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Historical Writings

Ussher's "The Annals of the World"

The Sixth Age: 350 BC - 326 BC

3654 AM, 4364 JP, 350 BC
  1. While Salamis was besieged by Phocyon and Euagoras, all the rest of the cities submitted to the Persians. Only Protagoras king of Salamis held out against them. Euagoras wanted to be restored to his father's kingdom in Salamis. Some men treated him poorly and made accusations against him to the king. Euagoras saw that the king favoured Protagoras over him and gave up in his request to be restored to the kingdom. He went and cleared himself of all charges before the king. He did this so well that the king gave him a far better dynasty in Asia. At last Protagoras voluntarily submitted to the king and held the kingdom of Salamis peacefully after that. [Diodor. year 3Olympiad 107.] This Euagoras of whom we now speak, it seems was the grandchild of another Euagoras who died 24 years before by his son Nicocles. For that Euagoras the elder, had a son Nicocles who succeeded him in the kingdom of Salamis. Another called Protagoras, appears from Isocrates. This younger Euagoras who succeeded Nicocles, seems to have been put from his kingdom by Protagoras who was his uncle. He received a better territory than Salamis from Ochus. But by his misdeeds there, he was forced to flee again into Cyprus. He was captured and executed as a malefactor according to Diodorus.
     
  2. Eusebus in Chron. shows that in this 3rd year of the 107th Olympiad, Ochus forced Nectanebus to flee into Ethiopia and took over all Egypt. He put an end to the kingdom of Egypt. This time was the period of Manetho's Commentaries concerning the history of Egypt and how Egypt was captured by Ochus. Diodorus in this year gives a long account of this.
     
  3. After Orchus destroyed Sidon, the auxiliary forces came to him from Argos, Thebes and the Greek cities in Asia. He united all his forces and he marched to the lake of Sirbonis. Most of his army perished in the bogs of Barathra because they had no guides. From there he marched to Pelusium at the first mouth of the Nile River. It was held by a garrison of 5000 men under Philophron. Here the Greeks encamped close to the city and the Persians camped 8 miles off. Ochus divided the Greeks into three brigades each of which was to have two commanders, one a Persian and the other a Greek. The first brigade, the Boeotians, were commanded by Lachertes a Theban and Rosaces a Persian, governor of Ionia and Lydia. The second one, the men of Argos, were commanded by Nicostratus a Greek and Aristazanes a Persian. The third brigade was under Mentor, who betrayed Sidon and Bagoas an eunuch of Persia. To each of these Greek brigades were added various companies and troops and sea captains with their squadrons of ships. On the other side, Nectanebus had in his army 20,000 auxiliary Greeks and as many to help him from Libya and 60,000 from his own country of Egypt who were called "Warriors". He had an exceeding large number of river boats, outfitted to fight in the river Nile if required. When he had supplied every place with reasonably sufficient garrisons, he with 30,000 Egyptians, 5000 Greeks and one half of his Libyans, defended the passages which lay most open and easiest for invasion.
     
  4. When things were thus ordered on both sides, Nicostratus who commanded the Argivians, obtained some Egyptian guides whose wives and children were kept as hostages by the Persians. With his pprtion of the ships, he crossed over one of the channels of the Nile that would be most out of sight from the Egyptians, When the closest garrisons of the Egyptians knew this, they sent to cut them off, over 7000 under Clinius who was from the Isle of Cos. In that encounter, the Greeks on the Persian side slew almost 5000 men on the other side along with their commander Clinius. When Nectanebus heard of this slaughter, he with his army he had about him retired to Memphis to secure that place. Meanwhile Lacrates, who commanded the first brigade of the Greeks, hurried to attack Pelusium. He drained away the water that ran around Pelusium by a ditch that he cut. He raised a mount on the very channel of the old river and there planted his batteries. The Greeks within courageously defended the place. However when they heard that Nectanebus had left the field and retired to Memphis, they sued for peace. Lacrates told them and bound it with an oath that when the town was surrendered, they with their belongings would be all sent to Greece. When they heard this they surrendered the town.
     
  5. Mentor who commanded the third brigade, saw that all the cities were manned with two nationalities, the Greeks and Egyptians. He spread a rumour that Artaxerxes planned to deal most graciously with those who willingly submitted to him. The rest would be treated like those in Sidon. Everywhere the Greeks and Egyptians strived to be the first to surrender their cities to the Persians. Bubastus was the first city to surrender to the Persians, followed by all the rest of the cities. They settled for the best terms they could.
     
  6. Meanwhile when Nectancbus was at Memphis, he heard how all the cities defected to the Persians. Despondent, he gathered all the treasure he could and fled to Ethiopia. [Diod. Sic. year (3). Olympiad. 107.] Others report, that he shaved his head and disguised his appearance. He went to Pelusium and from there sailed to Philip king of Macedonia at Pella. [see the Excerpta, Barbaro-Latina, published by Scaliger, p. 58. the Chronicle of Alexandria, or Fasti Siculi, published by Raderus, p. 393. Cedrenus in the Basile Edition, p. 124. and Glycas, p. 195. from Psendo-Callisthenes' fabulous history of the Deeds of Alexander.]
     
  7. When Artaxerxes Ochus had possessed all of Egypt, he dismantled all the fortifications of the main cities and destroyed their temples. He got an infinite amount of treasure. Moreover, he took away all their records from their most ancient temples. The priests bought these again by paying a great some of money to Bagoas the Eunuch. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad. 107.] Ochus also is said to have derided their ceremonies and their god, Apis. [Severus Suppicitsus in his sacred History, l.2.] The Egyptians called him an ass for his poor behaviour and spirit. Therefore, he violently took their god Apis the bull and sacrificed him to an ass. [Elian. Varia. Histor. l.4. c.8.] Then he ordered his cooks to prepare the bull for dinner. [Suidas in Ochus.]
     
  8. After this Ochus rewarded his Greeks who helped him win this victory with wealth and honour, each man according to his deeds. He sent them all away to their own country. He left Pherendates as his viceroy in Egypt. After so great a conquest, he was covered with glory and loaded with spoils. He returned to Babylon with his army, [Diod. Sic. year 3Olympiad 107.] where he also took many Jews as prisoners. He settled most of them in Hircania which bordered on the Caspian Sea. Georgius Syncellus, from Julius Africanus reports in this: "Ochus the son of Artaxerxes, made a journey into Egypt. He led away some Jews as captives. He settled some of them in Hircania near the Caspian Sea and the rest in Babylon. There they continue to this day as many Greek writers report."
     
  9. Hecataeus Abderia also, in his first book, De Judais, cited by Josephus, in his 1st book Contra Apionem, mentions many tens of thousands of Jews who were carried to Babylon. Later they were settled in Hircania. Paulus Orosins also writes: [l. 31. c.7.] "Ochus, who is also called Artaxerxes, after his great and long war in Egypt was ended, carried away many of the Jews. He commanded them to settle in Hircania near the Caspian Sea. Here they continue to this day and prosper and increase in population. It is thought that they will one day break out from there into some other quarter of the world."
     
  10. This opinion seems to have no basis except of the passage in /APC (2 Esdras 13:40-46) concerning the ten tribes who were carried away by Shalmaneser, of the Jews, of certain Hebrews shut up I know not where and of a river Sabbation. Petrus Treccensis in his scholastical history, [Esth. c.5.] and from Vincentius Bellovacensis in his Specul. Histor. [l. 30. c.89.] mentions these ten tribes. They were later closely confined in the Caspian Mountains. But these things do not agree with Josephus, whom he alleges for his author. Rather they agree with the writings of that false Gorion and Methodius and even with those fictitious accounts from the Mahometan's Koran, concerning Alexander.
     
3655 AM, 4365 JP, 349 BC
  1. Ochus rewarded Mentor of Rhodes with 100 talents in money and very rich furnishings for his house. He made Mentor governor over all the Asiatic shores with full and absolute power to suppress all rebellions which happened in those parts. This great grace and favour he used well. Previously Artabazus and Memnon made war against Ochus [See notes on 3648 AM and 3651 AM] and were driven from Asia. They fled to Philip king of Macedonia and lived with him. Philip secured pardons for Artabazus and Memnon from the king who sent for them both to come to him with all their families. Artabazus had by Mentor and Memnon's sister, 11 sons and 10 daughters. With so numerous a progeny, Mentor was exceedingly delighted and as each son grew up Mentor made them officers in the Army. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 107.]
     
  2. Hermias, the archon of Atarne, was in rebellion against Ochus and had many strong cities and citadels under him. Mentor invited him to a peace conference and promised him that he would get him a pardon from the king. When Hermias came. Mentor captured him and took his signet ring. He sent letters in the name of Hermias that required the captains and garrisons everywhere in his dominion to surrender to the ones carrying these letters. This they did immediately. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 107. and Polyanus Stratag. l.6.] In like manner he did the same with all the other rebels of the king. Some he took by force and others by tricks. He brought them all under the king's subjection again. He periodically sent the king Greek mercenaries. He managed the government with great wisdom, valour and loyalty to the king. [Diod. Sic. year 3. and 4. Olymp. 107. and Demosthenes in his Oration, contra Aristocratem.]
     
  3. When Spartacus the king of Bosphorus Cimmerius was dead, his brother Parysades succeeded him in the kingdom and held it for 38 years. [Diod. Sic. year 4. of 107. Olympiad.]
     
3656 AM, 4366 JP, 348 BC
  1. In the 1st year of the 108th Olympiad, when Theophilus was archon in Athens, Plato died who was the philosopher and founder of the old academia. [Hermippus in Laertius, Dionysius Halicarnasseus, in his Epistle to Ammeus concerning Demosthenes and Atheneus l.5. c.13.] The saying of Numenius the Pythagorean as reported by Hesychius the Milesian, [in Numenius]: "Whatever Plato said concerning God and the world, he stole it all from the books of Moses."
     
  2. Hence came that famous saying of his, reported by Hesychius and his follower Suidas. Even before them Clememens Alexandrinus [Stromat. 1.] said of him: "for what is Plato, but Moses put into good Greek?"
     
  3. He says that Plato translated many things from the books of Moses and put them into his own writings. Aristobulus the Jew [See note on 3479 AM] said the same so that I shall not try to defend the authority of Justin Martyr, Clement of Alexandria, Ambrose, Theodoret, Johannes Philoponus, writing on the Hexameron and other Christians.
     
  4. After Plato died, Aristotle, who founded the sect of the Peripatetic Philosophers, travelled to Hermias the eunuch and ruler of Atarve, of whom I spoke in the previous year. He lived with him for 3 years, according to Laertius from Apollodorus' Chronicle and Dionysius in his previously cited Epistle to Ammeus. Strabo [l. 13.] tells us, that he lived at Assos, which was under the dominion of Hermias and Assos is mentioned in (Acts 20:13). Aristotle was closely related to Hermias because he married Pythiades the adopted daughter of Hermias. She was either the natural daughter of Hermias' sister or brother. I know not if Aristotle the Peripatetic [as we find in Euseb. de Preparat. Evangel. lib. 15.] from the affection he had for Hermias married her after the death of Hermias. While he remained in Asia, he met a Jew who was a man of great learning and temperance. He came from upper Asia to the seaside. There he talked in Greek with Aristotle and any others who wanted to hear him. [Clearchus of Solos a principal scholar of Aristotle, as cited by Josephus, l.1. contra Apionem., in his 1st book "de Somno." i.e."of sleep."] So that perhaps to this Jew it is that the Peripatetic sect of philosophers owe so many of their good sayings. They follow closely the words of Moses and the prophets as our Clement of Alexandria affirms from Aristobulus. [l. 5. Strom.]
     
3658 AM, 4368 JP, 346 BC
  1. Satyrus, the ruler of Heraclea in Pontus turned over the government to Timotheus, the oldest son of his brother Clearchus. Shortly after this, Satyrus was striken with a most grievous and incurable disease. A cancer grew in his groin which never stopped growing inward until he died at the age of 65 years. He ruled Heraclea for 7 years. [Meknon in Excerpt. c.3. ] Timotheus took his younger brother Dionysius into the government and appointed him to be his successor in case he should die. [Meknon in Excerpt. c.4.]
     
3659 AM, 4369 JP, 345 BC
  1. Memnon of Rhodes, a Persian commander mentioned earlier, sent for Hermias the eunuch and ruler of Atarne. He came suspecting nothing for he was invited as a friend. Memnon seized him and sent him as a prisoner to the king who hanged him. The philosophers, Aristotle and Xenocrates, a Chalcedonian who was born in Bithynia were with Hermias. They got away and escaped from the Persian territories. [Strabo. l.13.] When Aristotle had lived with Hermias 3 years he went to Mytilene when Eubulus was archon at Athens, in year 4. of the Olymp. 108. [According to Laertius from Apollodorus' Chronicles and also Dionys. Halicarnas. in his Epistle to Ammaeus mentioned previously.] There is also extant in Laertius an Epigram of Aristotles, on a statue of Hermias at Delphi: "Him did the king of Persia stay Contrary to Jove's law or reason, Not by force or bloody fray, But by a friend's detested treason."
     
  2. Therefore I thought it fit to insert this here that no man might think that Aristotle was in anyway party to his death. This they might incorrectly think based on those words of Tertullian where he says that Aristotle made his friend Hermias to leave his place in shame.
     
3660 AM, 4370 JP, 344 BC
  1. Idrieus, Prince of Caria died. His enormous wealth is noted by Isocrates [Oration to Philip of Macedonia]. His wife Ada who was his sister, succeeded him and ruled for 4 years. [Strabo, l. 14. Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp.] In Asia it was common after the time of Semiramis, for wives to succeed their husband's in their kingdoms. [Aria in Exped. Ales. l.1. p. 24.]
     
3664 AM, 4374 JP, 340 BC
  1. Pexodarus the youngest son of Hecaromnus, expelled his sister Ada and ruled for 5 years. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 109.] He left her the revenues from only the town of Alinda to live on.
     
  2. Pexodarus sent for Orontobates a Persian lord, to make him his consort in the government of Caria. He gave him his daughter Ada for a wife. [Aria. l.1. Strabo l.14.]
     
  3. Philip king of Macedonia and his army of 30,000 men besieged Perinthus, a town in Thracia that was on the Propontus. They were well equipped with battering rams and other devices and they constantly tried to destroy the walls so the inhabitants had no time for rest or respite. The king of Persia was becoming alarmed by Philip's success. He ordered his commanders and governors in Asia to send to relieve Perinthus. They were to send all they could which they did. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 109.] This was the main reason Alexander gave in a letter to Darius why he invaded Asia. [Aria. l.1. p. 41.]
     
3666 AM, 4376 JP, 338 BC
  1. When Artaxerxes Ochus had reigned for 23 years, he became sick. Bagoas was the eunuch and chief man under him as chiliarch of the kingdom. Bagoas gave him poison to kill him. Artaxerxes' physician helped Bagoas do this. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 104. and year 2. Olymp. 111., Severin Sulpitiscs. Histor. Sacra l.2.] Bagoas was an Egyptian and so hated Ochus for killing their god Apis that he revenged that sacrilege [as Sulpitius speaks] done to his nation by killing the king. He cut his flesh into gibbets and threw it to the cats to eat. I do no know what he put into the coffin in place of his flesh. From his thigh bones he made belts and handles for swords and by this represented his propensity to blood and slaughter. [Elian. Varia. Histor. l. 6. c.8.] When Artaxerxes was dead, Bagoas was the most powerful man in the kingdom. He made Artaxerxes' youngest son Arsen the king and executed all his brothers. The young king would have no one left to help him and would be forced to depend on Bagoas all the more. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 107. and year 2. Olymp. 111.]
     
  2. Timotheus the tyrant of Heraclea in Pontus, died 15 years after his father Clearchus. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 110.] For his great kindness, he was not called any more a tyrant, but a gracious lord and saviour. His body was honourably interred by his brother and successor Dionysius. All sorts of justs, tiltings and wrestlings were done. Some were performed then as time permitted and some later which were done with greater pomp and magnificence than the former ones. [Memnon in Excerpt. c.4.]
     
3667 AM, 4377 JP, 337 BC
  1. At the general assembly of all Greece at Corinth, Philip king of Macedonia, was made general of all the Greek forces. He had absolute power over them to make war against the king of Persia. Presently, he started to make many preparations for the war. He assessed the number of soldiers to be levied from every city and then returned into Macedonia. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 110.]
     
3668 AM, 4378 JP, 336 BC
  1. The next spring, Philip sent three of his captains into Asia, Parmenio, Amyntas and Attalus, with part of his army. They were to plunder the king's countries and to liberate the Greek cities. [Justin. l.9. c.5. Diod. year 1. Olymp. 111.]
     
  2. When Bagoas the eunuch knew that Arsen plotted revenge against him, he killed Arsen and all his children in the 3rd year of his reign. When the king's family was utterly destroyed, he set up Darius, a his friend and the son of Arsamis who was a brother to Artaxerxes. Darius claimed the crown as next of kin. [Diod. Sic. l.17. year 2. Olympiad 111.] However Justin [l. (10). c.3.] speaks of him in this manner: "Codomannus, in regard for his outstanding virtue, was made king by the people and the name of Darius was given him for majesty's sake."
     
  3. Alexander the Great, in Q. Curtius, [l. 6. c.4.] uses these words: "For Darius did not come to the crown by succession but by the mere procurement and favour of Bagoas the Eunuch.",
     
  4. Again in a letter Alexander sent to Darius, [Arianus [l. 2. p. 41.] he charges him: "As a murderer Bagoas had Darius made king. Darius got that kingdom wrongfully and not according to the laws of the Persians but by great injustice.":
     
  5. Strabo says: [l. 15.] "When Bagoas had murdered Arsen, he set up Darius who was not of the king's blood in his place."
     
  6. Lastly, Plutarch in his first book, "of the fortune of Alexander", introduces him as speaking to Fortune in this manner: [for so it should be, in his printed copies] "Darius who was a slave and a courier of the kings, thou [Bagoas] madest king of the Persians:"
     
  7. Also Hesychius tells us in his Lexicon: "Astandes", means "carrier" Suidas states: ""Astandae" and "Angati", in the Persian language, are those who carry letters from post-house to post-house until they come to the place of their destination."
     
  8. So Darius was one of them who in (Esther 8:14) are called ~ykrtfta and as ajatdud. In Elian it is written for augaidud so for dulhd. We are there to read dild, from the same place in Plutarch.
     
  9. Bagoas planned to poison Darius also. When the plot was discovered, Darius sent for him. When he came, he was ordered to drink of it. When he refused, Darius had it poured down his throat. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olympiad 111.] He told the people that he had killed him in selfdefence. [Q. Curtius l.6. c.6.]
     
  10. When Philip was yet living, Darius planned to attack him in Macedonia. [Diod. Sic. l.17.]
     
  11. Sanballat, a Cuthaean, from whom the Samaritans had their beginning, was made governor of Samaria by Darius. He gave his daughter in marriage to Nicasus the son of Manasses brother to Jaddus the high priest at Jerusalem. He hoped by this marriage to be held in better esteem with the Jews. [Joseph. Antiq. l.11. c.7.]
     
  12. Philip, king of Macedonia was celebrating the marriage of his daughter Cleopatra with Alexander the king of Epeirus at Egaeas. He was murdered by Pausanias, the son of Cerastes, of Orestis, a place in Macedonia. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 111. Justin l.9. c.6. Joseph. l.11. c. 8.] Alexander in his letter to Darius stated that his father was murdered by assassins hired by Darius and paid with a huge sum of money. [Q. Curtius l.4. c.1., in Arria. l.2. p. 41.]
     
  13. A little before Philip was killed, Neoptolemus a tragedian is reported by Diod. [l. 6.] to have sung an ominous song before him. This very song was later sung before Caligula the emperor on the very day when he was murdered, according to Suetonins in his life reports. "Muester, the actor sung and acted that very song which before Neoptolemus the actor did in a play when Philip, the king of Macedonia, was killed:"
     
  14. Josephus did not understand this part of the Roman history too well. [l. 19. Antiq. c.1.] Later he had spoken of Muester and the song which he sang. Rusinus translates it thus in Latin and I to this effect in English saying: "The actor danced the fable of Cynuras in which both Cinyras and his daughter Marrha were killed."
     
  15. Josephus draws from this that they were both killed on the same day. "It is known that the murder of Caligula happened on the same day as Philip, the son of Amyuntas king of Macedonia was slain by one of his friends called Pausanias as he was going into the theatre."
     
  16. So some men place both these murders on January 24th. However the time of Philip's death is best known by the time when Alexander succeeded him in his kingdom.
     
  17. After the death of Philip, Pythodemus, as Arrian or Pythodorus, [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olympiad 111,] calls him, was archon in Athens. Alexander succeeded his father at age 20. [Plutarch and from Trogus, Justin] Although Arianus, in the beginning of his History of Alexander says that he was about 20 years old when, after his father's death, he journeyed into Peloponesus. This may lend some doubt to him being 20 years old. Nothing is said of how long the interval was between his father's death and his journey there. The exact age is determined from the time of his death as mentioned at the end of the same history. It is said that he lived 32 years, 8 months. Of that time, he reigned 12 years and 8 months. Subtracting 12 years and 8 months from of the total age gives a result of exactly 20 years to the month. It appears that Philip died at the end of the Macedonian month Daesis. [I shall in due time publish these.] I therefore gather that Alexander began his reign about the 8th month before the 1st of the month Dii. Hence Philip was murdered about the 24th of September in which month of ours the month Dii begins. This I have documented in my discourse on the solar year of the Macedonians and Afiaticks. It was not the 24th of December.
     
3669 AM, 4379 JP, 335 BC
  1. Alexander came to Peloponese and followed his father's example. He summoned all the cities of Greece to Corinth. He was by the general vote of all the Greeks there except the Lacedemonians, made general in his father's place to go against the Persians. [Justin l.11. c.2. Diodorus l.17. Arrian l.1. p. 1.]
     
  2. He returned from there into Macedonia, in the very beginning of the next spring. He went through Thrace and attacked the Illyrians and the Thribulli. [Arrian. l.1.] In a battle on the bank of the Danow, he defeated Syrmus, the king of the Triballi. [Plut. in Alex.] Meanwhile, he had news that the Athenians, Lacedemonians and Thebans, were defecting to the king of Persia. The instigator of this was Demosthenes the orator who had been bribed with a vast sum of money from the Persians. He made a speech and assured them that Alexander with all his forces were defeated by the king of the Triballi. [Justin. l.11. c.2. with Eschines in his Oration cont. Ctesiphontem.] Further, the Athenians by certain of their officials sent Demosthenes' letter to the Athenian captains in Alexander's army. They asked Attalus, one of the 3 captains sent by Philip into Asia to revolt from Alexander. Like the other Greeks, they revoked their order making Alexander the general of the Greek forces. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 111. with Demosth. his Oration for Ctesiphon.]
     
  3. Memnon the commander from Rhodes, was sent into Phrygia with 5000 soldiers. After passing by the hill Ida, he suddenly attacked the city of Cyzycum. He was unable to defeat it but wasted their territories and returned loaded with a vast amount of spoil from there. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 111.]
     
  4. When Pexodarus was dead, his son-in-law, Orontobates succeeded him in the kingdom of Caria by the authority of the Persian king. [Strabo. l.14Arrian. l.1. p. 24.]
     
  5. When Alexander had conquered those barbarous people he returned to Greece. The country was all in a turmoil. On his way, he befriended the Thessalonians and journeyed through the pass of Thermopylae. He won the Ambracia to him by his kindness. He and his army went into Boeotia and camped before Cadmaea, which was held by a garrison of Macedonians. The Atheninas sent their officials to ask his pardon which he gave them. However, Thebes refused his pardon when he offered it. Therefore he besieged the city. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 111., Plut. in Alexan.]
     
