to ask Solomon to give him Abishag the Shunammite for a wife. Therefore, as one still aspiring to be king Solomon had him executed. Abiathar of the family of Eli, was put out of the high priesthood and Zadok, a descendent of Phinehas replaced him. This was foretold by God in (1 Samuel 2:33,35). So the high priesthood reverted from the family of Ithamar to the family of Eleazar and there continued. Joab fled to the tabernacle in fear and lay hold on the horns of the altar. He was executed by Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, who was made captain of the host in his place by the king. Shimei, who had before railed upon David, was confined only to his house, yet with this condition, that if at any time he passed over the brook Kidron, he would be executed. (1 Kings 2:1-46)
  3. When Hadad the Edomite heard that Joab was dead, he returned out of Egypt to his country. When Solomon began to follow after vanities, God used him as an enemy against Solomon. (1 Kings 11:14,21)
2991 AM, 3700 JP, 1014 BC
  1. Pharaoh king of Egypt, gave his daughter in marriage to Solomon. He gave her the city of Gezer located in the tribe of Ephraim. (Joshua 21:21) Pharaoh had taken it from the Canaanites and killed all its inhabitants. (1 Kings 9:16) Solomon brought her into Zion, the palace of David. (2 Kings 3:1,2; 2 Chronicles 8:11)
  2. Solomon offered 1000 whole burnt offerings at Gibeon where the tabernacle was situated. God appeared to him in his sleep and asked him to choose anything he wanted. Solomon chose wisdom to be given him. Therefore, God gave him wisdom from above as well as all other blessings over and above this. The first test of his wisdom was the deciding of the controversy between the two women about the child. This gave him a reputation and the respect from the people. (1 Kings 3:1-28)
2992 AM, 3701 JP, 1013 BC
  1. When Solomon was visited by messengers sent from Hiram, king of Tyre, they wanted to help him with timber for the building of the temple. When Solomon met Hiram's terms, Hiram co-operated in the venture. Solomon supplied the workmen, over whom he set pay masters and other officers to oversee the work. (1 Kings 5:1-18)