  6. He sent Hecateus with an army into Asia to capture Attalus. Attalus sent the letter which he had received from Demosthenes to Alexander, with a very detailed excuse and justification for his actions. Nevertheless Hecataeus followed his commission and captured him. He sent him packing into another world. So the Asian Macedonian army had peace and the rebellions ceased. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 111.]
     
  7. Parmenio, who was always loyal to Alexander, took Grinium by force and sold all its townsmen for slaves. From there he went and besieged Pitane. When Memnon approached, he so frightened the Macedonians that they lifted their siege. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 111.]
     
  8. Callas, with a Macedonian army and other mercenaries, fought with the Persians in the country of Troas. His small forces defeated the Persians and forced them to retire to Rheteum. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 111.]
     
3670 AM, 4379 JP, 335 BC
  1. Alexander laid Thebes in Boeotia level with the ground, [Diod. year 2. Olymp. 111.] in October which was the time when the "Mysteries" were kept in Athens. They did not observe that holy solemnity that year because of what happened. [Plut. in Alexan. and Arrian. l.1.] 90,000 men in Thebes were killed and 30,000 were sold for slaves. All went to ruin except only the houses of the priests, his father Philip's friends and Pindarus the poet. [Elian. Varia. Histor. l. 13. c.7.]
     
  2. Alexander at a common council of Greece was chosen general a second time to go against the Persians. Alexander went to visit Diogenes the philosopher. [Plut. in Alexan.]
     
  3. When he returned to Dios a town in Macedonia, [Arrian. l.1. p. 11.] all his thoughts were upon the conquest of Asia. In his sleep the likeness of the High Priest of Jerusalem appeared to him, who bade him be courageous and bold. He was to quickly enter Asia with his army and that he would conduct his armies in the conquest of the Persian Empire. [Josephus, Antiquit. l.11. c. 8. s. 5.]
     
  4. Therefore in the very beginning of the spring, Alexander left his own home and after a 20 day march, he came to Sestus. From there his army crossed over into Asia. [Arrian. l.1.] [Euaenetus was then the archon at Athens.] This was 11 years before he died according to Clement of Alexandria as he notes from the most ancient chronologies. [l 1Strom.] That is, this was the 3rd month before Ctesicles came to be archon in Athens. In which time, Diod. Sic. places his trip into Asia in the 3rd year of his reign. Zosimus follows Diod. Sic. without noting his error. [l. 1. Histor.] It was in the second year of his reign, year 2, Olymp. 111.
     
  5. He left Antipater behind in Europe with 12,000 foot soldiers and 11,500 cavalry to tend to matters there. Alexander with 60 ships sailed to Troas, [Diod. year 2. Olymp. 111.] but ordered Patmenion to transport the largest part of his foot soldiers and cavalry from Sestus to Abidus. This he did with the help of 160 ships and a number of cargo ships. [Arrian. l.1.]
     
  6. Even those who were present do not agree on how many men Alexander took into Asia. In [Polybius l.12. c.663. in fi.] Calisthenes states he had 4500 cavalry and 30,000 foot soldiers. In Plutarch, in his discourse of Alexander's fortune, Aristobulus is alleged to say that he had 30,000 foot soldiers and 4000 cavalry. Ptolemy the son of Lagus and later king of Egypt says there were 30,000 foot soldiers and 5000 cavalry. Anaximenos of Lampsacus says there were 40,000 foot soldiers and 5500 cavalry. Livi [l. 9.] agrees with Aristobulus and says there were 4000 cavalry. Diodorus, [l. 17.] Justin [l. 11 c.6.] and Orosius, [l. 3. c.16.] agree with Calisthenes that there were 4500 cavalry. Although [Arrian. l.1.] says, that he had more than 5000 cavalry. Diodorus has a total of 5100 when you sum his numbers. In the number of foot soldiers he says there were 30,000 and agrees with Calisthenes, Aristobulus and Ptolemy. Livi says there were more than 30,000 foot soldiers. Arrian says that there were not many more than 30,000 soldiers. Justinus and Oronus make it to be 32,000. Concerning the number of 40,000 foot soldiers which Calisthenes and Anaximenes mention, Julius Frontinus assigns to his whole army in this way. "Alexander of Macedonia, with 40,000 men, all veteran soldiers, trained under his father Philip attacked the whole world and slew an infinite number of his enemies." [Frontin. Stratag. l.4. c. 2.]
     
  7. To pay his army, Aristobulus says Alexander took only 70 talents of money. Duris says he had only 30 days' of provisions. Sicritus adds, that he went in debt 200 talents to pay for his army. [Plutarch in his life and in his book of the fortune of Alexander.]
     
  8. As soon as he landed on the Continent, Alexander was the first of all of them to throw a spear on shore. This signified his taking possession of all Asia. He leaped on shore and danced about in his armour. He offered sacrifice and besought the gods: "that those lands might willingly receive him for their king:"
     
  9. Then he went and sacrificed to the ghost of Achilles, from whom he was descended on his mother's side and to Ajax and other Greek heros who died in the war of Troy. [Diodor. Justin, Arrian] He commended the very good fortune of Achilles in two points. First he had so true a friend about him as Patroclus. Secondly, he had a man like Homer to sing his praises. [Plut. in Alex. Cic. pro. Archia Poeta. and Arrian. l.1.]
     
  10. When he came into Ilium, he sacrificed to Pallas of Troy. He hung his own arms in her temple and took from there in place of them, some other arms from the chancel. They were there from the time of the of the Trojan war. [Diodor. Arrian.] Among the other relics they showed the lute of Paris. Alexander said, he would have thanked them if they could have showed him the lute of Achilles by which he had sung the praises of famous men. [Plut. in Alex. Elia. Variar. Hist. l.9. c.38.]
     
  11. From Ilium he went to Arisbe to join his whole army that had crossed over by sea. The next day he passed by Percota and Lampsacus. He camped at the Prosactium River. [Arrian. l. 1.] He planned to utterly destroy Lampsacus and its inhabitants for he thought they had or were planning to defect to the Persians. He saw Anaximines the historian, a man very well known to him and to his father, coming to meet him. He guessed his errand and swore first saying: "whatever he desired of him, that he would not do."
     
  12. Then Anaximines replied: "Sir, I beseech you to destroy Lampsacus."
     
  13. Alexander was caught in his own net by the wit of the man. Though much against his will, he went his way and spared the place. [Valer. Max. l.7. c.3. Pausan. in his Eliaca. l.2. Snidas, in the word, Anaximenes.]
     
  14. After much difficulty and danger, Alexander crossed the Granion River in Phrygia and planned a battle with the Persians in the plain of Adrastia. Justinus and Orosius say the Persians had 600,000 foot soldiers and 20,000 cavalry. Arrian some what improbably adds that besides the mercenaries there were less than 20,000 foot soldiers. Diodorus is more cautious and says, that the Persian cavalry was more than 10,000 and the army was under 100,000 men. 20,000 Persian foot soldiers and 2500 cavalry died in the battle according to Plutarch. Diodorus reports that they lost 10,000 foot soldiers and no less than 2000 cavalry and had more than 20,000 taken prisoner. Arrian' account states that the Persian cavalry lost 1000 men and their foreign mercenaries were almost all killed. 2000 were taken prisoner. Orosius' account is quite fantastic when he says there were 400,000 slain. [l. 4. c.1.]
     
  15. In this fight Alexander who wore that armour which he had taken from the temple of Palas at Ilium, had his head piece cut in pieces to his very hair. Plutarch from Aristobulus states he lost 25 cavalry and 9 foot soldiers. However, Justin and Orosius say that 120 cavalry and 9 foot soldiers died. According to Arrian, Alexander lost about 25 men in total who were all Macedonians. Lysippus made brass statues of them. Others say that he lost 60 cavalry and 30 foot soldiers. The next day, Alexander had these men buried with all funeral rights. This great and memorable victory opened the way to the empire of all Asia. It happened in the month Daesius with the Macedonians and on the 6th of Thargehon with the Athenians or Sunday, May 20th 334 BC in year 2 of the Olympiad 111. This we have discussed in detail in our discourse on the Macedonian and Asiatic Solar year. [c. 1. pg. 4,5, 11.]
     
  16. When Alexander had rested his army, he marched forward through Lydia and came to Sardis. The city with all it provisions and treasures, was voluntarily surrendered to him by Mithrinnes, or Mithrenes, its governor. [Diodorus, Arrian.]
     
  17. He went to Ephesus and replaced the oligarchy with a democratic government. He assigned all the tributes which were formerly paid to Darius, to Diana. The Ephesians cried out for justice against those who had robbed the temple of Diana. They demolished the statue of Philip which was set up there. They took Syrphaces, his son, Pelagon his son and the children of the brother of Syrphaces and stoned them to death. [Arrian. l.1.] Moreover they enlarged and beautified the temple itself which was burned down by Erostratus on the night when Alexander was born. They appointed Dimocrates the architect to oversee the work. Alexander later used him to build Alexandria in Egypt. [Julius Solinus, c.40] Artemidorus mentions [Strabo l.14.] that Alexander promised to pay for the construction of the temple if the Ephesians would allow him to take the credit as the builder of the work, but they refused.
     
  18. While Alexander stayed at Ephesus, ambassadors came to him from Magnesia and Tralles and surrendered their cities to him. He sent to meet them, Parmenion with 2500 foreign foot solders and 2500 of his Macedonian troops, with 200 cavalry from his auxiliaries. He sent also Alcimalus the son of Agathocles, to the cities of Eolia and Ionia, which were held before by the Persians with about the same number of troops as he had sent with Parmenion. Everywhere, he abolished the oligarchies in their cities and set up democratic governments. He gave them permission to live according to their own laws and abolished the tribute they paid to the Persians. [Arrian. l.1.]
     
  19. He stayed at Ephesus and sacrificed to Diana. With his whole army in battle array, he went in a procession to her. The next day he went to Miletus with the rest of his foot soldiers, archers, agrians, the cavalry from Thrace and aides of his confederates and his own troops. [Arrian. l.1.] There the Persians who escaped from the fight at Granicum had fled with their general Memnon. [Diodor.] 3 days before they arrived, Alexander had sent Nicanor with 160 ships to capture of the isle of Lada, opposite Miletus. He held it with 4000 men from Thrace and other nations so that when the Persian fleet of 400 ships came there, they could not get to the mount of Micale. [Arrian. l.1.]
     
  20. Alexander besieged Miletus by land and sea and battered their walls. They finally surrendered to him. The 300 Greek mercenaries had fled from there to a nearby little island. Alexander took and enlisted them among his own troops. He gave the Milesians their freedom and all the non-Greeks there he either killed or sold for slaves. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 111. Arrian. l.1.]
     
3671 AM, 4381 JP, 333 BC
  1. Alexander dismissed his fleet of 160 ships [182 ships according to Justin. l.11. c.6. s]. He retained 20 Athenian ships to carry his battering rams with. [Justin. l.11. c.6. s]
     
  2. Memnon of Rhodes, sent his wife and children to Darius, as a pledge of his loyalty and was made general of all his army. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 111.]
     
  3. Alexander marched with his army into Caria. Everywhere he went, he proclaimed liberty to all the Greek cities. He said they could live by their own laws and be free from Persian tribute. He made it clear that this war was to liberate of the Greeks from Persian rule. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 111.]
     
  4. While he was on his way, Ada met him. She had been expelled by her brother Pexodarus from the kingdom of Caria. She surrendered her city Abinda which was the strongest place in all Caria. She desired to be restored to her grandfather's kingdom and promised further to help him take the rest of the forts and cities of that country. These she said were in the power of her close friends. She adopted Alexander for her son. In return he gave her the town of Abinda and he proclaimed her queen of Caria. He bid her claim Caria and did not refuse to be called her son. Whereupon all the cities of Caria sent their officials to him. They gave him crowns of gold and offered him their service in whatever he would ask them to do. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 111. Strabo, l.14. Arrian. l.1. Plut. in Alexander.]
     
  5. Orontobates a Persian, held Halicarnassus a city of Caria, ever since the days of his father-in-law, Pexodarus. Memnon of Rhodes the Persian general, had joined him with all his forces. Alexander encamped before its walls and began to assault and batter it very intensely. Ephialtes an Athenian, behaved valiantly in the defence of the city. When he and others were slain at the breaches in the wall, then Memnon and the Persian princes and captains placed a strong garrison of their best soldiers in the citadel. They then sailed with the rest of the people and all their belongings to the Isle of Cos near to Rhodes. When they were gone, Alexander cast a trench and built a strong wall on it around the citadel. He razed the city to the ground. He left garrisons there and in other parts of Caria. He placed Ptolemy over 3000 foreign soldiers and 200 cavalry. He left the government of that whole country of Caria to his adopted mother, Ada. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 111. Arrian. l.1.]
     
  6. Alexander gave his Macedonians who had married wives shortly before they started on this journey, leave to go and spend their winter months with them. They could leave Caria to rejoin their wives. He appointed Ptolemy the son of Seleucus who was one of his captains, to be their commander. He sent with him Caenus the son of Polemocrates and Meleager the son of Neoptolemus who were recently married. He ordered them that when they returned they should bring all the newly married troops to him and with them as many cavalry and foot soldiers as possible from the country where they wintered. [Arrian. l.1. and Q. Curtius in the beginning of his 3rd book.]
     
  7. Alexander sent Parmenion to Sardis and made him commander over all the cavalry of his confederates. He ordered him to take with him all the Thessalian cavalry and auxiliaries and all carts that he could make. They were to go ahead of him as far as Sardis, while he went to Lycia and Pamphylia. He took all the sea towns so that the navy of the enemy would be useless to them. On his way, he captured a very strong town called Hyparna on his first attack. He allowed the mercenary soldiers to depart in safety. From there he marched into Lycia. The city Telmessus conditionally surrendered to him. When he crossed the Xanthus River, the cities of Pinara, Xanthus, Patara and 30 smaller towns surrendered to him. [Arrian. l.1.]
     
  8. In the middle of winter, Alexander went to Myliada in Greater Phrygia and made a league with the ambassador who came to him from Phaselis and the lower Lycia. They surrendered all their cities into his hands. A short time later, Alexander went to Phaselis and razed a strong fort which the Pisidians had built to harass the inhabitants of Phaselis with. [Arran. l.1.]
     
  9. While Alexander was near Phaselis, he received a rumour that Alexander Aeropus whom he had made commander of the Thessalian cavalry intended to kill him. However he and his two brothers Heromenes and Arrobaeus were suspected to be involved in Alexander's father, Philip's death. For Darius received letters from Alexander Aeropus by Amyntas who fled to him. Darius sent Asisines, a Persian, to the sea side under the pretence of having a message for Atysies the governor of Phrygia. The real purpose was to assure Alexander Aeropus that if he killed Alexander, the kingdom of Macedon would be his and Darius would give him 1000 talents of money besides. However Asisnes was intercepted by Pharmenion and put to the rack. He confessed all and he was sent away heavily guarded to Alexander. Alexander looked carefully into the matter and sent Amphoterus to Pharmenion with secret instructions to seize Aeropus and put him in prison. [Arran. l.1.] It was to this matter that Alexander wrote in his letter to Darius. According to Q. Curtis, [l. 4. c.1.] he said: "When you have forces of your own, yet you go to sell your enemies' heads since you who were recently the king of so great an army would hire a man to take away my life with 1000 talents," [Just. l.11. c.7.]
     
  10. Alexander left Phaselis with his army and travelled along the coast to Pergae. From there he came to Aspendus and besieged it. Although the city was situated on a high and rugged mountain, it surrendered to him. He next went into Pindia and tried unsuccessfully to take the city of Telmislus. Instead he made a league with the Selgians who were enemies to the Telmissians. He took Salagassa by force and killed about 500 Pisidians. He lost his captain Cleander with about 20 of his own men. From there he went to capture the other cities of Pisidia. Some of their stronger places he took in by force and others surrendered conditionally. After this he came into Phrygia to the marsh lands of Ascania. After his 5th camp, he arrived at Celenae. [Arrian. l.1.]
     
  11. The citadel of Celenae was held by the Persian commander with a garrison of 1000 Carians and 100 Greek mercenaries. After a 60 day's truce, [in which the commander expected relief from Darius], he surrendered to Alexander. [Arrian. l.1. and Curtius, l.3. c.1.]
     
  12. Alexander left a garrison of 1500 in Celenae. After he had stayed there 10 days, he made Antigonus the son of Philippus, governor of Phrygia. He made Balacrus the son of Amyntas the commander of the auxiliaries in his place. Alexander marched to Gordium. He sent a letter to Parmenion that he should not sail to meet him at Gordium. [Arrian., l.1.]
     
  13. Parmenion with his army and the Macedonians which had leave to be with their new wives, came to Gordium. The army he had recently raised was under the command of Ptolemy, Caenus and Meleager. That army consisted of 1000 Macedonians foot soldiers and 300 cavalry. 200 Thessalian cavalry and 150 cavalry from Elis led by Alcias who was from the same country. [Arrian. l.1.]
     
  14. Darius made Memnon admiral of his fleet and chief commander of all the seacoast. Memnon planned to carry the war from Asia into Macedonia and Greece. He outfitted a navy of 300 ships and captured the isle of Chios and the rest of the cities and places in Lesbos except Mitylene. [Diod. year 4. Olymp. 111. with Arrian. l.2. in prim.]
     
  15. The elders of Jerusalem were offended that Manasseh the brother of Jaddua, the high priest, had married a foreign wife contrary to the law. They demanded that he either divorce her or give up his priestly office. Hereupon Jaddua was forced to forbid him to serve at the altar. Manasseh went to tell Sanballat his father-in-law that he loved his daughter very much but did not want to loose his priesthood for her sake. This was an honour belonging to him by his birthright and it was very highly esteemed by the Jews. Sanballat replied that if Manasseh would not divorce his wife, he would help him stay in the priesthood and make him a high priest and prince of all his own province and build a temple on the hill overlooking Samaria for him. The temple would be at least as good as the one in Jerusalem. Sanballat would do all this by the authority of Darius the king. Manasseh was encouraged by these promises and stayed with his father-in-law. He hoped to get the priesthood as a gift and by the authority of Darius. Hereupon all the priests and other Israelites who had married foreign wives resorted to him. Sanballat furnished them with money and lands to farm. He promoted the ambition of his son-in-law as much as possible. [Josephus l.11. Antiq. c.8. s. 2.]
     
  16. Alexander undid the Gordian knot. He either pulled out the peg or pin in the beam according to Arrian or he cut it in pieces with his sword, as others state. [Plutarch in Alexander. Arrian, l.2. Curtius, l.3. Justin, l.11. c.7.]
     
  17. Alexander departed from Gordium in Phrygia and went to Ancyra, a city in Galatia. Ambassadors from Paphlagonia came to him and made a league with him and surrendered their country to him. He appointed Calas, a prince of Phrygia to be their new governor. When he had received the new troops from Macedonia, he marched into Cappadocia. He subdued all the country on this side the river Halys and some part of the other side. [Arrian. l.1. with Curtius l. 3. c.3.]
     
  18. Memnon died at the siege of Mitylene. Before he died, he appointed Autophradates and Pharnabazus the son of Artabazus to take over the forces until Darius would direct otherwise. They took command subject to certain conditions. Autophradates took over the main body of the ships. Pharnabazus with some ships sailed into Lycia and took with him some mercenaries. [Arrian. l.2.]
     
  19. After the death of Memnon, Darius conscripted soldiers and ordered them from all countries to come to him at Babylon. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 111.] When he had set up his standard there, he pitched camp and mustered his army. He put a huge trench around the camp that was capable of containing 1,000,000 armed men. Like Xerxes had done with his troops, he went and counted all his forces. The sum came to 100,000 Persians of which 30,000 were cavalry. The Medians sent 10,000 cavalry and 50,000 foot soldiers. From the Barcans, [who were a people bordering upon Hircania, according to Stephanus] there were 2000 cavalry and 10,000 foot soldiers. From Armenia there came 40,000 foot soldiers and 7000 cavalry. Hircania sent 6000 cavalry and the Derbices sent him 40,000 foot soldiers and 2000 cavalry. From the Caspian Sea came 8000 foot soldiers and 200 cavalry. Those that were from smaller nations amounted to 2000 foot soldiers and 4000 cavalry. He also had 30,000 Greek mercenaries. Curtius says this army [l. 3. c.4.] had only 311200 men. However, Diodorus says they were 400,000 foot soldiers and 100,000 cavalry. This number is in the newer editions of Justin, as amended from the manuscripts. Although the older editions, together with Orosius, who follows him in every point, have only 300,000 foot soldiers and 100,000 cavalry. Both historians [Arrian. l.2. and Plutarch in Alexan.] say the total number of men was 600,000.
     
  20. Charidemus from Athens was a man well skilled in military matters. After Alexander had expelled him from Athens, he defected to Darius. He advised Darius not to manage the army personally but leave it to some general who had proven himself in previous battles. He further stated that an army of 100,000 men of which one third would be Greeks would be enough for this battle. By his sage and good counsel, he so incensed the princes with envy and angered the king that he was executed for it. [Diod. year 4. Olymp. 111. Curtius, l.3. c.5.]
     
  21. Darius sent Thymondas or Thymodes, Mentor's son, a bold young man, to Pharnabazus to get from him all the mercenaries whom Memnon had under his command. He was to bring them to Darius and Pharnabazus was to replace Memnon as head of the forces there. [Curtius, l.3. c. 6. Arrian., l.2. in prin.]
     
  22. Alexander committed the charge of Cappadocia to Abistenes [according to Curtius] or, to Sabictas [as Arrian has it]. He marched with his whole army to the passes in Cilicia and came to a place called Cyrus' Camp. [It was either named after the older Cyrus, as Curtius states or from the younger Cyrus as Arrian thinks] About 7 1/4 miles from there, he found that those passes were controlled by a strong garrison of the enemy that Parmenion had left there. In the first watch of the night, Alexander with his company of foot soldiers troops with shields, archers and his band of Agrians secretly went to attack that garrison. When the garrison heard a rumour about his coming, they threw away their weapons and fled. Arsames the governor of Cilicia had wasted all the country with fire and sword so that Alexander could not get provisions from the place. Then he left Tarsus and went to Darius. [Arrian., l.2. Curtius, l.3. c.8.]
     
  23. Alexander went very quickly to Tarsus. Since he was so hot from the journey he took off his armour and leaped into the cold water of the Cydnus River which ran through the city. This so shocked his system that he lost his voice and despaired of recovery and waited to die. [Justin. l.11. c.8.] Curtius adds that this was in the summer season and that the heat of the day was increased by the intensity of the sun in the climate of Cilicia. [l. 3. c.10.] Aristobulus says, that he fell sick by over exerting himself [Arrian. l.2.] Philip a physician gave him a portion which he took and it cured him immediately. Parmenion had warned him that Philip was set to poison him. [Justin. Czardas. Arrow. Pleiad. and Valer. Max. l.3. c.8.]
     
  24. Orontobates the Persian, held out in the citadel at Halicarnassus, with Myundus, and Caunus and Thera and Callipolis against Alexander. They were defeated in a battle by Ptolemy and Asander. The enemy lost about 700 foot soldiers and 50 cavalry and had at least 1000 men taken prisoner. After this the Myndians, Caunians and most of the places in the region surrendered to Alexander. [Arrian. l.2. Curtius l.3. c.11.]
     
  25. Darius had a bridge built over the Euphrates and crossed over with his army in five days. [Curt. l.3. c.11.]
     
  26. Alexander sent Parmenion to possess the pass which divides Cilicia from Assyria or Syria. This pass is much like the former pass in Cilicia. Alexander followed after him from Tarsus and came to Anchislos on the first day. [Arria. l.2.] From there he marched to Soli and placed his own garrison in the fort there. He levied 200,000 talents of silver from the inhabitants for they seemed to favour Darius more than him. [Arrian. l.2. Curt. l.3. c.11.] From there he went with 3000 Macedonians, all his archers and Agrians and went into the hill country of Cilicia. Within 7 days time, by diplomacy he won them over to him and he returned to Soli. He had sacrificed to Eseulapius and his whole army had gone in procession with burning tapers in their hands. They passed the time with wrestling matches, music and other games. He allowed the city to become a democracy. [Arrian. l.2.]
     
  27. The Greek soldiers whom Thymodes received by the arrangement with Pharnabazus, were almost Darius' only hope of victory. When they came to him, they were very earnest with him to retire and stay in the plain country of Mesopotamia. Failing that, he should break this vast army of his into parts and not hazard everything on the chance of one battle. Darius did not like their advice for he wanted to finish things quickly. The winter [beginning with autumn] was now drawing on and he sent away all his money, jewels and precious belongings with a reasonable guard to Damascus in Syria. The guard was under the command of Cophenes, the son of Artabazus. [Arrian. l.2.] Darius with the rest of his army marched on to Cilicia. His wife and mother and daughter and little son, according to the custom of Persia, followed after the camp. [Curt. l.3. c.13.] He left his baggage and such people as were unfit for the war at Damascus. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 111.]
     
  28. When Sanballat heard that Darius was coming into those parts, he told Manasseh that he would quickly do what he had promised him concerning the high priesthood. This he would do when Darius returned in victory over his enemies. All those inhabitants of Asia were absolutely certain Darius would win. [Josephus Antiq. l.11. c.8. s. 3.]
     
3672 AM, 4381 JP, 333 BC
  1. Alexander wanted Philotas to bring the cavalry through the Aleian plains in Lycia to the Pyramus River. Philotas came with the foot soldiers and Alexander's troops to Magarsus. Alexander sacrificed to Minerva at a place called Minerva Magoris. [??] [Arrian. l.2.]
     
  2. After he built a bridge over the Pyramus River, he came to the city Mallos in Cilicia. [Curt. l.3. c.11.] He offered to the ghost of Amphilochus the founder of that place, as to a demigod. When he found the inhabitants in turmoil and unrest, he befriended them and freed them from paying tribute to Darius. [Arrian. l.2.]
     
  3. While he stayed at Mallos, he received news that Darius with all his army were encamped at a place called Sochos. This was two day's journey from those passes which I mentioned earlier that parted Cilicia from Assyria or Syria [Arrian. l.2.]
     
  4. From Mallos Alexaxander came to Castabala which was another town in Cilicia. There Parmenion met him. Alexander had sent him to find the way through a forest which he had to go through to come to the town of Issos. Parmenion had seized the way in that forest and left a small company to hold it. He went forward and took the town of Issos also. It was abandoned by the inhabitants when they heard he was coming. He went further and he cleared out all those who were set to guard the inner parts of those mountains and put garrisons everywhere of his own in those places. When he had cleared all those parts of the enemy, he returned to Alexander and told him what he had done. [Curt., l.3. c.11.]
     
  5. Alexander came with his army to Issos. He held a council of war to determine whether he should march on or stay there and expect the supplies which he knew were coming to him from Macedon. Parmenion advised that he could not find a better place to fight than that place. No more could come to fight on the one side than on the other because of the narrowness of the pass. [Curt., l.3. c.11.] Callisthenes, as he is said in Polybius, says, that when Alexander first came into Cilicia, he received from Macedon, 5000 foot soldiers and 800 cavalry. [Polyb. l.12. p. 664.]
     
  6. When Darius had gone through the pass of the hill Amanus, he marched toward Issus. He did not know that he had left Alexander behind him. When Darius had taken the town, he cruelly tortured and put to death a poor company of Macedonians whom Alexander had left there. They were not able because of sickness or other infirmity to follow the camp. The next day Darius marched to the Pinatus River. [Arrian l.2.]
     
  7. When Darius heard that Alexander was approaching in battle array, he immediately crossed over the Pinarus River with 20,000 cavalry and some 20,000 lightly armed foot soldiers so that he might have more time to organise his army for the battle. First, he placed those 30,000 heavily armed Greek mercenaries. Opposite the Macedonian squadron on both sides he placed the 60,000 Cardaeans who were also heavily armed foot soldiers. He could not possibly arrange them into one squadron and do battle because the place was too narrow. As for the rest of the troops whether heavily armed foot soldiers or those from other countries, he put them together in no particular order behind the main battle line of the Greeks and Cardaeans. [Arrian. l.2.] However Curtius [l. 3. c.17] states: "Nabarzanes who was general of Darius' army, was on the right wing with the cavalry. Next to him were almost 20,000 slingers and archers. Thymodes also was in the same wing, commanding some 30,000 Greek mercenaries. This was, no doubt, the very cream of the whole army. They were a match for the Macedonian phalanx. On the left wing, was Aristomedes a Thessalian with 20,000 foot soldiers from various countries. In the rear, he placed his reserves from the most warlike nations, that he had in all his army. In that wing was the king protected by a guard of 3000 choice cavalry and 40,000 foot soldiers. The Hircanian and Median cavalry followed them. Next to them were arranged the cavalry and foot soldiers of the other nations. Some were on the right hand and some on the left. Before this battalion were arranged like this went 6000 slingers and javeliners. All the ground that was there in that pass was filled up entirely with men. The wings reached from the one mountain and the other to the very sea. The queen and the king's mother and the rest of the women were placed in the midst of the army."
     
  8. Callisthenes, who himself was in this battle, says, that there were 30,000 cavalry and as many auxiliaries all set to encounter the Macedonian phalanx. However, Polibius [l. 12.] says that Alexander's army consisted wholly of 42,000 foot soldiers and 5000 cavalry. He shows the many inaccuracies of Callisthenes. He points out that for inexperience in the marshalling of an army, Callisthenes had written many absurdities and impertinencies in the description of this battle.
     
  9. In the morning when Hephaestion came to Alexander to encourage him to start the battle, he forgot himself and greeted him: "God help you sir,"
     
  10. instead of, "God save you sir."
     
  11. All the troops who were there, were disturbed by what this meant. They thought he had meant that the king had not been well in his wits. Hephaestion himself grew amazed by his own mistake. When Alexander knew this, he took it up and said that I thank him for his good omen. For this tells me, that we shall all by God's help come safely out of this battle today. This is related by Eumenes Cardianus in his Epistle to Antipater. He was present when the words were spoken and stumbled himself into a similar error, as it is in Lucian's discourse, "Of Men's Misunderstandings in their speech."
     
  12. Arrian says, that this battle was fought, when Nicostratus, [or as Diodorus Siculus has it, when Micocrates] was archon of Athens, in year 4 of the 111th Olympiad. This was in the month Maemacterion, whose new moon fell on the Wednesday, October 28th. In it the Persians lost 10,000 cavalry and 90,000 foot soldiers. A number of other writers agree with him concerning the losses in the cavalry. Concerning the foot soldiers, they all vary extremely not only from him but from each other. Justin says, there were 60,000, Orosius, 80,000, Curtius, 100,000, Diodorus, 120,000. Plutarch says that in all, they lost 110,000 men. Justinus and Orosius add, that there were 40,000 captured. On Alexander's side, there were 504 wounded men. They lost 32 foot soldiers and 150 cavalry according to Curtius. Concerning the number of the cavalry, Plutarch, Justin and Orosius agree with this. Diodorus says he lost 300 foot soldiers, the other writers say he lost 330.
     
  13. Ptolemy the son of Lagus, who was a servant of Alexander, states that in the pursuit of Darius, the squadron marched over the slaughtered bodies of the enemy. [Arrian. lib. 2.] Although less than 1000 cavalry followed Alexander in the pursuit of Darius yet they slew a huge multitude of the enemy. [Curt. l.3. c.22.] When Darius was thrown from his coach he climbed onto a mare. She remembered her foal at home and ran so fast that Alexander could not catch up to him. [Elianum Historia Animali, l.65. c.48.]
     
  14. Alexander grew weary of the pursuit of Darius. Since the night was drawing on, he gave up all hope of catching Darius. When he had travelled 45 miles, he returned to Darius' camp about midnight. His men had captured it shortly before this. [Diodor. and Curt.] They found Darius' mother whom Diodorus calls Sisygnambis, but Curtius, calls Sysigambis. His wife was there also whom Justin says was his sister as well. Darius' son Ochus who was almost 6 year's old and Darius' two daughters of marriageable age were also found. Also they found a few other noble men's daughters. Most of them had sent their wives and daughters to Damascus with their baggage. Even Darius had sent most of his treasure there as we said before. They found whatever luxurious furniture was the the king's custom to take with him to war. In Darius' camp, Alexander found about 3000 talents of silver. [Arrian. l.2.]
     
  15. Early the next morning, Alexander took Hephestion with him and went to see the two queens. When Sisygambis mistakenly fell down at Hephestion's feet, she asked Alexander's pardon for it. He replied smiling: "No harm, for this is Alexander too."
     
  16. [Diodor. Curtius. Arrian.] In so few words, he gave half of himself away to his friend. [Valer. Max. l.4. c.7.] As for the two queens and to the women about them, Alexander restored to them all their attire, dressing and ornaments. He added much more of his own belongings to this as well. He did not permit any man to be uncivil with the women. [Arran. l.2. with Plut. l. 2. de fort. Alex.]
     
  17. In his flight, Darius came to a place called Sochos about two day's journey from the passes of Amanus as we noted before. From Arrian we learn that he collected any Persians and others who survived the battle. He took 4000 of them with him to Thupsacus so that he might have the great Euphrates River between him and Alexander. [Curt. l.4. c.1. Arrian. l.2.]
     
  18. Amyntus the son of Antiochus, Thymodes the son of Mentor, Aristomedes Phercus and Bianor of Acarnania had previously defected to the Persians from the Greeks. They fled with 8000 men in their company to Tripoli in Phoenicia. They found ships which had just arrived from Lesbos. They captured them and sailed to Cyprus and then to Egypt. They burned the ships they did not need so they could not be followed. [Arrian. l.2. with Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. (112). and Curt. l.4. c.3.]
     
  19. Alexander made Balacrus, the son of Nicanor, one of the leaders of his bodyguard, governor of Cilicia. Alexander replaced Nicanor by Menetes, the son of Dionysius. He put Olyperchon the son of Simeus, in charge of the brigade to replace Ptolemy, the son of Seleucus, who was slain in the recent battle. He gave 50 talents to the men of Solos in Cilicia. These were not paid their wages that he had enlisted them for. He restored to them their hostages that he had taken from them. [Arrian. l.2.] He built 3 altars, one to Jupiter, another to Hercules and a third to Minerva on the banks of the Pinarus River. Then he marched into Syria and sent Parmenion with the Thessalian cavalry to Damascus before him. Darius had all his treasure here. The cavalry had behaved very courageously in the recent battle. If they captured the city, they would be rich from the spoil. [Plut. in Alexan.]
     
  20. As Parmemion was on his way to Damascus, he intercepted a message sent to Alexander from the governor of Damascus who offerred to betray the city to Alexander. The 4th day he came to Damascus. The governor pretended that he could not hold the city. The next morning before sunrise, he took all the king's treasure [which the Persians call his "Gaza"] and pretended that he would flee away and save it for Darius. Instead he gave it to Parmenion. As soon as he had done that there was a heavy snow storm and the ground was frozen solid.
     
  21. Among the women that fled from there and were captured, there were 3 virgins, daughters of Ochus, the last king before Darius. Also in the group were Ochus' queen, the daughter of Oxatris the brother of Darius, the wife of Artabanus a principal man at court and his son Iloneus. There was also taken the wife of Pharnabazus whom Darius had made commander of all the towns and cities lying on the sea with 3 daughters of Mentor. The wife and son of that most noble Memnon was taken. There was hardly any noble man's house of the court of Persia, which had not his share in this calamity. [Plut. in Alexan.] Parmenion's report to Alexander indicated that among the rest he had taken 329 of the king's women who were skilful in music, 46 weavers or knitters of crowns, 277 cooks and 29 cooks' maids, 13 white meat-makers, 17 makers of drinking cups, 70 wine cellar men, 40 apothecaries and confectioners.
     
  22. Also taken were 2600 talents in coins, bars of silver, 500 weight, 30,000 men, 7000 camels which were beasts of burden. [Curt. l.3. c.25.]
     
  23. The one that betrayed the place [who, as it seems was Cophenes by whom Darius sent his treasure to Damascus,] one of his countrymen cut off his head and carried it to Darius. [Curt. l. 3. c.25.]
     
  24. Alexander made Parmenion, [according to Curtius] or Memnon, [according to Arrian], the governor of Coelosyria. He gave him his auxiliary cavalry for the defence of that province. The Syrians were not totally subdued and did not submit to this new governor. However, they were quickly suppressed and then they submitted to all the commands. [Arrian. l.2. Curt. l.4. c.1.]
     
  25. Alexander sent Parmenion to seize the Persian fleet. Others that were with him, he sent to hold the cities of Asia which had surrendered to him. After the battle of Issos, Darius' own commanders surrendered with all their gold and treasure to Alexander. He marched into Syria and many kings of the east came and submitted to him. These he treated accordingly. Some he made a league with, while others he replaced with new kings. [Justin. l.11. c.10.]
     
  26. Gerostratus was at that time king of the Isle of Aradus with the adjoining sea coast and of some places also lying further inland. Like the other kings of Cyprus and Phoenicia, they had consolidated their fleets under Darius' Persian commander, Antophradates. Gerostratus' son Strato who was viceroy of Aradus in his father's absence, met Alexander as he was on his way into Phoenicia. He placed a crown of gold on Alexander's head and surrendered the isle of Aradus with Marathus, a large rich town opposite Aradus on the continent, the city Mariamme and whatever else belonged to his father. [Arrian. l.2. Curt. l.4. c.1.]
     
  27. After Alexander had graceously received Strabo, Alexander marched to the city Marathon. From there he received letters from Darius who wanted to ransom his women captives. Alexander answered in a letter and sent Thersippus to deliver it. [Justin l.11. c.12. Curt. l.4. c.1. Arrian. l.2. Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 111.] He wanted back the Greek ambassadors that were sent to Darius before the battle at Issos. Alexander understood that they were taken at Damascus. When Darius sent them, Alexander dismissed the two ambassadors of the Thebans, Thessalicus and Dionysodorus. Also he sent away Iphsicrates of Athens who was the son of that famous Iphicrates. Euthycles the Lacedemonian, he committed first to custody and later released him from irons. Later when everything went well for Alexander, he was sent away too. [Arrian. l.2.]
     
  28. Alexander left Maratho and captured the city Biblus which conditionally surrendered to him. The Sidonians who had not long before been so terribly abused by Ochus sent to Alexander and desired to submit to him. They hated the Persians and king Darius. [Arrian. l.2. Curt. l.4. c. 2.] At that time Strabo reigned there. Because this surrender came more from the people than from Strabo, Alexander replaced Strabo by Abdolominus who lived by tending a poor garden there. Alexander gave him not only the rich furniture of Strabo's house but added various other rich gifts from what he had taken from the Persians. The new king controlled all the adjoining territories of Sidon. [Curt. l.4. c.2. Justin. l.11. c.10.] Plutarch in his discourse of the fortune of Alexander, calls this man Alynomus the king of Paphon. Diodorus calls him Ballinomus and says that Alexander made him king of Tyre.
     
  29. All of Syria and Phoenicia except Tyre were under Alexander's control. Alexander and his camp were on the continent. Between him and Tyre was a narrow channel of the sea. The Tyrians had sent a very massive crown of gold to him for a present and congratulated him for his great success. They sent him many provisions from their city. He received their presents as he would from good friends. He used many gracious and friendly words to them expressing his great desire to see their city and to sacrifice to Hercules. They told him that there was an alter in Palaetyrus or Old Tyre in the continent near by and that it would be better to offer sacrifice to Hercules on that one since it was the older of the two altars. When he heard this he was so enraged that he vowed to destroy their city. It happened that at the same time there came certain select men from Carthage to perform a yearly sacrifice to Hercules. The Tyrians were the founders of Carthage and the Carthaginians had honoured them as the father of their city. These men exhorted them to hold out and to endure the siege like men. They assured them of speedy supplies and aid from Carthage for at that time the Carthaginians, were a very strong naval power. [Curt. l.4. c.5,6. Justin. l.11. c.10.]
     
  30. Thus Tyre was resolved for a war and they endured a 7 month siege. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112. Josephus Antiq. l.11. c.8. Curt. l.4. c.15. Plutarch in Alexander.] Their king Azelmious was absent at sea. He left Autophradates, his son behind him in the city. [Arrian. l. 4.] Alexander levelled Palaetyrus or old Tyre to the ground. He sent for all the men in the surrounding country to come and help his men throw the stones and rubbish of the entire city into the channel that ran between the two cities. He made a causeway of half a mile long over to Tyre from the old city according to Diodorus. Curtius, [l. 4. c.5.] agrees with him. Pliny [l. 5. c.19] said it was 700 paces long. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112., Curt. l.4. c.8.]
     
  31. Amyntas the son of Antiochus had with him 4000 Greeks who had fled from the battle of Issos [as I mentioned previously]. Sabaces a Persian and governor of Egypt was killed in the battle of Issos. They set sail from Cyprus to Pelusium and seized the city. Amyntas pretended that he came to take charge of it by the order of Darius to replace Sabaces. From there he went with his army to Memphis. At the news of his coming, the Egyptians came from the towns and the country to help him against the Persians. With their help, he routed the Persians when they attacked him and forced them into the city again. Soon after by the advice of Masases their captain when he saw the Greeks scattered about the country and busy plundering it, Masases sallied forth again. In a surprise attack, he cut Amyntas and all his troops in pieces. [Curt. l.3. c. 22., l.4. c.3.]
     
  32. Some of Darius' captains and their troops who escaped from the battle at Issos along with some Cappadocians and Paphlagonians went to retake Lydia. Antigonus, who was Alexander's commander, routed them in three battles. At the same time, the Macedonian fleet came from Greece and attacked Aristomenes, who was sent by Darius to retake the Hellespont. They sunk or took all the Persian fleet. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112., Curt. l.4. c.4.]
     
  33. While Alexander besieged Tyre, he sent to Jaddua the high priest at Jerusalem and demanded from him supplies and other provisions plus the tribute they formerly paid to Darius. Jaddua replied that he was bound by a former oath of allegiance to Darius and that he could not be freed from that oath as long as Darius lived. Alexander was very angry and swore that as soon as he had taken Tyre, he would march against Jerusalem. [Josephus Antiq. l.11. c.8. s. 3.]
     
  34. At the start of the siege of Tyre, Sanballat the Cuthite, defected from Darius and came with 8000 men. [Newer additions of Josephus say 7000 not 8000. Editor] Alexander graciously received him. Sanballat asked permission to build a temple on his own land and to make his son-in-law, Manasseh the high priest who was the brother to Jaddua the high priest at Jerusalem. When he obtained permission and because he was now growing old, he started the work quickly. He built a temple and made Manasseh the high priest of it. He thought that by this he would bestow great honour to the posterity of his daughter. [Josephus Antiq. l.11. c.8. s. 4.]
     
  35. Alexander purposed to make a broader causeway from the continent for an easier approach to Tyre. After he had built new engines of war, he marched with his targeteers and a squadron of Agrians, to Sidon. There he gathered as many ships as he possibly could for he knew it would be impossible to take Tyre as long as the Tyrians were masters at sea. [Arrian. l. 2.]
     
  36. Meanwhile, when Gerostratus the king of Aradus and Enulus the king of Byblus found that all their cities were already taken by Alexander, they abandoned Antophradates and his fleet and came with their fleets to Alexander. Some ships of the Sidonians also came with them. Now Alexander had a navy of 80 ships. At the same time Rhodes sent a fleet of 10 ships to Alexander. One ship, was called Periplus. 3 more came from Soli and Mallus. 10 came from Lycia. Macedon sent a ship of 50 oars under Captain Proteas, the son of Andronicus. A little time later certain kings of Cyprus sent 120 ships to the port of Sidon. They heard of his victory at Issos and the news that all Phoenicia had yielded to him. Alexander forgave them their previous wrongs they had done to him. For previously they sided with Darius of necessity not by their free choice. [Arian. l.2.] Azelmicus, the king of Tyre, left Antophradates and came to his own city of Tyre while it was thus besieged. He was in it when it was taken later according to Arrian.
     
  37. In Mount Lebanon, Alexander cut timber for his ships. The wild Arabians suddenly attacked the Macedonians while they were busy at their work. They slew 30 of them and carried away almost as many prisoners. Alexander left Perdiccas and Craterus, or as Polyaenus seems to say, Parmenion, to continue the siege of Tyre. He went with a running camp into Arabia. [Curt. l.4. c.8.] Polyaenus confirms that he made an excursion into Arabia. [l. 4. Stratag.] Arrian gives more details. He says that Alexander with certain cavalry troops, light targeteers and his squadron of Agrians went into Arabia as far as to Anti-Lebanon. Plutarch tells us that he marched against the Arabians who dwelt opposite Anti-Lebanon.
     
  38. When he was come to the mountainous country of those parts, he planned to leave his cavalry and march on foot as others did. The body of his army had gone a good distance before him and the night was approaching and the enemy was close. Lysimachus, his childhood instructor was exhausted from the journey and Alexander did not want to leave him in that condition. Alexander encouraged him and helped him along. Before he knew it, he and his group were separated from the rest of his company. He would have to pass that night in the dark in a bitter cold frost and in a place devoid of all relief. Nevertheless, he saw not far off many fires made by the enemies. Since he had a nimble and active body, he ran to the next fire and killed the enemies that sat by it. He brought away a firebrand and kindled a fire for himself and the small group of Macedonians that were with him. This fire became so large that the enemies were terrified and did not move against him. So he and his company lay safely all that night. This story Plutarch tells of him from Charaetes, a Mitylean and one of those who wrote the Deeds of Alexander.
     
  39. When he had taken all that country, partly upon amicable terms and partly by force, he returned to Sidon after only 11 days from the time he left. He found Alexander the son of Polemocrates, had recently arrived with 4000 Greek mercenaries. [Arrian. l.2.]
     
  40. His navy was now outfitted and totalled 190 ships according to Curtius or to 200 according to Diodorus. Alexander sailed from Sidon for Tyre in a very good formation. He was in the right wing, in a Quinquereme, or ship of five decks high. In that squadron were also the kings of Cyprus and the rest of the Phoenicians except for Pintagoras or Pythagoras. He and Craterus commanded the left wing. [Arrian. l.2. Curt. l.4. c.10.]
     
  41. Thirty commissioners arrived from Carthage and brought Tyre word that the Carthaginians were so embroiled with war at home that they could not possibly send help to them at this time. This did not discourage the men of Tyre. However, they sent away their wives and children to Carthage, as being a safer place for them no matter what happened at Tyre. [Curt. l.4. c.11. with Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112. Justin l.11. c.10.]
     
  42. When Apollo had appeared to various men in dreams and signified that he would leave the city, the superstitious men of Tyre took good golden chains and bound his image tightly to the foot of his shrine. His image was sent there from Syracuse according to Curtius or from Gela in Sicily by the Carthaginians as we have noted from Diodorus. [See note on 3599 AM.] They fastened the chain to the altar of Hercules the tutelar god of that city as if he should be able to hold Apollo by his strength from leaving. [Curt. l.4. c.11. Diod Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112. Plutarch in Alexander.]
     
  43. While Alexander besieged Tyre, ambassadors from Darius came to him and offered him 10,000 talents [not as Valer. Max. wrote 1,000,000] to ransom his mother, wife and children and all the territory lying between the Hellespont and the river Halys. Darius would give his daughter in marriage to Alexander. This offer was discussed in a council of his friends. It is reported that Parmenion said that if he were Alexander, he would not refuse those conditions. Whereupon Alexander replied that no more would he if he were Parmenion. Alexander wrote back to Darius that he offered him nothing but what was already his. Therefore he wished him to come in person to ask for his wife back and to accept such conditions as Alexander would give him. [Arrian. l.2. Justin l.11. c.12. Curt. l.4. c.16. Plutarch in his Apostchegmes and in his Alexander Valer. Max. l.6. c.4.]
     
  44. Tyre was taken, when Anicetes, [or Nicetes according to Dionys. Halicarnas. in Dinarchus] was archon in Athens in the month of Hecatombaeon. [Arrian. l.2. p. 49.] In the middle of that month, the 112Olympiad ended. In Plutarch we find that it was on the 30th day of the month Loi according to the Macedonian calendar and the 5th of Hacatombaeon on the Athenian calendar. This was July 24th as I have shown, in the end of chapter 5. of my discourse of the Solar years of the Macedonians and Asians.
     
  45. Justin, [l. 1. c.10.] says it was taken by treason, Polyaenus by a stratagem, [l. 1. stratag.] and Diodorus, Arrian., Curtius say by pure force. When the enemies had got into the city, yet the townsmen maintained the fight until there were 7000 thousand of them cut in pieces. [Diodorus]
     
  46. Arrian states that there were 8000 of the inhabitants killed. Curtius says that after the battle 2000 more were hung up all along the shore. Diodorus states that Alexander hanged 2000 young men all in their prime. Justin says that in remembrance of the old slaughter the inhabitants had made, he had all that were captured, crucified. He put them to a death befitting a slave because the Tyrian slaves had made a conspiracy against their own masters and had murdered all the freemen of that city with their own masters. They set up their own government and killed everyone except Strato an old man and his son. On him and his posterity, they established the kingdom.
     
  47. Concerning Alexander, Justin further adds: "that he spared all the descendants of Strato and restored the kingdom to him and his posterity."
     
  48. [This means perhaps Ballonymus, whom Diodorus confounds with Abdolominus, whom Alexander made king of the Sidonians a short time earlier.] "Alexander left the city to be repopulated by its innocent and harmless inhabitants. When he had abolished that wicked generation of slaves, he hoped to be considered the founder of a new and better people there."
     
  49. By this means it was, that Justin from Trogus, made Alexander the restorer and rebuilder of Tyre. [l. 18. c.3,4.] All other writers made him not its founder but its destroyer. The prophecy of Isaiah concurring with this, (Isaiah 23:1) compared with /APC (1 Maccabees 1:1) For if we believe Curtius, Alexander spared those who fled to the temples and slew everyone else and set fire to their houses. According to Diodorus, he made slaves of all that were not able to bear arms, together with the women and girls. This was over 13,000 even though most had been sent away to Carthage. However, according to Arrian, Alexander spared all that Azelmicus and the commissioners who came from Carthage had brought to the sacrifice of Hercules. He sold all the rest for slaves, to the number of 30,000.
     
  50. Curtius says that the Sidonians which joined in with the rest of Alexander's soldiers did not forget their blood ties between them and the Tyrians. For they believed that they were all brought there by Agenor who was the founder of both cities. The Sidonians got 15,000 on their ships and saved them. Curius [l. 4. c.15.] states: "Tyre quickly recovered and later grew to be a city again."
     
  51. Strabo [l. 16. p. 754.] states: "After this enormous calamity brought on them by Alexander, they quickly overcame their misfortunes by their navigational skills and with their purple dye industry."
     
  52. Justin [l. 18. c.4.] states: "By their parsimony and industry, they quickly recovered strength again."
     
  53. This happened so quickly that in the 18th year from then, they endured another siege from Antigonus who was then lord of all Asia. This siege lasted not 7 months as in the case of Alexander, but a full 15 months. [Diod. Sic. l.19. year 2. Olymp. 116.] They were not now content with their little city which was joined to the continent by Alexander's causeways and other works. They so enlarged their boundaries that in Pliny's time the wall of their city enclosed almost 3 miles. When one included Palaetyrus or Old Tyre with it the whole enclosure came to no less than 19 miles. [Pliny l.5. c.19.]
     
  54. Admetus, who first got onto the wall with 20 targeteers were all slain at the very first encounter with the enemy. In the whole time of the siege, no more than 400 Macedonians were lost. [Arrian. l.2.]
     
  55. Alexander offered sacrifices to Hercules and went in procession with his whole host in full armour to his temple. He held a show also with his ships and caused wrestling and other games to be performed by torch light. There was a certain Tyrian ship consecrated to his honour which he had captured. This he rededicated to himself. [Arrian. l.2.] He took the golden chain from off of Apollos' image and the robes he was attired with. He gave the image a new name, "Alexander's friend". [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112.] Timaeus states that Alexander captured Tyre on the very exactly the same day that the Carthaginians had taken the image of Apollo from Gela in Sicily. The Greeks offered to Apollo a magnificent and solemn sacrifice as if by his power and favour they had captured Tyre. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 93.]
     
  56. As soon as Alexander had taken Tyre, he marched into Judah. [Euseb. Chron. with Pliny, l.12. c.25.] and subdued all that part of Syria which is called Palestina. [Arrian. l.2. p. 50.] He went in person against those places that would not willingly submit to him. [Curt. l.4. c.17.] When he was on his march to Jerusalem, Jaddua the high priest who was terrified by his former threats and now feared his rage, resorted to God by prayers and sacrifices for the common safety of all. God warned him in a dream that he should make a holy day in the city and open wide the city gates. He and the rest of the priests would go forth in their priestly raiment and all the rest of the people would be clothed all in white and accompany him to meet Alexander. When Alexander saw this company coming to him from a distance, he went all alone to the high priest. After he prostrated himself before that God whose name he saw engraven in the golden plate of his mitre he greeted him. When Parmenion asked the reason for his behaviour, he replied that while he was still in Macedon planning the conquest of Asia, there appeared to him a man clothed like this high priest who invited him into Asia and assured him of all success in the conquest of it. The priests went before him as he entered into Jerusalem. He went up to the temple and sacrificed to God in the manner the priests showed him. They had showed him the book of the prophet Daniel in which it was written that a Greek should come and destroy the Persians. (Daniel 8:7,20,21; Daniel 11:13) He did not doubt but he was the one in the prophecy. After this he dismissed the company. [Joseph. l.11. c.8. s. 5.]
     
  57. The next day, he assembled the people and asked them what they wanted from him. They replied they wanted nothing but that they might live according to the laws of their own country and that every 7th year, [in the sabbatical year when there was no harvest] they might be exempt from paying any tribute. He granted all they asked. When they asked further that he would allow the Jews who dwelt in the countries of Babylon and Media to live according to their own rites and laws he answered, that he would grant that request as soon as he had taken those countries too. When he told them that if any of them would follow him in his wars they could use their own rites wherever they came, many enlisted to serve him. When he had settled all matters in Jerusalem, he left and went to the rest of the cities of that country and was joyfully received everywhere. [Joseph. l.11. c.8. s. 6.]
     
  58. One of Alexander's captains, Callas went and recaptured Paphagonia, which defected from Alexander after the battle at Issos. Alexander's captains Antigonus Lyconia and Balacrus captured the city of Miletus after they defeated Darius' captain Idarnes. [Curt. l.4. c.17.]
     
  59. Alexander had given the government of Cilicia to Socrates and wanted Philotas the son of Parmenion, to take care of the country about Tyre. Coelo-Syria was committed to Andronicus by Parmenion. He wanted to follow Alexander in the war. Alexander commanded Hephastion with the fleet, to scour the coast of Phoenicia. He went with his whole army to Gaza [Curt. l.4. c.17.] and besieged the garrison of Persians for two months. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olympiad. 112. Josephus l.11. c.8. s. 6.] [It appears modern editions of Josephus have deleted part of chapter 8. Editor.]
     
  60. According to Josephus, the name of the captain of the garrison at Gaza was Babemeses, or according to Curtius and Arrian, Batis an Eunuch. He was very loyal to his king:. He hired some Arabian mercenaries and made good provision of food and other things. He defended the walls, which were very strong with a small company of men.
     
  61. Alexander received two wounds at this siege. When Batis was taken alive, Alexander had cords or thongs drawn through his ankles and tied him to a chariot. He was dragged around the city. In that siege 10,000 Persians and Arabians died. The Macedonians also lost men. [Curt. l. 4. c.10.] Alexander sold all the women and children there for slaves. He repopulated the place with inhabitants from the neighbouring parts and made that the location of his garrison. [Arrian. l.2. in fin.] Those words of Strabo are not easily understood unless they refer to the former state of that city. He states: (*Strabo, l.16. 7:277) "Gaza which was formerly a glorious city, was destroyed by Alexander and remained desolate."
     
  62. We will say that this was meant of a later Gaza built in another place which Jerome in his book, De Locis Hebraicis: i.e.of places in Judea, affirms in this way: "The question is, how in one of the prophets it is said, And Gaza shall be turned into an everlasting heap? which is thus answered. There are scarcely left to be seen any sign of the old city. The present city of Gaza was built in another place instead of the location of the one which was destroyed."
     
  63. When Alexander had done what he wanted to do to Gaza, he sent Amyntas the son of Andremon, with 3 ships to Macedon to bring him the best of the youth for his army. [Diod. Sic. year 2, Olymp. 112. Curt. l.4. c.19.]
     
3673 AM, 4382 JP, 332 BC
  1. From Gaza, Alexander marched into Egypt as he formerly planned. 7 days after he left Gaza, he came to a place which he named Alexander's Camp. From there he came to the city Pelusium. [Arrian. l.3. in pri. Curt. l.4. c.20.] He did not go back again from Gaza to Jerusalem, as Josephus incorrectly reports.
     
  2. A large number of the Egyptians who were expecting Alexander's arrival, assembled at Pelusium. They were offended by the Persian's pride, avarice, and sacrilege and eagerly welcomed the arrival of the Macedonians. [Curt. l.4. c.20. Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 112.]
     
  3. Alexander left a garrison in Pelusium and ordered his ships to go up the river to Memphis. He marched by land to Heliopolis having the Nile on his right all the way. Wherever he went, all the cities opened their gates to him. He passed the desert of Egypt and came at last to Helsopolis. After crossing the river, he marched toward Memphis. [Arrian. l.3.] The Persians who were there did not hinder his coming when they saw the general defection of the Egyptians from them. When he was not far from Memphis, he was met by Astraces, who commanded the garrison for Darius. He gave Alexander 800 talents and all his master's wardrobe. [Curt. l.4. c. 20.] However Curtius writes the name Astraces instead of Mazaces as he does in chapter 4 of the same book. Likewise, Arrian in the beginning of his third book, states that Mazaces a Persian whom Darius had made governor of Egypt received Alexander into that province and its cities in a very friendly way.
     
  4. Alexander offered his sacrifices at Memphis and there held games of wrestling and other activities and music. The most expert and skilful men of all Greece entered these games to try to win the prizes. He came down the river to the sea. He put his targeteers, archers and Agrians and the his troops aboard the ships of his confederates and they sailed to Canopus. There he picked a choice site for the city of Alexandria which was between the Egyptian Sea and Marea or Lake of Mareotis. He named the future city after himself. [Arrian. l.3.] In that part of it which lies next to the sea and the shipping docks, there was a street called Racotis. [Strabo. l.17. p. 792. Pansanius, in his Eliaca. p. 169. Tacit. Histor. l.4. c.84.]
     
  5. Alexandria was built not in the 7th, [as Eusebius in Chron and from him, Byril. of Alexandria, l.1. cont. Julianuni and Cedrehus state] but in the 5th year of Alexander's reign and in the very first year of the 112th Olympiad as Solinus has it in chapter 32 not as Diodorus in the 2nd year and much less, as Eusebius in the 3rd year.] For the exact time when Alexandria was built we can determine precisely from the interval of time between the taking of Tyre and that great battle at Gaugamela and his deeds in that interim. From this and from the 5th year of Darius and Thoth in 417th year of Nabonasar's account which falls in with the 14th day of September according to our Julian calendar or year 1. of the Olymp. 112th. Ptolemy of Alexandria, deduces the years of Alexander, whom in the Preface of his Procgeiroin Kanomoun [whereof this is one] he, after the fashion of all Alexandrians, calls Ktishn i.e.his founder.
     
  6. Dinocrates was the man who designed and laid out streets of this city [whom Plutarch both "in his life" and also in the 2nd book of the fortune of Alexander, calls Stesicrates and other books, call otherwise.] Dinocrates was that famous architect whose skill and industry the Ephesians used in the rebuilding of their temple of Diana. For the excellency of his workmanship showed in the temple deserves the second place after the original builders of the temple, in the annals of the world. [Strabo, l.14. p. 641. Valer. Max. l.1. c.4. Vitruvins, in the Proaeme of his second book. Pliny l.5. c.10., l.7. c.37. Solin. c.32,40. Ammia. Marcell. l22.]
     
  7. Alexander got them started and wanted them to work quickly. He journeyed to the temple of Jupiter Ammon, [Plutarch in his Alexander, with Arrian. l.3.] from an ambition which he had because he was told that Perseus and Hercules had been there. Callisthenes, in the history which he wrote of Alexander affirms this and is cited by Strabo. [l. 17. p. 814.]
     
  8. Therefore he went as far as Paraesonium along by the seaside. He found some fresh water by the way 200 miles from Alexandria according to Aristobulus. [in Arrian. l.3. p. 53.]
     
  9. He was met about midway by the ambassadors from the Cyrenians. They presented him with a crown and other costly items. Among these were 300 horses that were trained for war and 5 chariots each drawn by 4 horses. These were the best horses that could be found. He accepted these gifts and made a league of friendship with them. [Diod. Sic. Olymp. 112. year 2.]
     
  10. He went from Paraetonium to Mesogabas where the temple of Hammon was through dry countries. He wandered over the plains while the hot wind blew from the south. Callisthenes says that he was saved from death partly by a shower of rain that fell which settled the sand and partly by a flock of crows which led him on the way. [Strabo l.17. p. 814.] He adds further this fable to the story. Often when the men wandered out of the way in the dark, the crows with their cawing would call them back into the right way again. [Strabo. l.17. p. 814. Plut. in his Alex.]
     
  11. Ptolemy the son of Lagus states that there were two dragons which went before the company making a noise and led them into and from the temple again. However Aristobulus, with whom most writers agree, states that there were two crows which still kept on flying before the army and that these were Alexander's guides on the way there. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  12. When he came to a lake of bitter waters, as they called them, he went about 12 miles from there. He passed by the cities called after Hammon's name. After a day's journey from there they came to Jupiter Hammon's grove and temple. [Diod. Sic. Olymp. 112. year 2.]
     
  13. There the priests of the temple were secretly bribed before hand and instructed what to say. As soon as Alexander came to enter within the temple doors, they all came and greeted him by the name of Hammon's son. [Justin l.11. ca. 11.] So we learn by this event that the god although deaf and dumb had the power through the priests to lie as they wished. One who comes to consult the oracle could be told exactly what he wanted to hear. [Oros. l.3. c.16.]
     
  14. Callisthenes states that the priests permitted no one but Alexander to come into the temple in his ordinary dress. All the rest were required to change their clothes and to hear the oracle from the outside. The oracle told Alexander various things by signs and vague language. However, the oracle told Alexander plainly that he was Jupiter's son. [Strabo l.17. p. 814.] Yet Alexander in a letter to his mother Olympias, said that he had received many secret oracles there which he would tell to her alone when he returned. [Plut. in Alex.]
     
  15. At the same letter or in some other letter to his mother, [which I am sure was meant by Tertullian in his book de Pallio] Alexander said that he was told by Leo, a principal priest among the Egyptians, that they who were now gods were formerly men. In worshipping them, the nations preserved the memory of their kings and ancestors. [Aug. de Civit. Dei, l.8. c.5,27. and de Consen. Evangelist. l.1. c.23. Minutius Felix, in Octavio. with Cyprian, in his book de Idosor. vanitate.] In the beginning of his letter that he had written this to his mother, he opened with: "Alexander the king, the son of Jupiter Hammon, sends greetings to his mother Olympias."
     
  16. She very wittily in her answer replied: "Now my good son I pray thee be content and do not accuse me nor lay anything to my charge before Juno. For she will do me some shrewd turn, if you in your letters make me a step-queen to her." [M. Varro, in a book of his, entitled Orestes, vel de Insania: in Aul. Gellius l.13. c.4.]
     
  17. When Alexander had received such an answer, it pleased him well as he by his own confession admits. He returned from there to Egypt by the same way as he went according to Aristobulus. Ptolemy says he went by a shorter way to Memphis. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  18. When he arrived at Memphis, Antipater had sent 400 Greek mercenaries under the command of Menaetas the son of Hegesandrus. About 500 cavalry from Thracia, were led by Asclepiodorus. At Memphis, Alexander sacrificed to Jupiter and made oblations to him with his whole army. They were all in their complete armour. They held games, activities, wrestlings, other events and music. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  19. He ordered the inhabitants of the neighbouring towns and cities to leave their dwellings. He moved them into Alexandria and populated that place with a huge number of inhabitants. [Curt. l.4. c.21. and Justin l.11. c.11.] He also moved a colony of the Jews there whose virtue and good behaviour he much approved of and deemed them worthy of special trust. As a reward for their service in the war he made them free citizens and gave them equal honours and privileges with the Greeks. The group that was there went by the name Alexandrians and also by the name of Macedonians. [Josep. l.2. de. Bello Jud. c.36. p. 815. and l.2. cont. Ap. p. 163. in the Greek and Latin Edition.]
     
  20. He also gave lands to Sanballat's soldiers, whom he ordered to follow him into Egypt into the country to Thebais. He entrusted them with the keeping of that territory in his absence. [Josephus Antiq. l.11. c.8. s. 6.]
     
  21. Alexander had a burning desire to go and visit the inner and more remote parts of Egypt and Ethiopia. His present war with Darius forced him to delay such expeditions. He made Esehilus and Pencestes, the Macedonian governors of Egypt with a 4000 man army. He ordered Polemon to defend the mouths of the Nile River with 30 ships. [Curtius l.4. c21.] Although, Arrian tells us that he made Pencestes the son of Macatetus and Balacrus the son of Amyntas, commanders of the foot soldiers whom he left there. He made Polemon the son of Theramenes, admiral of the fleet to defend the mouths of the Nile River with all the sea lying next to Egypt. For the civilgovernment of the whole country, he committed its care to Doloaspes, a native of Egypt according to Arrian.
     
  22. Curtius further tells us that he left Apollonius to govern Africa that bordered on Egypt and Cleomenes to gather the tribute from both Africa and Egypt. To much the same end, Arrian tells us, that he left Apollonius the son of Charinus to govern Libya which bordered on the west of Egypt. He appointed Cleomenes to take care of Arabia on the east from the city called Urbs Heroum which borders on Arabia Petraea. He was ordered to receive all tribute. He committed the judicial administration to the presidents and justices of the country as it was done before. In the second book of Aristotle's Occonomicks Cleomenes of Alexandria is mentioned as governor of Egypt. He is the same person whom Arrian. [l. 3. of the History of Alexander] called Ecnaucratius. Freinshemius who is very good at finding errors, says that in the one it should be, "of the Nauacritians or Naucratites" and in the other, "commander of Alexandria in Egypt". The result of this is that Cleomenes governor of Alexandria was a native of Naucratis which was an ancient colony made in Egypt by the Milesians. He was in charge of the administration and populating this city. We may partly gather from Aristotle who says that Alexander ordered him that he should populate a city near Pharos. [Alexandria is only a mile by sea from there.] He should redirect all the trade from Canopus to Alexandria. Justin, [l. 13. c.4.] clearly states that Alexander committed the building of Alexandria to Cleomenes. It may be added that Alexander wrote to him 8 years later and ordered him to build two temples to the deceased Hephaestion, one in Alexandria and the other in Pharos. Also all bills of lading and other contracts of merchants should have the name of Hephaestion inscribed on them according to Arrian. [l. 4. Histor.] He adds further that this Cleomenes was a most wicked man and one that did the Egyptians a thousand injustices.
     
  23. When Alexander was gone down the Nile, Hector, a son of Parmenions, who was in the flower of his youth and a great favourite of Alexander desired to catch up to him. He jumped into a little boat and others jumped in also. So much so that the overloaded boat sank and Hector drowned. The king was very grieved at the loss of him and when the body was recovered, he gave it a splendid funeral. [Curt. l.4. c.21.]
     
  24. Shortly after this, Alexander received news that Andromachus was burned alive by the inhabitants of Samaria. He immediately marched away as quickly as he could to exact vengeance of them for it. [Curt. l.4. c.21.]
     
  25. Alexander made bridges over the Nile and every point of it around Memphis at the beginning of spring. He went from there toward Phoenicia. [Arrian. l.3. p. 55.] While he was on his way, those who had murdered Andromachus, were delivered into his hands and executed. He sent Memnon to replace Andromachus. [Curt. l.4. c.21.] When he captured the city of Samaria, he gave it to be inhabited by his Macedonians. [Eusebius in his Chron. and from him Cedrenus derived it.] However, the territory that belonged to it, he gave to the Jews for their loyalty to him. They did not pay him any tribute for it according to Josephus who gets it from Hecaraeus of Abdera. [l. 2. cont. Apion. p. 1063.] The temple in the mount Gerisim was spared. If any at Jerusalem were in trouble for eating forbidden meats, breaching sabbath or such like crime, they immediately defected to the Sichemites and said that they were falsely accused. [Josephus Antiq. l.11. c.8.] Similar quarrels between the Jews and Samaritans did not only happen here but in Egypt at Alexandria because of the different customs and rites used in the two temples. [Josep. l.11. c.1. and l.13. c.6.]
     
  26. When Alexander came to Tyre, he met his fleet which he had sent there ahead of him. He sacrificed a second time to Hercules and held games and exercises of wrestling and music and the like. [Arrian. l.3.] The kings of the Cyprus had the duty of providing suitable actors for them. Nicocreon, king of Salamis, sent Theslalus, a man very much favoured by Alexander. Pasicrates king of Solos sent Athenodorus, who took the prize from all by the majority decision. [Plut. in Alex.] These kings of Cyprus had long before defected from Darius to Alexander and sent him ships when he besieged Tyre. From that time on, he always honoured them as they deserved. [Curt. l.4. c.21.] Concerning Nicocreon it is said that Anaxarchus of Abdera the philosopher said to Alexander as he sat at supper [according to Laertius , in his Life.] that there was also a certain Persian governor had been served there. For this saying of his, Alexander later had him put to a most miserable death. [??]
     
  27. Alexander made Caeranus of Berthaea treasurer of Phoenicia to gather his tribute there. In Asia, he had Philoxenus do the same in the regions beyond the mountain of Taurus. He put Harpalus into their former job of being in charge of the money which was in his own treasury. He sent Menander, one of his confederates, into Lydia to be the governor. He put Clearchus into Menander's former job of overseeing the foreigners. He replaced Arimna by Asclepiodorus, the son of Eunicus to be governor of Syria. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  28. When these tasks were done, Alexander offered at Hercules' shrine a great vessel of gold with thirty dishes in it. Now he was anxious to get after Darius, so he marched forward toward the Euphrates River. [Curt. l.4. c.21.]
     
  29. When news came to Darius that wherever he went, Alexander would follow him, he ordered all countries no matter how far they were away, to come to him at Babylon. His army was now grown to about half the size it was at Issos in Cilicia. Many lacked weapons, which were provided for them. [Curt. l.4. c.22.] He is said to have 45,000 cavalry and 200,000 foot soldiers. At Issos, his forces in both kinds far exceeded these in number. It is certain that the number found in Justin, [l. 11. c.12. and in Orosius, l.3. c.17.] is short of what it really was, 400,000 or 404,000 foot soldiers and 100,000 cavalry. Plutarch [in Alex.] says they were 10,000,000 and in his Apophthegmes, 100,000,000. [which is incorrectly printed] It should be 1,000,000. With this Diodorus agrees somewhat. He says there were 800,000 foot soldiers and 200,000 calvary. Arrian attributes to the foot soldiers only as much as Plutarch does to the sum of both of cavalry and the foot soldiers. That is a 1,000,000 and adding 40,000 cavalry to that number. Though some instead of 40 thousand, put there 400,000 cavalry so that the number of cavalry might be some what more proportional to the number of the foot soldiers. Also so that the number of cavalry might not here seem so far less of what it was at Issos. However, Curtius, [l. 4. c.22.] says it was far in excess of it. In addition he had 200 iron chariots and 15 elephants which the Indians brought him. On the other side, Alexander's army had not more than 7000 cavalry and 40,000 foot soldiers in it. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  30. Darius moved with this vast army from Babylon to Nineveh. He had the Tigris River on his left hand and Euphrates on his right. His army filled all that huge plain of Mesopotamia. [Diod. Sic. year 2, Olymp. 112. Curt. l.4. c.22.] When they had crossed the Tigris River, he heard that the enemy was not for off. He sent Satropaces, general of his cavalry with 1000 choice men to hinder the approach of the enemy. He ordered him to burn and lay waste all the lands through which Alexander was to pass. Darius thought want of supplies might defeat Alexander since he had nothing else but the spoil of the country for supplies. Darius marched to Arabela and left his baggage there. He marched forward as far as the Lycus River where he made a bridge. When he and his army had crossed over it in 5 days, they marched 10 miles to the Bumelus River. [Curt. l.4. c.22.] Arrian says that he pitched his camp at Gaugamela by the Bumelus River, for so he calls the place, [l. 6. p. 131.] not as in [l. 3. c.57.] Bumadus. It was a level field for if there were any hilly or uneven ground there, Darius ordered it to be made level. This would allow his cavalry to a freer range to attack. Also the whole area would be more open to his view. [Arrian. l.3. Curt. l.4. c.22.]
     
  31. Alexander advanced to Thapsacus, a large city in Syria, in the month Hecatombeon, when Aristophanes was archon at Athens. That is in year 2 of the 112th Olympiad in the very beginning of that year. Here the Euphrates River had a ford where Alexander found 2 bridges already made. They were not completely finished nor quite reached to the other bank. Mazaeus was sent by Darius to secure that crossing. As soon as Mazaeus heard that Alexander was coming, he fled with all his army. When he was gone, Alexander quickly completed the bridges to the other side and his army crossed over and then marched toward Babylon. They left the Euphrates River and the mountains of Armenia on their left hand. They did not take the shortest route there. The longer route was more suitable for provisions for his army and was cooler and more comfortable for the march. On the way, he intercepted some scouts from Darius. They informed him that Darius with all his army was on the bank of the Tigris River to prevent him from crossing there. His forces were now far more numerous than when he fought with Alexander in Cilicia. When Alexander went there, he did not find Darius or anyone else. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  32. Therefore, Alexander crossed the Tigris River. Although there was no one there to hinder him, it was difficult and dangerous to cross. The river ran quite swiftly there. However, he crossed safely and lost nothing except a small quantity of his baggage. [Arian. l.3. Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 112. Curt. l.4. c.23.] From Thaphacus where they crossed over the Euphrates to the place where he crossed the Tigris, Eratosthenes, calculates to be 1400 stadia or 350 miles. [Strabo, l.2. p. 79. and l.16. p. 746.]
     
  33. Alexander broke camp from the bank of Tigris and led his army through the country of Assyria. On his left hand were the mountains of Sogdiana and on the right, the Tigris River. The 4th day after crossing the Tigris, Mazaeus attacked him with 1000 cavalry. Alexander sent Aristo, who commanded the cavalry of Paeonia to counter the attack. Aristo singled out Satropaces, the commander of that troop and ran a spear through his throat. Although wounded, he fled away and Aristo chased him through the middle of the enemies' troops. He knocked him off his horse and decapitated him. Aristo brought his head and threw it down at Alexander's feet. He said: "Sir, in our country, such a present used to be rewarded with a cup of gold."
     
  34. Alexander smiled and replied: "Yea, with an empty one, but I will give thee one full of wine." [Arrian. l.3. Curt. l.4. c.23. Plutarch in Alexander.]
     
  35. Alexander camped there 2 days and ordered to move the next day. That night there was an eclipse of the moon in the first watch of the night. At first the moon was dimmed. Soon after the entire face of it turned a blood like colour. The whole army, considering the upcoming battle, were first troubled and later terrified at this sight. [Curt. l.4. c.23,24.] Pliny correctly noted that: "The moon was eclipsed at Arbela, in the 2nd hour of the night, and was then seen rising in Sicily," [Pliny, l.2. c.70.]
     
  36. Ptolemy in his Geography, [l. 1. c.4.] is incorrect where he states that: "The moon eclipsed in the 5th hour of the night and was seen at Carthage at the 2nd hour of the night."
     
  37. Plutarch [in Alexan.] correctly states that the eclipse happened in the month Boedromion, about the beginning of the Great Mysteries at Athens. That is in the full moon at the very middle of that month. At this time of the month the Great Mysteries started and were celebrated for a few days after this. The astronomical account shows that the eclipse happened on the 20th day of our September.
     
  38. To encourage his soldiers who were distressed at this sight, he consulted with the Egyptian soothsayers he had with him. Their answer was that the sun represented Greece and the moon, Persia. Therefore as often as the moon was eclipsed, it portended the ruin to those nations which she represented. [Curt., l.4. c.24.] Alexander presently offered sacrifices to the sun, moon and the earth because all three must be in correct position for an eclipse of the moon. Aristander, who was Alexander's soothsayer, declared publicly that the eclipse portended all good and happy success to Alexander and the Macedonians. Therefore, the battle should be fought in that very month and that the sacrifices that were offered did predict a victory for Alexander. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  39. When Alexander knew the soldiers were now very confident of victory, he ordered them to march on the second watch of the next night. They had the Tigris on the right hand and the Gordiaean mountains on the left. The next morning, Alexander with a small troop attacked 1000 Persian scouts. Some they slew and the rest he took prisoners. He then sent some of his own company on to discover what was ahead. He also wanted them to put out the fires in the towns and villages that the inhabitants had set on fire. When they fled from the enemy, they set fire to the barns and stacks of grain. Although the tops were burned, the fire had not consumed the pile. Hence the Macedonians saved a large quantity of food for themselves. Mazeus, who before had burned what he pleased, now fled before the rapidly approaching enemies leaving much untouched. [Curt. l.4. c.24.]
     
  40. Alexander knew that Darius was not more than 38 miles away. Since he had plenty of provisions for his troops, he stayed there for 4 days. [Curt. l.4. c.24.]
     
3674 AM, 4383 JP, 331 BC
  1. During this time Alexander intercepted certain letters sent from Darius in which he tried to incite the Greeks to murder or otherwise to betray Alexander. [Curt. l.4. c.25.]
     
  2. Statira the wife of Darius was weary of this long trip and vexed in her mind, aborted the child she was carrying and died. Alexander was deeply grieved by this and prepared a very elaborate and costly funeral for her. [Curt. l.4. c.25. Justin, l.11. c.12. Plutarch in Alex. and l. 2. de fortu. Alex.]
     
  3. While others were busy with the funeral, Tirus or Tyriotes an eunuch, stole away and carried the news of her death to Darius. At first he was infinitely perplexed and troubled at it. However, when he understood Alexander's respect he always had for her and his chaste behaviour towards her, he lifted up his hands to heaven and prayed to the gods. He asked that if it were decreed and there was no remedy left for him, he wished that none might sit on the throne of Cyrus but so just an enemy, so merciful a conqueror, as Alexander. [Curt. l.4. c.25. Plutarch in Alex.]
     
  4. Darius was so overcome with Alexander's great clemency and chastity toward his wife that he again tried to make peace with Alexander. He sent 10 of his most principal men to offer Alexander new conditions. He sent 30,000 talents for the ransom of his mother and two daughters. He also offered Alexander his other daughter Septina or Statipna or Sartina or Statyra [various editions of Curtius use all these variations] for a wife. [Curt. l.4. c.16.] Whatever lay between the Hellespont and the Euphrates he would give as a dowry. Alexander replied that had always found the money of Darius soliciting sometimes his soldiers to revolt from him or sometimes his nearest friends to murder him. Therefore he was resolved to pursue him to the death, not any longer as a noble enemy but as a malefactor and a poisoning murderer. Whatever Darius had already lost or yet remained in his hands was the reward of war. Further, war would set the bounds between their two kingdoms and each would have what tomorrow's fortune would give. [Curt. l.4. c.26. Justin l.11. c.12. Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 112.]
     
  5. The ambassadors returned and told Darius that he must fight. Therefore, he presently sent Mazaeus ahead of him with 3000 cavalry to hold the passes where the enemy was to come. With the rest, he marched in good battle array 1.25 miles and there made a stand. He expected the enemy to attack him there. Alexander left all his luggage within his camp and set a reasonable guard to keep it. He advanced to meet the enemy. [Curt. l.4. c.26,27.]
     
  6. At that very instant, a sudden panic gripped his army. The sky [for it was the summer season] seemed to sparkle and shine out like fire. They imagined that they saw flames of fire issuing from Darius' camp. By sound of trumpet, Alexander signified to them that all was well. He ordered the Antesignary [i.e. those that stood next to the standard] in every company to put down their weapons at their feet. They should pass the word to those that followed to do likewise. When this was done, Alexander showed them there was no cause of fear and that the enemy was yet far off. Finally they recovered their courage and took up their weapons again. For more safety, Alexander decided to make his stand and to fortify his camp. [Curt. l.4. c.28. Polya. Stratag. l.4.]
     
  7. Alexander drew out all his forces by night and marched about the second watch and planned to fight as soon as it was day. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  8. Mazeus had taken up his stand with a choice company of cavalry on the rise of a hill to better view the enemy. The next day he left the place and returned to Darius. No sooner was he gone then the Macedonians captured it. They wanted the advantage of high ground and also a good vantage point to view the enemy forces in the plain. [Curt. l.4. c.29.]
     
  9. Alexander commanded his mercenaries from Paeonia to march in front. He drew his phalanx of Macedonians into two wings, both flanked with cavalry. [Curt. l.4. c.29.] The camps were about 7.5 miles apart. The army of Alexander came to some hills from where they might view the enemy. When he consulted his captains whether the main battle should be fought closer to the enemy or they should make a stand right there until he had better viewed the ground where they were to fight. Most were favoured the former but Parmenion favoured the latter which Alexander agreed with. [Arrian. l.3.] Therefore they resolved to camp on one of those hills. He immediately ordered the troops to build a camp there. This was quickly done. He went into his own pavilion and from there viewed the army of the enemy beneath him in the plain. [Curt. l.4. c.29.]
     
  10. Meanwhile the horse boys and other rag tag that followed the camp started fighting among themselves for fun. They called the captain of the one side Alexander and the captain of the other, Darius. When Alexander heard this, he had the rest stop fighting and had the two captains fight between themselves. Alexander helped captain Alexander on with his own armour and Philotas gave captain Darius' armour. All the army watched while these two fought. They thought it foreshadowed the outcome of the battle. It happened that he who played Alexander defeated the one who played Darius. He was given a reward, 10 townships and the honour of wearing a Persian garment that was given to him. [Eratosthenes, in Plut. in his Alexan.]
     
  11. Alexander's friends now came to him and complained that the soldiers were planning among themselves in their tents to take all the spoil for themselves and to put nothing into his treasury. At this Alexander smiled and said: "This is very good news, my friends that you bring me for I see by this they mean to fight and not to flee."
     
  12. Many of the common soldiers came to him to encourage him and not be afraid of the number of his enemies. They would not be able to endure the very first noise or shout of them. In this place does Ndassf does not signify, "the smell of them", or "of their arm-pits", as Xylander translates it [Plut. in his Apophthemes.]
     
  13. The 11th night after the eclipse of the moon, the two armies lay within sight of each other. Darius kept his men in their arms all night and reviewed them all by torch light. So that all the plain lying between the mountain Niphat and the Goriaeans hills shone with torches. While his army was sleeping, Alexander was up with his soothsayer Aristander before his pavilion engaged in certain arcane and secret rites and ceremonies and offered sacrifice to Apollo. [Plut. in Alexan.] Curtius states: "Aristander in a white robe, carrying bunches of vervain in his hand and his head covered, mumbled certain prayers which the king was to say after him to propitiate Jupiter, Minerva, and Victoria."
     
  14. Parmenion and his other friends advised him to attack Darius in the dead of night and thereby conceal from his soldiers the terror of the fight since he was so heavily out numbered. He replied that he did not come there to steal a victory. [Plut. Curt. Arrian.] On the contrary, Darius feared least he be attacked in the night. He knew his camp was no better fortified than it should be. Therefore he kept his men up all night in arms. Lack of sleep was the main reason his men lost the battle the next day. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  15. Alexander was troubled in his mind with what might happen the next day and did not sleep at all that night until toward the morning. Then he fell into so deep a sleep that when it was fully day they could not wake him. When his friends asked him what made him sleep so soundly, he answered thus. It was Darius, who by gathering all his forces into one place, had eased him of thinking how to follow him into various other countries. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. (112). Justin. l.11. c.13. Curt. l.4. c.30,31. Plut. in Alexan.]
     
  16. Justin says, [l. 11. c.14.] this battle was fought by Alexander, in the 5th year of his reign in the very end of it and in the beginning of the 6th. Although Jerome commenting on (Daniel 11) disagrees and states that he overcame and slew Darius in the 7th year of his reign. Arrian says this battle was fought when Aristophanes was archon at Athens in the month Pyanephion. The prophecy of Aristander was fulfilled when he said that in that very month when the moon was eclipsed, Alexander should fight and defeat Darius. [Arrian. l.3. p. 63.] Both Arrian and Diodorus state that the battle was fought in the year when Aristophanes was archon at Athens. Dionysius Halycarnass places the battle in the following year when Aristophontes was archon at Athens by simple mistake in the name in his Epistle to Ammaeus]. Aristander was correct when he foretold that Alexander should gain that great victory over Darius in that very month. However Arrian, mistakes one month for another and says that it was in the month Pyanepsion. However the astronomical calculations show that eclipse was in the month Boedromion. On the 11th day after the eclipse Alexander had that battle. [as Plutarch affirms in Alexander] In his Camillus Plutarch says, that he got that victory on the 5th day of the last quarter of Boedromion which is the 25th day of Boedromion. This month had 31 days and corresponds to October 1.
     
  17. Ptolemy Lagus and Aristobulus who were both in the battle testify that this battle was fought at Gaugmela near the Beumelus River. Strabo, [l. 16. p. 737.], Plutarch [in Alex. in some copies, as also in Zonaras, is written as Gausamela], Arrian. [l. 6. p. 161.] and Ammina. Maycellinus, [l. 23.] agree with this. Gaugamela was only a small country village. The sound of the name is harsh on the ear. According to Strabo and Plutarch, it means "the house of a camel", or rather, "the body of a camel' for so that word armg
     
  18. in an equal distance from each point, was located Arbela and the hill Nicatorium [called by Alexander after this victory near it]. Strabo in the beginning of his 16th book shows this. Hence it appears that Arbela, in Ptolemy's 5th table or Map of Asia, should be located where Gaugamela is. Both places are located in the same place according to him. These cities were not on this side but on the further side of the Lycus River. This disagrees with Strabo, Eratosthenes' report, [as written by Strabo, l.2. p. 79.], Curtius and Arrian. When all of these are diligently compared together, we may gather, that Gaugamela and Arbela were not 60 to 75 miles from each other [as some have reported and as Arrian notes l.3. p. 57,63. & l.6. p. 30.] but a little more than 10 miles apart.
     
  19. Aristobulus reports that when the fight was over there was found a description of Darius' battle plans as we find in [Arrian. l.3. p. 52.] Curtius, [l. 4. c.27,32.] details the battle plans for both armies.
     
  20. Darius left his chariots and threw away his weapons and mounted his mare that just had a new foal. He fled as fast as she could carry him [Plut. in Alex.] just as he did at the battle at Issos, as I showed before from Elian. He tells us in the same place that for this very purpose Darius always had mares that had recently foaled with him in the battle field. So with very few in his company, he came to the Lycus River. When he crossed it some advised him to destroy the bridge after him to hinder the pursuit of the enemy. When he considered how many there were behind him who were yet to cross, he replied that he had rather leave a way for a pursuing enemy than take one from a fleeing friend. [Curt. l.4. c.36,37. Justin. l.11. c.14.] In Justin's work we find "Cydnus" instead of "Lycus" printed. In the note on 3671 AM, we showed that the Cydnus River ran through the middle of the city Tarsus in Cilicia. From there Orosius who followed Justin very closely made the mistake of saying that this last great battle between Alexander and Darius was fought at Tarsus. [l. 3. c.17.]
     
  21. When Mazeus pressed hard on the squadron of the Macedonians, Parmenion sent to Alexander who had chased the enemy as far as the Lycus River. He wanted Alexander to come and help them. However, when Mazeus heard that Darius had left the battle, he fled also. He did not go the shortest way to Babylon but went around over the Tigris River. This was a longer but safer route. He brought what was left of his army safely to Babylon. [Curt. l.4. c.37.]
     
  22. About midnight, Darius came to Arbela. Many of his nobles and other soldiers resorted there too. He called them together and said that his purpose was to leave all for the present to Alexander. He would flee to the utmost borders of his kingdom and there begin the war afresh on Alexander. [Curt. l.5. c.1.] Presently he went on horseback and fled over the mountains of Armenia into Media. With him were a few of his kindred and his guard. The guard was called Melophori, i.e.apple bearers because they each bore a golden apple on the point of his spear. Later, 2000 mercenaries under the command of Paron of Phocaea in Ionia and Glaucus of Aloe joined him. [Arran. l.3.]
     
  23. When Alexander was returning from the Lycus River, he had his fiercest battle yet with the Parthian, Indian and some elite Persian cavalry. In the encounter, he lost 60 men plus his captains Hephaestion, Caenus, and Menidas. Alexander was severely wounded but recovered. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  24. In the main battle, Alexander lost at most 100 foot soldiers but 1000 cavalry of which half were his confederates. On the other side, 300,000 were slain and a much larger number taken prisoner. He captured all the elephants and as many of the chariots that were not broken in the battle. [Arrian. l.3.] However Diodorus states that 90,000 Persian's cavalry and foot soldiers died. On the Macedonian side, 500 were missing and a large number were wounded. Curtius, [l. (4). c.ult.] says that 40,000 Persians and less than 300 Macedonians died. The total killed in the three battles, this, Issos and at Granicum, Orosius [l. 3. c17.] over the last 3 years plus 3 or four months is given as follows. "In such a multitude of calamities, it is a thing incredible, that in three battles fought within three years time there should be slain 500,000 cavalry and foot soldiers. These were from a kingdom and those nations from which a few years earlier had slain 900,000 men In addition to those 3 battles in those three years, a number of cities in Asia had been destroyed with their inhabitants. All Syria was laid waste. Tyre was destroyed and all Cilicia depopulated. Cappadocia was subdued and Egypt and Rhodes sold into slavery. Many provinces bordering on the mount Taurus were brought into subjection. Mount Taurus was forced to receive the yoke which it had so long striven to avoid."
     
  25. When Alexander had rested his cavalry that were with him, he set out at midnight toward Arbela. He understood that Darius had stored there all his money and royal provisions which Alexander purposed to capture with a surprise attack. The next day he came to Arbela. He did not find Darius but all his treasure, his shield and his bow. [Arrian. l.3.] Diodorus says that he found there 3000 talents, Curtius said 4000. All the wealth of the whole army had been stored in that place. [l. 5. c.2.]
     
  26. With this battle the empire of Persia seemed to have been ended. Alexander was proclaimed king of Asia and thereupon offered magnificent sacrifices to his gods and distributed among his captains houses, territories and provinces at his pleasure. [Plut. in Alexander.]
     
  27. Because he knew the air would be infected with the stench of the dead carcases, he hurried to get away from Arbela. [Diod. Sic. in the beginning of his second part, l.17. Curt. l.5. c.2.] After 4 days he came to a city called Mennis where there is a fountain which issued sulphur or liquid brimstone. [Curt. l.5. c.2.]
     
  28. As Alexander came toward Babylon, Mazeus, who had fled there from the battle, humbly met him with his children that were of age. He surrendered himself and them with the city of Babylon, into his hands. Alexander received him and his children very graciously. Babophanes, who had the keeping of the citadel there with the king's treasure did not want to be out done by Mazaeus. He covered all the way where Alexander was to pass with flowers and garlands. On each side of the path he had silver altars, burning frankincense and all sorts of sweet odours. Alexander was guarded with armed men. He commanded all the men of Babylon that came to meet him follow behind him after the last of his foot soldiers. Alexander in his chariot made his entrance into the city and went up to the king's palace. The next day he viewed the king's treasure. [Curt. l.5. c.3. Justin l.11. c.14.] He stayed 34 days and refreshed and rewarded his soldiers [According to the better copies have it and Orosius agrees with this as does Curtius. [l. (5). c.5.] His army spent the same number of days there in relaxation. Diod. Sic. [year 2, Olymp. (112).] confirms that they stayed there longer than 30 days. They like the spaciousness of the city and the entertainment which they were given by the residents.
     
  29. Among those who entertained Alexander in this city were the Chaldeans. They talked with him concerning the course and motions of the stars and sudden change of events. [Curt. l. 5. c.3.] The Chaldeans gave Callisthenes one of Alexander's followers, the observations of the heavenly bodies for 1903 years of time. He gave them to Aristotle in Greece. This I mentioned in note on 1771 AM <49>. This information came from Porphyrie.
     
  30. Alexander consulted with the Chaldeans. He followed their advice and sacrificed to Belus. He did whatever they asked of him concerning temple repairs. Alexander commanded the Babylonians to repair the temples which Xerxes had previously demolished and in particular, the temple of Belus, that was located in the heart of the city. He ordered that all the rubbish be immediately carried out of the temple. [Arrian. l.3. p. 63. & l.7. p. 159.] This work was so great that it took 10,000 men two months to clear the place where the temple stood. [Strabo. l.16. p. (738).] When Alexander commanded all his army to help to carry away the rubbish, only the Jews refused to help in that work. Hecataeus of Abdera, who was then with Alexander, stated that they endured many a blow and many other grievous inconveniences. When Alexander heard their reasons for refusing, he exempted them from the task. [Josephus cont. Apion. l.1. p. 1049.]
     
  31. Alexander marvelled most at that hole in the earth in Ecbatana or rather in Batana, as other copies have it. [Batana, which is a city placed by Stephanus Byzantinus near the Euphrates and not Ecbatana, the city of Media is meant here.] Flames of fire continually shot forth as from a fountain and an active spring of Naphta shot out fire not far from that hole. Plutarch, [in his life] describes these effects in more detail.
     
  32. Alexander, ordered Bagophanes, who had surrendered the citadel of Babylon, to follow him. He committed the keeping of the citadel to Agathon, from the town of Pydna along with 700 Macedonians and 300 mercenaries. He made Mazaeus, who surrendered the city to him, governor of all the province of Babylon. He appointed Apollodorus from Amphipolis and Menetes from Pella in Macedonia, to be commanders of that militia in Babylon and all the other countries west as far as Cilicia. For that purpose he left with them, 2000 soldiers with 1000 talents of silver to hire mercenaries. He appointed Asclepiodortus, the son of Philotas, to collect his tribute in those parts. He sent Mithrines, who surrendered the city Sardis to him, to be governor in Armenia. [Diodor. Arria. Curtius.]
     
  33. From the money which he found in Babylon, he gave to every Macedonian cavalry (Prayer of Manasseh 6) pounds, to every foreign cavalry (Prayer of Manasseh 5) pounds, to every Macedonian foot soldier, 2 pounds and to every foreign foot soldier 2 month's pay. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 112.] An Attic ounce or pound contained 100 drachmas. Curtius confounded this with the Roman denarius and said that he gave to every Macedonian cavalry (Prayer of Manasseh 600) denarii and to every foreign cavalry (Prayer of Manasseh 500) and to every foot soldier 200. [Curt. l.5. c.6.]
     
  34. Alexander was on his way from Babylon when Amyntas the son of Andromenes, came to him with a number of men sent to him by Antipater the governor of Macedon. From Macedon came 500 cavalry and 6000 foot soldiers, from Thrace, 600 cavalry and 3500 foot soldiers, from Peloponesus, 4000 foot soldiers and 380 cavalry. This is according to Curtius but Diodorus has a little less than 1000 cavalry. With them went the sons of 50 of the principal nobles of Macedon to be Alexander's body guards. [Diod. & Curt.]
     
  35. When Alexander had received these troops, he continued on his journey. After marching 6 days, he came into a country called Sitacine, but Curtius calls it Satrapene. This country abounded with provisions and he stayed there many days. He held contests to test every man's prowess and dexterity in the feats of chivalry. He gave the 8 best men command of 1000 troops. He then divided his whole army into so many brigades. Before this, they were organised into companies of 500 and their captains were not chosen by contests of skills. Before, the cavalry of every nation served together apart from other nations. Now he made no difference based on nationality. He appointed as commanders, those who were most skilled in the war no matter what country they were from. He reformed the martial discipline of his army in many points. As a result, all the troops liked him better than ever and were more ready to serve him. He continued his journey. [Diod. & Curt. l.5. c.6.]
     
  36. As Alexander approached Susa, he was met by the son of the governor of Susa, with letters from Philoxenus. Alexander had sent him away immediately after the battle at Arbela to Susa. The letters said that the inhabitants of Susa had surrendered their city and all the treasure there was kept safely for him. [Arrian. l.3.] The son of Abulites, the governor of the city, told him the same message. He did this either voluntarily or according to some, by the orders of Darius so Alexander would be detained there longer. This would give Darius more time to raise a new army against Alexander. [Diod. and Curt. l.5. c.7.]
     
  37. The king entertained the young man with much grace and favour. He used him for his guide to the Idaspes or Choaspes River. This river is a narrow and violent stream. Abulites met Alexander and gave him costly gifts which included some dromedaries which are camels that run very fast and 12 elephants which Darius had sent for from India. [Curt. l.5. c.7.]
     
  38. The day after he left Babylon, he came to Susa. After he entered the city, he received 50,000 talents of silver with all of the king's wardrobe and other belongings. [Arrian. l.3.] Curtius states he received much more silver in bars. Diodorus calculates upward to 400,000 talents of silver and gold in bars and ingots and 9000 talents minted into darics. Plutarch mentions 40,000 talents in coins and 5000 talents worth of Hermionic scarlet. This had been stored there 190 years earlier and looked as fresh as it did the first day it was put there.
     
  39. Alexander offered sacrifice according to the Macedonian manner by torch light and held gymnastic sports and exercises. [Arrian.] He sat down on the royal throne of Persia which was far higher than for the size of his body to sit on. His feet could not reach to the step by which he mounted the throne. One of the pages took the table that Darius used to eat his meals from and put it under him for a footstool. When Philotas saw this, he persuaded Alexander to take it as a sign of good luck. [Diod. & Curt. l.5. c.7.]
     
  40. The robes and other purple clothes which were sent to Alexander from Macedon with those which made them, he sent to Darius' mother Sysigambes, whom he highly respected and honoured as a son should do to his mother. With the gift he added the message that if she liked those clothes, she would do well to let her young nieces learn to make them. When he knew that she was quite troubled, he personally went to her and excused himself for his ignorance of the Persian manners and comforted her again. [Curt. l.5. c.8.] So he left her and Darius' two young daughters and his little son Ochus at Susa. He left some to instruct her and them in the Macedonian language. [Diod.]
     
  41. He continued on to the farthest borders of Persia and left Archelaus with a garrison of 3000 soldiers to keep the city. He appointed Xenophilus to hold the citadel and Callicrates to gather his tributes. He committed the civilgovernment of the province of Susa to Abulites, who had surrendered the city to him. [Curt. l.5. c.8.] He sent back Menetes to the sea coast and made him governor of Phoenicia, Syria and Cilicia. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  42. After a 4 day march, Alexander came to the Pasitigris River and crossed it with 9000 foot soldiers and 3 or 4000 cavalry. He went into the country of the Uxians which bordered on the province of Susa. It extended into the main part of Persia between which there is a narrow pass. Madates, the governor of this country, had married Sysigambes' niece.
     
  43. Alexander gave Tauron 1500 mercenaries and 1000 Agrians and ordered him to march as soon as it was dark. He was to follow his guides in the secret passes that they would show him. He was to advance as far as to the city which Alexander planned to besiege. Alexander took with him the captains of his troops, his targeteers and some 8000 other soldiers. They marched in the third watch of the same night and by day break came to those passes, which opened into the Uxian's country. When he had gone through them, he came and besieged the city. When the Uxians saw they were besieged on all sides, they sent from the citadel there 30 men to ask for his pardon but he would not give it. Finally, when he received letters from Sysiagambes, he did not only pardon her kinsman, Madates but set at liberty all he had taken prisoner who had voluntarily submitted to him. He left the city untouched and all their land free from tribute. [Curt. l.5. c.9.] Arrian reports from Ptolemy Lagus, that through Sysigambes' request, he left them their lands to till but levied a yearly tribute on them of 100 horses, 500 beasts of burden and 3000 sheep. This whole account is related differently by Diodorus, Curtius and Arrian.
     
  44. When Alexander had subdued the country of the Uxians, he added it to the province of Susa. He divided all his forces between himself and Parmenion. He ordered that the luggage, the Thessalian cavalry, confederates, foreign mercenaries and the heavily armed soldiers to go with Parmenion through the plain country. He took the Macedonian foot soldiers and the cavalry of his confederates. He sent before them the light cavalry with the squadron of Agrians and archers to reconnoitre. They went by the way of the mountains which run all along in a ridge as far as Persia. [Curt. l.5. c.10. Arrian. l.3.]
     
  45. On the fifth day after this, [according to Diodorus and Curtius] he came to the passes of Persia, called the Susian Pyles, or Gates. Diodorus states that Ariobarzanes, the Persian, held these with 25,000 foot soldiers and 300 cavalry. Arranius states that he had about 4000 foot soldiers and 700 cavalry. He repulsed Alexander's attack and made him retreat about 4 miles from that pass. At last he captured a shepherd who was born of a Persian mother but begotten by a father born in Lycia. He guided Alexander through narrow and craggy bypaths and over certain snowy mountains. Alexander routed the enemy and took control of the pass. Ariobarzanes with some 40 cavalry and 5000 foot soldiers broke through the army of the Macedonians. There was a great slaughter on both sides. Ariobarzanes hurried to get into Persepolis which was the capital city of that kingdom. He was unable to reach it and the enemy was at his very heels. Ariobarzanes attacked them and in the second battle his forces were cut to pieces by Alexander. This is more fully related in [Diodor. Curtius, Arria. Plutarch, and Polyanus, l.4. Stratag.]
     
  46. As Alexander was marching toward Persepolis, he received letters from Tiridates, Darius' treasurer in that place. He told Alexander that when the inhabitants of Persepolis heard of his coming, they were ready to take the king's treasure and share it among themselves. He desired Alexander to come quickly to prevent this. Alexander left his foot soldiers to come later and travelled all night with his cavalry. Although they were already tired with so long a journey, they came by day break to the Araxes River. After they made a bridge, they crossed over it with his army. [Diodor. and Curt. l.5. c.11.]
     
  47. When he came within a quarter mile of the city, about some 800 [for so Diodorus, Justinus and Suidas, in the word Alexander, report, not 4000 as Curtius] poor Greek slaves led by Euctemon of Cuma in Eolia, came out as humble suppliants to meet him. These were the ones whom the former kings of Persia had taken in the wars and made slaves. They were cruelly treated. Some had their feet, hands, ears or noses cut off. They were all branded in the face with letters or other marks. These besought him that as he had done in Greece so he would now promise to deliver them from the slavery of the Persian cruelty. Later, when he offered to send an escort with them into Greece, they desired of him rather to give them lands in that place. They feared that they would not prove a comfort but an abomination to their friends and kinsfolks at home. Alexander approved their request and gave each of them 3000 drachmas. [Curtius writes "denarios" instead of "drachmas"] He gave every man and women 5 suits of clothes, 2 yoke of oxen, 500 sheep and 50 bushels of wheat. They could now go to till and sow the land which Alexander had given them. Moreover, he exempted their land from paying any tribute and left some to protect them and to see that no man would harm them. [Diod. & Curtius, l.5. c.12. with Justin, l.11. c.14.]
     
  48. The next day, he called all the commanders and captains of his army together. He told them that this city Persepolis, the metropolis of Persia, had always been against the Greeks. Therefore he was resolved to give all its plunder to the soldiers, except for the king's palace. After this there was a huge slaughter of the prisoners whom they had taken. This he avowed as his own act in writing since he thought it to be for his honour that he commanded them as enemies to be so butchered. Plutarch said that he found as much treasure there as at Susa. Diodorus writes that when he came into the citadel, he found 120,000 talents, calculating the value of the gold by the rate of the silver. Curtius agrees. [Curt. l.5. c.13.]
     
  49. When Alexander first sat down on the royal throne under a golden canopy in Persepolis, Demaratus the Corinthian and an old friend of his and his father is reported to have fallen like an old man, weeping. He said that those Greeks missed a great event who died before that day and had not lived to see Alexander sitting on Darius' throne. [Plut. in Alexan.]
     
  50. Alexander committed the keeping of the citadel of Persepolis to Nicarthides with a garrison of 5000 Macedonians. Tiridates, who delivered the treasure to Alexander held the same position which he had under Darius. He left there a great part of his army and baggage and committed the keeping of the city to Parmenion and Craterus. Alexander with a 1000 cavalry and lightly armed foot soldiers went to visit the inner parts of Persia when the constellation Pleiades arose. [beginning of the fall] Although he was plagued with storms and other tempestuous weather on the way, he came to a place all covered with snow and frozen over with ice. When he saw that his soldiers did not want to go any farther, he leaped off his horse and went by foot over the ice and snow. When the country people, who lived in scattered cretes and cabins saw the enemy troops, they started killing their children and others who were not able to go with them. They all fled to the wild woods and mountains covered with snow. However, some of them were convinced to talk with Alexander. They were not afraid and submitted to him. Alexander did not allow any of his troops to harm them. [Curt. l.5. c.14.]
     
  51. After Alexander had laid waste to all the country of Persia and taken its various towns, he came into the country of the Mardi. This was a warlike nation and of much different behaviour from the Persians. After Alexander had subdued them, he returned to Persepolis on the 30th day after he set out from there. He bestowed rewards on his captains and others, every man according to his deeds. He gave away almost everything he had gotten there. [Curt. l.5. c.14.]
     
  52. This journey was taken, as I said before, about the time of the rising of the seven stars. Only Curtius notes this. Plutarch states that because the winter was now approaching he planned to give his army some rest. Therefore, he spent 4 months in Persia. Pliny [l. 18. c.31.] tells us that the Athenians began their winter upon the Ides of November when the seven stars set. However the amount of time from the time of the battle at Gaugamela, shows that Alexander could not come to Persepolis before our December. Others also cast a doubt concerning the Mardi expedition. Curtius tells us that he did not subdue them until after the death of Darius. [Curt. l.6. c.9.] This may be true unless we distinguish the Mardi of Persia [Herod. l.1. c.125 & Nearchus in Strabo l.11. p. 524. & Arrian. in his Indica, p. 196.] from the Mardi who bordered on Hircania. Neither do other writers agree with Curtius where he says: "He gave away almost all that he got at Persopolis."
     
  53. For he speaks expressly of that and not of what he got at Pasargadis. [as we showed before in the note 3669 AM, from Jacobus Capellus] He well agrees with that which he wrote in the very end of the next precedent chapter [??], where he says that Alexander commanded horses and camels to be sent for from Babylon and Susa to carry those 120,000 talents which he found in this city. This we may compare with Strabo, [l. 15. p. 731.] where he says: "He carried all the money of Persia from Susa, which was full of treasure and rich goods. It is known for certain that whatever he got in Babylon and in Darius' camp never was included in this total. In Persia and Susa he found 40,000 talents, some say 50,000 talents."
     
  54. Diodorus Siculus states: "When he was forced to lay out much of the money he had found there to pay for the war, he planned to send part of it to Susa to be stored in a bank there. He had to get a multitude of draught horses, carriages and 3000 camels with pack saddles from Babylon and from Mesopotamia to carry his treasure to its destined places."
     
  55. Plutarch [in Alexan.] states: "His money and wealth he took from there needed 10,000 yoke of mules and 5000 camels to carry it away."
     
  56. After Darius had stayed a while at Ecbatan in Media, he gathered together those who were left of after the defeat and replaced the weapons they had lost in the battle. He also sent letters to the governors in Bactria and other countries to remain loyal to him. [Diod. Sic. l.17. 2nd part] His purpose was that if Alexander stayed about Susa and Babylon, he would stay in Media to see whether they who were around him might unite in a new battle against Alexander. However, if he found that Alexander planned to pursue him, then he would retire to Parthia and Hircania, or even into Bactria. By laying waste all the countries as he went, he would leave Alexander no possibility of following him for lack of forage. Therefore he sent away before him all the women and other baggage and carriages to the Caspian Gates, or passes. He stayed at Ecatane with a small force to see how things would unfold. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  57. Alexander made a feast celebrating his previous victories and offered magnificent sacrifices to his gods. He feasted his nobles with a most sumptuous banquet and with a number of whores and curtisans, each with her ruffian. Among these there was an Athenian called Thais who was a sweet heart to Ptolemy the son of Lagus. Alexander was as drunk as she was. He commanded all Persepolis, both city and citadel, to be burnt to the ground and caroling and instruments of music should play all the while. This was against the advice of Parmenion, if Alexander would have listened. It is true that after he slept on it, it grieved him greatly for what he had done. He said: "The Greeks could not have been more revenged by the Persians, if they had been forced to have seen him sitting in Xerxes' throne. [Curt. l.5. c.15. Diod. Plut. Arrian.]
     
  58. The next day, he gave 30 talents to that shepherd of Lycia who had guided and showed him the way into Persia. [Curt. l.5. c.15.]
     
  59. After this, Alexander took Pasargada. It was a city built by Cyrus and was surrendered to him by its governor, Gobares. He gave Alexander 6000 talents. [Curt. l.5. c.13.] Alexander visited the sepulchre of Cyrus according to Strabo's account from Aristobulus who was present at that time. [Strabo. l.15. p. 730.]
     
  60. Then he took the rest of the cities of Persia, some by force, others voluntarily surrendered. [Diod.] This seems to have been when the seven stars rose in the morning sky. From this time, the ancients reckoned the beginning of summer, not at the morning setting of them and beginning of winter when according to Curtius, Alexander took his journey into the heart of Persia.
     
  61. Alexander made Phrasaortes the son of Rheomithris, governor of Persia [Arrian. l.3.] and then went into Media. He got reinforcements from Cilicia. The 5000 foot soldiers and 1000 cavalry where under the command of Plato, an Athenian. After this he advanced to find Darius. [Curt. l.5. c.16.]
     
  62. Darius had planned to leave Ecbatane and flee into Bactria. Since he feared lest Alexander would overtake him on the way, he changed his plans. At that time, Alexander was about 190 miles away. No distance seemed great enough to prevent Alexander from catching up to him. Therefore Darius resolved that instead of fleeing, to try his fortune in another battle. He had 30,000 men about him, of which 4000 were Greeks under the command of Patran. All these men were loyal to Darius. In addition he had 4000 archers and slingers. He had 3300 cavalry consisting for the most part from Bactria under the command of Bessus the governor of Bactria. [Curt. l.5. c.16.]
     
  63. Diodorus states that there were 30,000 Persians and Greek mercenaries. Arrian states there were only 3000 cavalry and 6000 foot soldiers. He also says that Darius carried with him out of Media no more than 7000 talents. However, Strabo [l. 15. p. 731.] says that when Darius fled out of Media, he took 8000 talents. Those who murdered Darius rifled and shared the money among themselves. Diodorus, [year 4. Olymp. 112.] says, that when Alexander pursued Darius he had the same number of talents with him. Atheneus [l. 11. p. 514. of the Greek and Latin Edition,] states from Chartetes his history of Alexander, that the custom of the Persian kings was, wherever they went, to have over the king's bedchamber, a garret with five chests in it. In these were kept 5000 talents of gold and they were called the king's pillows. At the back stairs in another room, were always kept 3000 talents in three chests and that was called the king's bench to sit on.
     
  64. Bessus, the governor of Bactria and Nabarzanes the commander of 1000 cavalry both who had followed Darius in his flight, commanded their soldiers to seize Darius and to bind him. They resolved that if Alexander overtook them, they would purchase their freedom by delivering Darius bound into Alexander's hands. However, if they could escape from Alexander, they would renew the war against Alexander in their own names. [Curt. l.5. c.18,22, 23. Arrian. l.3. p. 67,68, 76.] Justin [l. 11. c.15.] states that this happened in a town in Parthia called Thara or rather, Dara. It was so called later by Arsaces, the first king of Parthia, in remembrance of this villany against Darius. He adds from Trogus that this was done by a kind of fate that the Persian empire should end in the land of those who were preordained to succeed the Persians in the empire.
     
  65. The king's treasure and baggage was rifled, as if it had all been enemies' goods. Bessus and Nabarzanes with Braza [or Barzaentes] the governor of the Arachoti and Drangian took Darius. They carried him away prisoner in a cart. To show some respect, they placed golden chains on him. To escape detection, they covered the cart with a lowly dirty covering made of skins and had strangers drive it. If any man should ask, they could not tell who was in it. Those who were his jailors followed from a distance. The Persians were won over by Bessus' generous promises and since there was no one else left to whom they might unite with, they joined with the Bactrians. Bessus was made general in the place of Darius by the Bactrian cavalry and the other nations who had accompanied Darius in his flight. Artabazus and his sons with those which he commanded and the Greeks under Patron, did not go with Bessus. They left the road way and went up the mountains and marched away to Parthiene. [Curt. l.5. c.23. Arrian. l.4. p. (68).]
     
  66. Alexander changed his course for Media and attacked the Paritacae, and subdued their country. He made Oxoathres the son of Abuletus governor over them. [Arrian. p. 66.]
     
  67. Tabas was a town in the remotest border of Paritocene. Alexander was told by some who had abandoned Darius and fled to Alexander that Darius had quickly gone into Bactria. [Curt. l. 5. c.24.] When he was within 3 days journey of Ecbatane, he was more accurately told by Baistanes the son of Ochus who reigned in Persia before Darius that Darius had fled from Ecbatane 5 days earlier. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  68. When Alexander came to Ecbatane, the Thessalian and others of the confederate cavalry refused to accompany him any further. He dismissed them to return into their own countries. When they left he gave them over and above their regular pay, 2000 talents to be shared among them. [Arrian. l.3. Plut. in Alexan.] However, Diodorus and Curtius, refer to this event as happening after the death of Darius and in a general way without any special mention of the Thessalian troops. They say that he gave to everyone that served in the cavalry a talent, or 6000 deneers, as Curtius [l. 6. c.3.] expresses it. Everywhere he calls a "drachma", a "deneere". Diodorus adds that he gave to every foot soldier ten minas i.e.1000 drachmas and abundant provisions for every man for his return journey to his home country. To everyone that would continue in his service, he gave 3 talents in coined money. When he found that the number of them that stayed was large, he appointed Epocillus to escort the rest to the seaside in Asia. The Thessalians that returned left their horses with him. He wrote to Menetes, the governor in those parts that as soon as they arrived there he should furnish them immediately with shipping and have them transported to the European side. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  69. To pay the vast sums he gave to the soldiers that left, Alexander was forced in spite of all his haste in the pursuing Darius, to levy a vast quantity of money in the way as he went. Diodorus states that he received of Darius' treasurers, 8000 talents over and above that which they had bestowed among his soldiers with cups and other rewards. This amounted to over 13,000. The amount they either stole or took by force was calculated to be a great deal more, according to Diodorus. [p. 547. in the Greek and Latin Edition] Curtius [l. 6. c.2.] agrees fully when he says: "In the next plundering that he made, he raised 26,000 talents. From which 12,000 [Justin has 13,000. l.12. c.1.] talents were spent in one largesse which he bestowed among his soldiers. His treasurers brought [??] him of so much more."
     
  70. However, we read in Arrian, [p. 67.] that now he ordered Parmenion to take all the money which was brought to him from Persia and store it in Ecbatane under the keeping of Harpalus. He was to guard it with 6000 Macedonians and some cavalry of his confederates. Now this money was brought and stored in Ecbatane. Some reckon it to have amounted to 180,000 talents. [Strabo, l.15. p. 731.] Diodorus agrees and says also that Parmenion had the charge of all that treasure. [p. 552.] Justin [l. 12. c.1.] says, that the treasure amounted to 190,000 talents and that Parmenion was in charge of keeping it. Diodorus and Justin are more correct in making Parmenion the keeper of it than Arrian who names Harpalus to that office. We showed before that he was left behind in Babylon to gather up the tribute and other duties for Alexander in those parts.
     
  71. Here Arrian tells us that Alexander sent away Parmenion with certain brigades of foreigners, the Thracian cavalry and others except the troops of his own fellow cavaliers. They were to march through the country of the Cadusians into Hircania. He wrote also to Clitus, captain of the king's troops that as soon as Clitus came from Susa to Ecbatane, [for he was left behind sick at Susa] he should take such cavalry as were left there to guard the money and to march into Parthia and to meet him there.
     
  72. Alexander took with him the troops of his fellow cavaliers, vant [??] couriers, mercenaries led by Erigyius, the Macedonian squadron [except those who were left at Ecbatane to guard the money], the Agrians and the archers and he went after Darius. Since he marched so far so fast, many of his foot soldiers and cavalry were not able to follow. They fainted in the way and perished. However Alexander continued and on the 11th day he came to Rages. [Arrian. l.3.] In those 11 days, he went over 410 miles. On this long journey, the cavalry followed him very cheerfully although they lacked water in many places. Of that company which set out with him from Ecbatane, there were only 60 with him at the end of his journey. [Plut. in Alex.]
     
  73. This city of Rages [/APC (Tobit 1:14; Tobit 4:1)] is a day's journey from the Caspian Gates or passes to anyone that would ride at Alexander's pace. Darius had already passed through them. Many of those who set out with him on his journey slipped away and returned home. Also many of them returned to Alexander on the way. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  74. Alexander gave up all hope of overtaking Darius. He rested there 5 days. When he had refreshed his army, he made Oxydates a Persian, governor of Media, whom formerly Darius had committed to prison in Susa and planned to decapitate him. [Arian. l.3. with Curt. l.6. c.2.]
     
  75. From here Alexander went with his army into Parthia. The first day he camped near the Caspian Gates or passes. The next day he went through the passes and came into places that were well populated. He ordered provisions to be brought to him, for he was told that he was to go through countries lacking such provisions. He sent Coenus with the cavalry and a few foot soldiers abroad to forage. [Arrian. l.3.]
     
  76. Meanwhile Bagisthenes a great man in Babylon, came from Darius' camp to Alexander. He told Alexander that Darius was not yet laid hold on but was in great danger either of death or bonds. [Arian. l.3. & Curt. l.5. c.24.]
     
  77. Therefore, Alexander pursued him harder and did not wait for Coenus to return from foraging. He took along with him his fellow cavaliers, his vant [??] couriers, the mercenary cavalry led by Erigyius, the Macedonian battalion [except those that were to guard his treasure] with the Agrians and Archers. He left Craterus to command the rest and ordered him to come after him at a more leisurely pace. He travelled all that night and the next day until noon and rested for a while. He travelled all night again and early next morning he came to the camp of Darius from where Bagisthenes had come to him. He continued and rode all that night and the next day until noon. He came to a certain village where they who had the charge of keeping Darius stayed the day before according to Arrian. Curtius states this was the place where Bessus first laid hold on Darius.
     
  78. When he was about 60 miles from the place where Bagisthenes first came to him, he found Melon who was Darius' interpreter. He was unable through weakness to follow Darius any further. When he saw Alexander approaching so quickly, he made as if he had fled over to Alexander from Darius for fear lest he should be taken for an enemy. He told Alexander what happened and where they went. However his men were quite weary and needed rest. Alexander took 6000 choice cavalry and selected from them 300 Dimachs [??], [who and what they were, you may learn from Pollus and Hesychius] These wore heavy armour yet rode on horse back. If the need arose, they could get off their horses and serve as foot soldiers according to Curtius. However, Arrian [l. 3. c.68.] states that when he saw the foot soldiers could not possibly keep pace with him on horse back, he made about 500 of the cavalry get off their horses and commanded the captains and best men of the foot soldiers to mount the horses with all their armour on. He ordered Nicanor, who commanded the targeteers and Attalus, the captain of the squadron of Agrians, to follow in the way that Bessus had gone with his men with those who were most lightly armed. He commanded the rest to come later in a phalanx formation.
     
  79. While Alexander was busy giving orders, Orcillus and Mithracenes came to him. They abhorred Bessus for his treachery and fled from him to Alexander. They told him that the Persians were not more than 60 miles away and that they could lead him to them by a shorter way. He used them as guides and set out early in the evening with a select company of cavalry. He ordered the Macedonian phalanx to follow him as fast as they could. When he had gone about 40 miles, he was met by Brocubelus [called by Arrian p. 67. "Antibelus"] the son of Mazeus, sometimes governor of Syria under Darius. He told him that Bessus was not more than 25 miles ahead of him. His army thinking they were out of danger, marched in no particular order. It seemed they were bound for Hircania. Brocubelus said that if he hurried, he might attack them when they were all straggling from their colours. [Curt. l.5. c.24.]
     
  80. When Bessus and his consorts found that Alexander was on their heels, they went to Darius where he was in his poor tilted cart. They wanted him to get onto a horse and save himself by fleeing. When he refused to do this, Satibarzenes and Barsaentes each shot an arrow and wounded him. They also houghed the horses that drew the cart so that they might go no further and killed his two servants that still attended Darius. [Curt. l.5. c.25. with Arrian. p. 69. l.3.] Only his dog stayed with him. [Elia. Histor. animal. l.6. c.25.]
     
  81. When they had done this, Satibarzanes and Barzaentes with 600 cavalry fled away as fast as possible. [Arrian. p. 69.] So that they might not be pursued together, Nabarzanes fled into Hircania and Bessus into Bactria. After the rest had lost their captains, they scattered here and there. Only 500 cavalry stayed together, undecided as to fight or flee, [Curt. l.5. c.25.]
     
  82. When Alexander saw what confusion the enemy was in, he sent Nicanor to ask them to stay. He followed after him. After they had killed about 3000 that would not yield, Alexander drove the rest before him like so many cattle without harming them and gave the word to stop the killing. He advanced so quickly that barely 3000 cavalry followed him. The number of prisoners was greater than of those that captured them. So far had fear bereft them of their senses that they never considered either their number or how few their enemy troops were. [Curt. l.5. c.25.]
     
  83. Meanwhile the horses which drew Darius' cart, wandered from the road since there was no one to drive them. When they had gone about half a mile, they stopped in a certain valley. They were exhausted from the hot weather and sore from the injuries they received. There was a fountain of water close by. Polyustratus a Macedonian learned of this fountain from the people of that place. He was exhausted from the heat and his wounds and went to quench his thirst there. As he was taking up water in his helmet, he noticed the arrows in the bodies of the horses that drew the cart. [Curt. l.5. c.25.] When he came nearer, he saw Darius lying in the cart seriously wounded but not quite dead. Darius called to him for a little water. When he drank it, he desired him to thank Alexander for the favour which he had showed to his mother, wife and children. He begged nothing for himself but a decent burial. He desired no revenge as Alexander did. For if Alexander neglected revenge, it might prove both dishonourable and dangerous to him. The first concerned Alexander in a matter of justice, the other concerned his personal safety. Darius in a token of his sincerity gave Polyustratus his right hand and told him to carry it to Alexander. So when Darius had given his hand to Polystratus, he gave up the ghost. [Just. l. 11. c.15. & Plut. in Alexander.]
     
  84. So Darius died at age 50 in the year when Aristophontus was archon in Athens in the month Hecatombaeon. [Arrian. l.3. p. 69.] He had reigned for 6 years. 200 years had passed from the year of the death of Cyrus who set up the Persian Empire until now, which was the very beginning of the 3rd year of the 112th Olympiad. From this time Calippus [a man renowned by Aristotle who was at that time famous in his school at Athens, l.12. of his Metaphysics,] began his epoch or account of 76 years as we find by various astronomical observations of Ptolemy in his great book, Syntaxis. Although Strabo, [l. 6.] says that Darius lost his empire at the battle of Gaugamela fought 9 months [sic. original has 9 years] earlier and Justin [l. 11.] confirms this that then Alexander took the empire of Asia from Darius. However since it appears that Darius was murdered by his kinsfolk, he lost his life and kingdom at the same time [Justin l.10 fin.] We can not doubt that Calippus in memorial of the founding of Alexander's Empire made this the starting point of his Periodus or calculation of years. The Macedonian Empire
     
  85. The empire of Alexander lasted 5 years according to Isidore and Beda from Eusebius' Chronicle. Jul. Africa. states 6 years and the historian who wrote in the time of Alexander Severus, 7 years [Tome 2. Antiqu. Lectio. Henr. Canisis, p. 600.] Strabo [l. 15. fin.] allows 10 or 11 years. Nicephorus Constantinopolitanus in his Chronicle, states 12 years. Clemens Alexandrinus, [l. 1. Stromat.] is wrong when he says it was 18 years. It is most obvious that from the month Hecatombaeon when Darius died [when Aristophontes was archon at Athens] to the month Thargelion when Alexander died, as we shall show presently, [when Hegesias was archon in Athens] only 6 years and 10 months passed. In this short period of time, Alexander did so many and great feats of arms in the east that he may well be said to have flown rather than to have marched over all those regions. Hence it is said that in [(Daniel 8:1)] Alexander is described under the figure of a goat who came from the west over the face of the whole earth. He never so much as touched the ground. In [(Daniel 7:6)] Alexander is compared to a winged leopard. Hierome notes on this passage that of all the beasts, the leopard is the swiftest and most impetuous. He adds that nothing was done so swiftly as his conquest. He took everything from the gulf of Venice and the Adriatic Sea to the very Indian Ocean and the Ganges River. He did this not so much by war but as by his reputation. What he did after the death of Darius, is set down by Diodorus, [l. 17. 2nd part], by Justin, [l. 12.] by Curtius, [5 last books of his History], by Plutarch [in his life] and by Arrian [l. 3.]. I have inserted these accounts from the various authors in this work.
     
  86. Darius was no sooner dead then Alexander rode on his horse to the place where he lay. When he saw his dead body, Alexander wept to see so unworthy a death happen to so noble a person. He took his own coat and placed it over him and immediately sent his body to his mother to be buried in a royal manner with the kings of Persia. He also took Darius' brother Oxathres into the circle of his friends and nobles. He bestowed upon Oxathres all honour belonging to his high place and parentage. Alexander planned to pursue Bessus but since he and his army had escaped to Bactria and Alexander could not reach him at this time, he returned again.
     
  87. While he remained at Hecatompulis which was a city in Parthiene built in former times by the Greeks, he gathered a good store of provisions. All the army grew restless as they lay idle in their quarters and they all wanted to return to Greece as soon as possible. When Alexander had allayed this desire, they all asked him to lead them wherever he would and they would follow him. After 3 day's march through the country of Parthiene, he came into the borders of Hircania which Nabarzanes had captured. He left Craterus with the troops he commanded, Amyntas' brigade, 600 cavalry and 600 archers. They were to keep Parthiene safe from the incursions by the bordering countries. He commanded Erigyius to take care of the carriages and to follow him through the plain country with a considerable company to guard them. Alexander took his targeteers and the cream of the Macedonian squadron and some archers. When they had marched about 12 miles, they camped in a plain near a small river.
     
  88. After he had refreshed his army 4 days there, letters came to him from Nabarzanes, who, together with Bessus, had murdered Darius. He surrendered to Alexander. From here Alexander moved 2.5 miles through an almost impassable way. No enemy opposed him and he got through. When he had gone almost another 4 miles, Phradapharnes governor of Hercania and Parthia met him. He surrendered to Alexander along with all those who had fled to him after the death of Darius. Alexander graciously received them all. He next came to a town called Arvas. Here Craterus rejoined him. He had taken in all the countries which he had passed through. He brought with him Phradates or Autophradates, the governor of the country of the Tapurins. Alexander restored him to his government again and sent him back home.
     
  89. When Alexander came to the nearest borders of Hircania, Artabazus the Persian, who was an old friend of Philip met him. At this time he was banished by Ochus and had always remained most loyal to Darius. He was now 95 years old. He came to Alexander with Cophenes and 8 other sons of his, all born by the same mother who was the sister of Mentor and Memnon. Alexander received them all most graciously. Ariobarzanes and Arsames, who were governors under Darius came and submitted to Alexander.
     
  90. Alexander now invaded the country of the Mardians which bordered on Hircania. They held the mountain passes and met Alexander with an army of 8000 men. Alexander attacked the army, slew many of them and took more of them prisoners. The rest fled into the craggy mountains. Finally they returned his cavalry man Bucephalus, whom they had captured. They sent 50 ambassadors to him to ask his pardon. When Alexander had taken hostages, he made Autophrodates governor over them as well as the Tapurins.
     
  91. From there he returned in 5 days to the place from where he set out against the Mardians. From there Andronicus the son of Agerrus and Artabazus brought with them 1500 Greek mercenaries of Darius to Alexander. 90 ambassadors who had been sent to Darius from various counties, also came to him. Alexander put 4Lacedemonian ambassadors and Dropis the Athenian to prison. Democrates the other Athenian ambassador who always opposed the Macedonian party comitted suicide because he did not expect a pardon from Alexander. He freed the ambassadors from Sinope and Hecraclides who were sent from Carthage and the other ambassadors from Greece. He gave the command of the Greeks who stayed in his service to Andronicus. When he had doubly honoured Artabazus and gave him greater honours than he held under Darius, Alexander sent him home.
     
  92. When these matters were taken care of, he marched against the greatest city of all Hircania, called Zeudracarta or Zadracarta and there stayed 15 days. Nabarzanes came to him there and brought with him many presents. Among these was Bagoas, an eunuch of rare beauty who was later highly respected and could do whatever he wished with Alexander.
     
  93. At this place, Thalestris or Minithaea came to Alexander with 300 ladies. She was the queen of the Amazons which is a place between the two rivers, Phasis and Thermodoon. She left the rest of her army at the borders of Hircania and came hoping to be with child by him. She stayed 13 days. Curtius in this account contrary to the stream of all geographers, locates these Amazons on the borders of Hircania. [l. 6. c.10.] However, Justin says that they bordered on Albania. [l. 42. c.3.] Clitarchus says that Thalestris came from the Caspian Gates and the Thermodoon River to Alexander. It took her a 25 or 35 day journey to reach him through many counties. [l. 12. c.3.] The journey was at least 750 miles. [Strabo. l.11.] Her visit to Alexander is recorded by Polycrates, Onesicritus, Antigenes, Hister and various others. However, Aristobulus Chares the historian, Ptolemy Lagus, Anticlides, Philo Thebanus the historian, Hecateus Eretriensis, Philippus Chaleidensis and Duris Samius say that it is a mere fable. Alexander seems to agree. In his Commentaries to Antigonus, in which he recorded the events exactly, he says that a certain Scythian offered him his daughter for a wife. No mention is made of an Amazon. It is also reported that Onesisieritus, many years later was reading his 4th book to Lysimachus who was then reigning. When he mentioned something of an Amazon that came to Alexander, Lysimachus smiled and said: "I pray sir, where was I all the while?" [Plut. in Alex. see Strabo, l.11. p. 505. and Arria. l.1. p. 155,156.]
     
  94. When Alexander returned to Parthiene, he indulged himself there in all kinds of Persian luxuries. He commanded also his nobles to take and wear the long Persian robe of cloth of gold and scarlet. If any of the common soldiers wanted to marry a Persian, he allowed it.
     
  95. Bessus now wore his turban upright and pointed along with other regal attire. He assumed the title of Artaxerxes and king of Asia. He gathered into a body all those Persians who had fled into Bactria. With these he had Bactrians, the Scythians and others who lived as far as the bank of the Tanais River. He planned to make a war on Alexander.
     
  96. Alexander made Amminapes a Parthian, governor of Patthia and Hircania under him. Amminapes with Mazeus or Mezaces, had delivered Egypt into his hands. Alexander had Tlepolemus the son of Pythophanis, one of his friends, [Arrian. l.3. p. 69.] in the government with Amminapes. Although Curtius says, that he made Menapis [for so he calls Amminapes] governor of Hircania, who before was banished by Ochus and had fled to his father Philip for refuge. [l. 6. c.8.] Justin says that when Alexander had subdued Parthia, he made a certain noble man of Persia, called Andragoras its governor. From him the kings of Parthia descended since Arsaces notes him as the founder of the Parthian kingdom. He was also called Andragoras. [Justin. l.41. c.4.]
     
  97. After this, Alexander came to Susia, a city of the Arians. Sanbarzanes, governor of the Arians, came to him. Alexander restored his government to him. He also had Anaxippus, one of his nobles to hold the government with him. He gave him 40 javeliners on horse back to attend him. He could put these in places where he thought best to keep the Arians from being plundered or injured by the army as it passed by.
     
  98. Alexander was now ready to march against Bessus. When he saw that his army was so loaded with the spoil and luxurious goods they were in no condition to march, he first commanded his own goods than their goods to be burned. He kept only what was necessary for their immediate needs.
     
  99. Nicanor, the son of Parmenion, the captain of the Argyraspides, [i.e. of the silver shields, or targeteers,] died suddenly and everyone mourned his passing. Alexander was especially grieved and would have stayed to be present at his funeral but lack of provisions in that place would not permit him to. Therefore he left Nicanor's brother Philotas there with 2600 men to take care of the funeral. Alexander went on his journey in pursuit of Bessus.
     
  100. Satibarzanes, to whom Alexander had restored his government over the Arians, as mentioned earlier, murdered Anaxippus with his 40 javeliners on horse back. He gathered all the forces he could to the chief city of the Arians, called Chortacana or Artacoana. When he heard that Alexander was coming, he planned to go and join with Bessus in a common war against the Macedonians.
     
  101. When Alexander heard of this, he halted his journey into Bactria. He marched 75 miles in two days and came to Attacoana. Satibarzanes with 2000 cavalry [for that was all he could gather at that time] fled into Bactria to Bessus. The rest escaped to the mountains. Alexander pursued Satibarzanes a long time but was not able to overtake him. He attacked those who were in the mountains and took the craggy rocks where 13,000 armed Arians had fled. Alexander returned to Attacoana which was besieged by Craterus during this time. Craterus had prepared all things for an assault and waited for Alexander to lead it so that the honour of taking the place would fall to Alexander not him. Joab did the same for David. (2 Samuel 12:27,28) When the king came, he found them ready to plead for his mercy. He pardoned them and lifted his siege. He restored to every man what was his. Within 30 days he had taken all the places of that country and made Arsaces their governor.
     
  102. Fresh supplies came to Alexander. Zoilus brought him 500 cavalry from Greece. Antipater sent him 3000 soldiers from Illyrium. Philip the son of Menelaus brought him mercenary cavalry from Media along with 130 of the Thessalians that Alexander, at Ecbatane, had given leave to return home. They refused and continued with Alexander. From Lydia came 2600 foot soldiers with 300 cavalry under the command of Andromachus, according to Arrian.
     
  103. With these new forces Alexander came to the Drangeans [whom Arrian calls Zarangeans] whose governor was Barzaentes. He was one of those who with Bessus and Nabarzanes had turned on Darius. He feared punishment from Alexander and fled away to the Indians on this side the Indus River.
     
  104. Alexander spent 5 days in the chief city of the Drangean country. Some of his own people began to conspire his death. Dimnus, a Macedonian, revealed to Nicomachus, Alexander's bard that 3 days from then, Alexander would be murdered and that he was in on the plot with various nobles. Although Nicomachus was sworn to secrecy by Dimnus, he told the matter to his brother Ceballinus and wished him to tell the king of it. Since Ceballinus could not get to Alexander, he told it to Philotas first. When he found that Philotas was indifferent and likely in on the plot, Ceballinus went to Metron, a noble young gentleman and in charge of the artillery. He advised Metron to tell Alexander about it immediately. When Alexander heard of it, he immediately ordered all those in the plot to be arrested. When Dimnus was taken, he knew why and killed himself with his sword. When Ceballinus was questioned, he protested that the very hour he heard of it that he told the matter to Philotas and requested him to tell the king. When Philotas was questioned about this, he said it was true. He said he meant no harm but only through his carelessness he did nothing thinking it was a baseless rumour. When Philotas was put on the rack, he confessed all and was executed with the rest of the conspirators. Philotas was the son of Pamenion who was next to Alexander in authority.
     
  105. Alexander Lyncestes was also called before a council of Macedonians for his previous conspiracy for which he was in prison for 3 years. [Diodorus & Curtius] This is that Alexander Aneropus who before the battle at Issos 4 years earlier was put in prison for plotting the king's death. [Diodorus, Justin and Arrian] See note on 3671 AM. Lyncestes had plotted Alexander's death several times previously. Alexander spoke the following to his council of Macedonians: [Curt. l.8. c.16.]: "Alexander Lyncestes was twice arraigned for two counts of treason against my life. I have twice taken him out of the hand of justice and when he was convicted a third time, I gave him a reprieve and kept him in prison these 3 years. [For so it should be according to the true Palatine Manuscript and not "2 years", as in the ordinary printed books.] Until now you desired that he be given his just punishment."
     
  106. When he was questioned concerning that latest attempt on Alexander's life, he could not answer without faltering. Therefore without any more adieu, he was thrust through with lances by those which stood about and heard him at the bar.
     
  107. After the body of Lyncestes was carried from the place, the king still sat at in the judgment seat. He had Amyntas the son of Andromenes with Attalus and Symmias' brothers, all very close to Philotas to be brought to the bar. When Polemon who was the youngest of the group had heard that Philotas was put on the rack, he fled but was captured and brought to judgment. Finally, Alexander acquitted them all, as a result of the general intercession of those that were there. Then he immediately sent Polydamas whom Parmenion loved very much, with two Arabians on dromedary camels into Media. They were to get there before the news of the death of Philotas reached those lands. They had letters for Cleander, Sitalces and Menidas, the commanders in the army under Pamenion, to kill him. He was the governor of Media and had the greatest reputation and authority next to the king in the army. Parmenion was now 70 years old. After he had read Alexander's letter and was reading the second letter written to him in the name of his son Philotas, he was stabbed to death. Cleander sent his head to the king and would hardly allow the rest of his body to be buried. Strabo [l. 15. p. 724.] tells us, that this all happened in 11 day's time. An ordinary journey normally took 30 to 40 days just to get there.
     
  108. Alexander feared least the glory all his actions might be blemished with the cruelty by the previous action. He did as Gaus formerly did. [See note on 3620 AM] He let it be known that he was to send some of his friends into Macedonia. He advised all men that wanted to write to their friends in those parts not to miss this opportunity of sending a note back home since they were going further east. Every man wrote a letter and he ordered to have all the letters brought to him. By this he found out what everyone thought of him. He put all those whom he found either weary of the war or unhappy with his actions, into one company. He called this the unruly company and put Leonidas, formerly an intimate friend of Parmenion's, in charge of it. Then he divided his fellow cavaliers into two regiments. He assigned the one part to be commanded by Hephaestion and the other by Clitus.
     
  109. When Alexander had settled matters among the Drangians, he marched toward them who were called of old, Agriaspe, or Arimaspi. In later times Cyrus called them the Euergetae, i.e.Benefactors for a good deed they did to him. Alexander was warmly received and entertained by them.
     
  110. After staying 5 days in that country, he had news that Satibarzanes with 2000 cavalry from Bessus, had attacked the Arians and made them defect from Alexander. Against Satibarzanes, he sent 6000 Greek foot soldiers and 600 calvary under the command of Erigyius and Caranus. Diodorus says that Stasanors commanded together with Artbazus, the Persian, Andronicas and Phrataphernes, the governor of Parthia.
     
  111. He stayed with the Euergetae and sacrificed to Apollo. He committed Demetrius to prison. He was one of the captains of his bodyguard [??], whom Alexander suspected of conspiracy with Philotas. He replaced him with Ptolemy the son of Lagus. He gave to the Euergetae a large sum of money and such lands as they desired which was not much. When he was welcomed by the Gedrosians, who bordered on the Euergetae, he also rewarded them according to their deeds.
     
3675 AM, 4384 JP, 330 BC
  1. After he spent 60 days with the Euergetae, he left Amenides as their new governor. He had been Darius' secretary for some time, according to Curtius. However, Arrian says he left them a free state. Diodorus reports that he made Teridates the governor of both the Euergetae and Gedrosions.
     
  2. Alexander left them and marched into Bactria against Bessus. He subdued the Drangi, the Dragagi and Arachosia on his way. Part of his army which was formerly commanded by Parmenion met him. There were 6000 Macedonians and 200 men of honour among them. These were the very pith and marrow of all his army. He appointed Menon as governor of Arachosia and left him 4000 soldiers and 600 cavalry to keep order in the country.
     
  3. Alexander led his army into the country of the Paropamisadae about the time of the setting of the seven stars and beginning of winter. [Strabo, l.15. p. 724.] All the country was covered with snow. The days were obscurely dark rather than light so that a man could hardly discern anything close by. In this vast wilderness, Alexander's army endured the misery of lack of food, cold, weariness and even despair. Many died from the cold and many men's feet rotted off their legs from frost bite. At last they came into a warmer country with more provisions. The army was relieved and the whole country was quickly brought into subjection.
     
  4. Alexander went to the Caucasus Mountains which some call Paropamysus. He crossed the mountains in a 16 or 17 day march and built a city near the foot of them at a place where that mountain pass opens into Media. He called the city after his own name, Alexandria. He also built various other cities, each a day's journey from Alexandria. He relocated 7000 inhabitants of the countries in that area into these new cities. He put 3000 which followed the camp and let as many of those who were grown unserviceable in the wars settle there who wanted to. He made Proexes, a Persian, governor of all that region and left one of his friends, Niloxenes, to be the ruler over them.
     
  5. When the Macedonians and Arians were fighting, Satibarzanes, who commanded the enemy came between the two armies. He pulled off his helmet, said who he was and challenged any man that dared to a duel. Erigyius, the general of the Macedonian army took up the challenge and ran his spear through his body, killing him. When the barbarians, who came there by compulsion rather than willingly saw that their captain was dead, they trusted Erigyius and laid down their arms and submitted to him.
     
  6. Bessus and those Persians who joined with him in seizing Darius, with about 7000 Bactrians and some of the Dahae who lived east of the Tanais River, foraged the country bordering on the Caucasus Mounatins. They hoped that by ravaging and destroying all the countries which lay between them and Alexander that he would not dare come that way for fear of starving his army. Nevertheless, Alexander went on under extreme difficulty of much snow and too little food.
     
  7. When winter was almost over, he had India on his right hand. He passed over the mountains into Bactria. Not a tree was to be seen all the way except for a few shrubs. [Strabo. l. 15. p. 724.] His troops found by the way some quantity of Indian wheat. From this the common soldiers squeezed a kind of juice which they used for oil to ease the pain of their cold joints. This juice was sold for 240 denarius per pitcher. A pitcher of wine fetched 300 denarius. There was very little wheat to make bread with. From hunger, the common soldier sustained himself by catching river fish and eating such herbs as he could get. Finally they came to a place where there were neither fish nor plants to eat. They were told to kill their draught animals and eat them. This kept them alive until they came into Bactria. [Curt. l.7. c.7.] Strabo adds, that they were forced to eat it raw for lack of fire to roast it with. To settle their stomachs, they had a supply of an herb called benzome which helped their digestion.
     
  8. Bessus was terrified by Alexander's rapid advance. After he had first sacrificed to his gods, he feasted his friends and captains. As they ate they discussed the war at hand. He bragged of a kingdom which he had gotten by treachery. He was hardly in his right mind. He boasted that the cowardice of Darius had enhanced the fame and glory of the enemy. He resolved to march with his army into Sogdiana. He would have the Oxus River as a wall between him and Alexander until help came in from other parts. When all the rest were as drunk as he was, Cobares, [according to Curtius, or Bagodoras: according to Diodoras], a Median and a soothsayer by profession, advised him that when he was sober and came to his senses, he should submit to Alexander. Bessus was so enraged that he drew his sword and those with him could barely restrain him from killing Cobares. In the meantime, Cobares fled and the next night came to Alexander.
     
  9. On the 15th day after he set out from his new city of Alexandria and his winter quarters, he came to Adrapsa, a city of Bactra. [Strabo l.15. p. 725.] or Drapsaca, according to Arrian. After he had refreshed his army he marched to Aornos and Bactra, the two main cities of Bactria. He took them on the first assault. He put a garrison into the citadel of Aornos under the command of his friend, Archelaus.
     
  10. Bessus had 7000 or 8000 Bactrians in his army. They remained loyal to him and thought that Alexander would never follow them into that cold climate but rather go into India. However, when they saw that Alexander marched toward them, every man stole away to his own home and left Bessus all alone. He was left with a small retinue of his servants and tenants which remained loyal to him. After they crossed the Oxus River by boat, they burned the boats so that Alexander might not make use of them. They went to a place called Nautaca, in the country of Sogdiana to raise new forces from those parts. Spitamenes and Oxyartes followed him with some Sogdian cavalry and such Dahae as had come to him from the bank of Tanais.
     
  11. Alexander made Artabazus governor of Bactria. He left his wagons with a guard to keep them. With the rest of the army, he set out at night and came into the desert of Sogdiana. When he had gone about 50 miles and found no water at all, the next day his whole army was dying of thirst. Later when they found water, more died from drinking too much than he had ever lost in any battle.
     
  12. Toward evening, Alexander came to the river Oxus where he spent that night greatly disturbed as he waited for the rest of his army to come.
     
  13. Before he crossed the river, he picked from his Macedonians those who either from age or wounds were not fit to fight and from the Thessalians who followed him as volunteers, he selected 900. He gave everyone in the cavalry 2 talents and to each foot soldier he gave 3000 denarius or drachmas. He wanted them to go home and join their families and dismissed them. He thanked the rest for promising to go on with him in the war.
     
  14. He also sent his friend, Stasanor to the Arians to seize Arsaces their governor, because he seemed to up to no good. He appointed Stasanor to be governor in his place.
     
  15. There was no timber there to make boats with. Therefore when he grew impatient by the delay, he had the hides which covered the soldiers' tents to be taken down and leather bags to be stuffed with straw and sown or tied together. In 5 days, he ferried his army across the river on these leather boats.
     
  16. Spitamenes was Bessus' most respected and honoured friend. As soon as he heard that Alexander had crossed the Oxus River, he told the news to Dataphernes and Catenes. They were trusted aides of Bessus. Catenes laid hold on Bessus, removed his regal diadem from his head and tore the robe in pieces which he wore and had taken from the body of Darius.
     
  17. After Alexander had crossed the Oxus River, he soon marched to the place where Bessus was. On the way, he received news from Spitamenes and Dataphernes that if he would be pleased to send any captain of his with a sufficient guard, they would deliver Bessus into his hands. Therefore Alexander sent Ptolemy the son of Lagus with 3 companies of cavalry, the regiment of foot soldiers under Philotas, 1000 of the silver targeteers, all the entire squadron of the Agrians and one half of the Archers. Ptolemy marched in 4 days with these to the place where Spitamenes with his army had camped the day before. This is normally a 10 day journey.
     
  18. Meanwhile, Alexander came to a little town of the Branchids. The inhabitants were relocated there by Xerxes from Miletum many years earlier. This was the reward he gave them for their work on his behalf in betraying Miletum and in pulling down the temple of Apollo Didymaeus. See note on 3526 AM. This town became the home of traitors. It was wholly plundered and then totally destroyed. All the inhabitants, men, women and children, were killed with the sword. Had this been executed on the traitors, it would have been an act of justice and not of cruelty. Now the children suffered for their forefather's fault. These never saw Miletum, much less betrayed it to Xerxes. [Curt. l.7. c.12. with Strabo l.11. p. 117,118.]
     
  19. As Alexander was on his march, Bessus was brought to him not only bound but stark naked, a sight well pleasing to all the men, both Greeks and barbarians. All that brought him were rewarded for their efforts. The prisoner was committed to the keeping of Oxertas, Darius' brother whom Alexander had made one of the captains of his bodyguard. Oxertas planned to have him crucified after his ears and nose were cut off, his body shot through and through with arrows and that his dead body should be watched so that no bird might land on it. After Bessus was scourged with whips, he was remanded to Bactria and his death deferred. He was to be executed in the place where he had murdered Darius.
     
  20. Alexander had re-enforced his army. He had lost many troops in crossing over the Caucasus Mountains, the journey to the Oxus River and his march to the Tanais River. This is not that river which divided Europe from Asia and empties Ameotis Lake into the Euxine Sea. It is another Tanais, called also Jaxartes, which Pliny [l. 6. c.16.] is by the Scythians termed "Sylis", and by the inhabitants in the area "Orxantes", according to Aristobulus.
     
  21. At this place certain Macedonians went foraging not as carefully as they should have done. They were attacked by certain natives from the mountains. Many were killed but more were captured. These natives numbered 30,000 men but Curtius says 20,000 men. Against these natives, Alexander speedily gathered such companies as he had closest at hand. In this fight, he was shot with an arrow in the thigh and when the shaft was pulled out the head stayed in. Arrian tells us that the hill was taken and of 30,000 enemy troops, less than 8000 escaped. However, Curtius tells us that the next day after he was hurt, those barbarians voluntarily surrendered to him and sent him the prisoners which they had taken and made their peace with him.
     
  22. He moved his camp and he was carried in an ordinary stretcher which every man was happy to take turns carrying. In 4 days he came to Maracanda, the principal city of all Sogdiana whose wall is almost 9 miles in circumference. He left a garrison to keep the city. He went and wasted and burned the nearby towns. A few days later, ambassadors came to him from the Scythians called Abis. These had always lived as a free state ever since the death of Cyrus but now they surrendered to him.
     
  23. The barbarians who lived near the river captured the Macedonian soldiers that were left there in the garrison and slew them. They started to fortify their cities. Many of the Sogdians joined with them and were encouraged by those who had taken Bessus' side. They caused some of the Bactrians to defect also. The Susians and Bactrians had 7000 cavalry which helped cause the rest to defect. Alexander sent Spitamenes and Catenes, who had delivered Bessus into his hands, to repress them. They reproved the principal ring-leaders of that rebellion. They said that Alexander had sent for all the Bactrian cavalry so that he could murder them.
     
  24. When Alexander heard of this, he attacked the city of Gaza and sent Craterus against Cyropolis. When he had taken Gaza, he slew all that were of age in it. The women and children were sold into slavery and the city was destroyed. This was to be an example to others. He took 4 other cities in those parts within 2 days and treated them in the same manner. After this he marched away to Cyropolis. 18,000 men had fled there because the place was well fortified and a good refuge. In that siege he both lost the bravest and best men of his army and he was in extreme danger. He took such a blow in the neck with a stone that his eyes were dazzled and he fell and lost his senses for the present. However he was of an invincible courage against such casualties that would daunt other men. Although his wound was not yet thoroughly healed, he assaulted it more fiercely than before. His anger spurred on his natural fighting abilities. When the city was first taken, 8000 of the enemy were killed. The rest fled into the citadel. When Alexander had besieged it for only one day, they surrendered for lack of water.
     
  25. Alexander ordered Cyropolis to be levelled to the ground. Of 7 cities which the natives had fortified for themselves, there remained now only one to be taken. He took it on the very first assault. However, Ptolemy says, it surrendered to him. Aristobulus says, that the men taken in it were distributed in the army and kept bound until Alexander left that country. This would leave none behind who had a hand in that revolt.
     
  26. Meanwhile the Scythians of Asia came with a great army to the bank of the Tanais River. When they heard that the counties on the other side were up in arms against Alexander, they planned that if the inhabitants of these countries revolted in large numbers, to join with them against Alexander and to attack the Macedonians.
     
  27. Spitamenes stayed within the walls of Maracanda and besieged the garrison of Macedonians who were in the citadel there. Against him, Alexander sent Menedemus, Andromachus and Caranus along with 60 of his fellow cavaliers, 800 of his mercenaries led by Caranus, 1500 mercenary foot soldiers. [Curtius says 3000.] Alexander gave them Pharnuches for an interpreter because he spoke the barbarian's language and could therefore best serve to negotiate with them.
     
  28. Alexander came back to the bank of the Tanais River and made a wall around his camp. He made a city of it with walls of almost 8 miles in circumference and called the city after his own name, Alexandria. The work was done so quickly that within 17 days after the walls were up, it was filled with houses also. [Curtius, l.7. c.17.] However, Justin says, that in 17 days, he built a wall around it 6 miles in circumference. [l. 12. c.5.] Arrian states that in 20 days the city was enclosed with a wall. He gave the city to his Greek mercenaries to live in along with any of the natives in the area who wished to live there. Any of his Macedonians who were grown unserviceable for the war were allowed to live there too. He also put some of his captive prisoners to fill this newly built city. He paid their various masters their ransom and so made them freemen and citizens of the place. He also relocated the inhabitants of three cities which Cyrus had built, to this city.
     
  29. The king of the Scythians whose kingdom lay beyond the Tanais River, knew that city was built on purpose to restrain his ambitions. He sent his brother Carcasis to take and demolish it and to expel those Macedonians from the river side. These Sycthians rode up and down on the other side of the river in Alexander's sight and shot arrows and hurled insults at him and his Macedonians. Alexander was not yet fully recovered from his wound. His voice failed him and he could not stand alone nor sit on horseback. He could not order for what he wanted done.
     
  30. Spitamenes had with him besides his own men, some 600 Dahae and wild Scythian cavalry. These attacked a part of the army that was sent by Alexander to relieve them who were besieged in the citadel at Maracanda and slew them. Aristobulus says, that when the Macedonians were fighting, there suddenly arose from the neighbouring gardens such a number of Scythians that they slew almost all the Macedonians. Barely 40 cavalry and 300 foot soldiers escaped. Curtius mentions only that 2000 foot soldiers lost in that defeat. However, Alexander, to hide the greatness of that loss, ordered those who returned to his camp, upon pain of death, not to speak a word about it.
     
  31. Alexander put his heavily armed foot soldiers into as many boats as he could make. The rest swam on leather bags stuffed with straw. They crossed the Tanais River with incredible courage and attacked and routed the Scythians. Even though Alexander was quite weak, he pursued them for 10 miles. In this battle, 60 Macedonian cavalry and almost 100 foot soldiers died. About 1000 were wounded.
     
  32. Not long after this, Scythian ambassadors came to him to justify what had happened. They said that this war was not made on him by the Scythian nation but by only a few among them who lived by robbery and plundering. The law abiding inhabitants would yield to him. Alexander accepted this and replied kindly. He released all the prisoners without a ransom so that these warlike people would see that his battle with them, was for honour, not revenge.
     
  33. When the Sacae saw this, they sent their ambassadors to him and offered him their service. He as graciously dealt with them. He had Excipinus, a young gentleman whom he loved very dearly and was to him like Hephaestion was, to keep them company and to entertain them.
     
  34. Alexander took half of his fellow cavaliers, all his targeteers, archers, Agrians and the best of all the Macedonian squadron. He marched to Maracanda where he was told that Spitamenes had returned again to besiege the Greeks in the citadel. He marched about 90 miles in 3 days and came early the next day to the city. When Spitamenes heard of his approach, he lifted his siege and fled. Alexander pursued him as fast as he could. On the way he came to the place, where the Scythians had slain his Macedonians. He had their bones gathered and buried with a proper Macedonian funeral. After this he followed the enemy until he came into the desert.
     
  35. And by this time Craterus who marched at a slower pace as he was told to, came to Alexander with the largest part of the army. To punish the Sogdians who had revolted from him, Alexander divided his army into two parts and ordered them to burn every place and kill all males of age. In this manner he overran all that region. Here the river called Polytimetus runs. Beyond that the river runs underground and all the country is a desert, totally devoid of cities and inhabitants.
     
  36. Diodorus guesses [part 2. l.1.] that Alexander killed 120,000 Sogdians. 30 of the most noble of them, all men of great strength were brought to Alexander. He wondered at their undaunted courage when they faced death and freed them on the condition they would be loyal to him after this. They kept their word and when they returned home, they made all their people submit to Alexander. Alexander took 4 of them to be in his bodyguard. No Macedonians proved more faithful to him than these were.
     
  37. He left Pencolaus there with a garrison of 3000 foot soldiers [for no more were needed] and he came into Bactria. Alexander called together all that were there and ordered that Bessus be brought to him. Alexander reproached him for his treachery to Darius and had his nose and crops of his ears cut off. He sent Bessus to Ecbatane so that he might there be executed in the sight of the Medes and Persians. Plutarch says that Alexander ordered both his arms and legs tied to two trees that were bend down so that when the trees were released, they would tare him to pieces. Diodorus writes that the brother of Darius and his other kinsfolks railed and reproached him in many speeches. Then they cut his whole body into gibbets and then put them into slings and scattered them abroad.
     
  38. About the same time Phrataphernes the governor of Parthia and Stasanor who was sent into Aria to apprehend Arsaces, came to him. Stasanor brought Arsaces bound in chains along with Barzanes, whom Bessus had made governor under him of Persia and other men involved in the revolt of Bessus.
     
  39. From the Asian sea coast Epocillus and Melanidas came to Alexander. Also Ptolemy the commander of the Thracians came who had escorted the money sent by Menetes and those old soldiers whom Alexander had dismissed to go home. Ptolemy and Melanidas brought with them 3000 foot soldiers and 1000 cavalry mercenaries. A man called Alexander came with the 3000 foot soldiers and 500 cavalry. Bessus the governor of Syria, Asclepidorus the commander at sea sent him just as many. Antipater sent him 8000 Greek mercenaries and 500 cavalry under the command of Asander and Nearchus.
     
  40. With this larger army, he proceeded to set in order what had been disturbed by that general revolt from him. Many, especially the Sogdians, had gone into walled towns and cities and set up their own defences and would not submit to the governor whom he had set over them. Therefore he left Polysperchion, Attalus, Gorgius and Meleager in Bactria to keep order so that they would not revolt again nor draw others into rebellion. After a 4 day march, Alexander came to the bank of the Oxus River. This river had a muddy bottom and is very filthy and unhealthy to drink. Therefore, the soldiers started digging wells for water but found none. At last they saw a spring rising up in the king's pavilion, which because they had not seen it before they said that it suddenly arose there. [Curt. l.7. c.25.] Plutarch reports that Proxenus a Macedonian and muster of the king's wardrobe dug a place near the Oxus River to pitch the king's pavilion. He found a spring of a fatty and oleaginous or oily liquor that Alexander in his letters to Antipater states was one of the greatest miracles that God had shown him. Arrian goes further and says that he found two fountains, one of water and the other of oil. They recently had sprung up near the place where Alexander's tent stood. When Ptolemy brought Alexander word, he presently [as he was directed by his soothsayers] offered sacrifices to his gods. Aristander told him that the fountain of oil foreshadowed the great labour and travail that he was to endure but in the end he would be crowned with victory.
     
  41. When he had crossed the Ochus and Oxus River, he came to the Marginia or Magriana River. Around it he built 6 towns, 2 on the south side and 4 on the east side. They were build close together so each town could help the other one if needed. [Curt. l.7. c.25.] Strabo tells us that he built 8 towns in Bactria and Sogdiana. [l. 11. p. 717.] Justin mentions 12 [l. 12. c.5.] and notes that he put those in his army who were rebellous and seditious and hence got rid of them.
     
3676 AM, 4385 JP, 329 BC
  1. Arimazes of Sogdiana with a 30,000 man army climbed to the top of a high rock called Oxi by Strabo. They made provision for a 3 year seige. This rock was about 3.75 miles high and 19 miles in circumference. Alexander made generous promises to 300 gallant young lads who volunteered to climb the rock. Using cramp-irons where needed, they were able to slowly climb the rock. 32 died in the attempt. They either slipped or the rock broke from under them. The Sogdians were astonished as if by a miracle, to see that men had gotten up there. They thought there were more coming who were better armed then they were, so they surrendered. Arimazes their leader was quite afraid. He and the chief men of the country, came down to the king in his camp. Alexander had them well whipped and later crucified at the base of the hill. He distributed the rest for slaves among the new cities which he had built with the money he had taken from them. Arabazus was left to keep the Sogdians and the neighbouring countries under subjection. [Curt. l.7. c.ult. & Polyanus Stratag. l.5. in Alexander n. 29.]
     
  2. After Alexander had taken the Oxi Rock in Sogdiana, he saw the enemies in various parts. He divided his whole army into 5 brigades. Hephaestion commanded 3 brigades, Caenus and Artabazus the 4th and Alexander the 5th. Alexander marched the next day toward Maracanda and the rest ranged here and there as they wished. If they found that any had fled to citadels or places of strength, they attacked and captured them. If they surrendered, they were treated mercifully. When all these five brigades had taken in most Sogdiana, they met at Maracanda. Alexander sent Hephaestion to make colonies in various parts. He sent Coenus and Artabazus to Scythia for he heard that Spitomenes had gone there. He took the rest of the army into Sogdiana, and easily retook any places that the rebels had fled to. Those that surrendered without fighting, he relocated in those towns which he had subdued by force and caused their lands to be divided among these new inhabitants.
     
  3. While these things happened, Spitamenes, the rebels of Bactria, a company of Sogdians who were fled from thence into Scythia and some 600 or 800 Massagetan cavalry who came to him, went to a certain citadel which was built and manned against the Bactrians. They suddenly attacked the garrison and slew every man and put the governor in prison. Proud of their deed, they went soon after to take the city of Zariaspes. This they failed to do but carried away much spoil from the country around it.
     
  4. To suppress this rabble, Attinas governor of the country, led out some 300 cavalry not knowing the enemy had planned to ambush him. With these troops, he took some of the king's cavalry that had been left sick at Zariaspes and were now recovered. Pithon, the son of Sosicles and Aristonicas, a musician, commanded them. These two gathered some 80 mercenary cavalry troops of those who were left in the garrison at Zariaspes along with some of the king's cavaliers. They planned to go in a company with Attinas into the country of the Massagetae. However, Spitamenes and his troops rose from the thickets and woods and suddenly attacked them. They killed 7 of the king's cavaliers and 60 of the mercenaries. Aristonicus the musician, was also killed in that fight and behaved himself more like a soldier than a fiddler. In this encounter, Spitamenes killed Attinas with his whole company, Pithon was wounded and escaped. The news of this ambush came quickly to Craterus. He with all his cavalry troops attacked the Massagetae and routed them. He pursued them until they came to the wilderness of that country, where they fought. After a fierce battle, the Macedonians routed them. When the Massagetae saw that 150 of their cavalry were killed, they fled and easily saved themselves in that wilderness. The Dahae lost at least 1000 men. This put an end to the rebellion in those parts.
     
  5. After Alexander had subdued all Sogdiana for the second time, he returned to Maracanda. An ambassador from the king of the Scythians who lived on the European side north of the Bosphorus came to Alexander with a present and offered him his daughter in marriage. Alexander mentions this in his letter to Antipater as I said previously. If Alexander declined the proposal, the ambassador's alternate plan was to have Alexander allow his Macedonian nobles to marry into the principal houses of the Scythians. The ambassador offered that if Alexander wished, he would come in person to receive his commands from Alexander. [??]
     
  6. At the same time, Phrataphernes or Pharoemenus, who commanded the Chorasmians who bordered on the countries of the Massagetae and Dahae sent his messengers to let them know that he was ready to receive Alexander's commands. After he graciously heard both the ambassador's and the governor's errands, Alexander stayed there waiting for the return of Hephaestion and Craterus.
     
  7. As soon as Hephaestion and Craterus came, Alexander with his army attacked the country of Bazaria or Bazistis. Here was virgin forest in which a huge lion attacked the king by chance. Lysimachus, who was later the king of Thracia, offered to interpose himself with his hunting spear but the king would not allow it and asked him to stand aside. When the lion came on, Alexander held his ground and slew him with only one blow. After his army slew some 4000 wild beasts in that forest, he with all his army had a great feast in the woods.
     
  8. When Alexander returned to Maracanda, Artabazus resigned as governor of Bactria by reason of his age. Alexander gave the command of it to an old soldier of his father's, called Clitus, the son of Dropidas of Macedon, the brother of Hellanica or Lanica, Alexander's nurse. She was a woman whom he always respected and loved as his own mother. In a dream, he happened to see himself in mourning and sitting among Parmenion's sons who had died previous to this.
     
  9. The 3rd day after this dream was a holiday to Bacchus when Alexander usually offered the yearly sacrifice to him. Now someone at that time had brought him apples from Greece. He wondered at the fresh colour and good appearance of them. He sent for Clitus to show him the apples and to give him some of them. Clitus left the sacrifice which he was about to make. As he was going quickly to the king, he was followed by 3 sheep which were already prepared to be offered having meal and salt on their heads. When the king heard of this he asked his two principal soothsayers, Aristander and Cleomenes the Spartan, what this meant. They told him that it was an abominable sign and Alexander remembered his dream. He ordered them to go quickly and offer a sacrifice for him. Clitus came to the feast which the king made. Alexander had sacrificed to Castor and Pollux. When he was quite drunk, he began to brag greatly about his acts and devalue the deeds of his father Philip. Most who were at the feast applauded him. However, Clitus on the other hand upheld the deeds of Philip and spoke honourably of his achievements and decried the present times. He sometimes said some disgraceful things about Alexander. Alexander rose in a rage and intended to kill Clitus. He [according to Aristobulus] escaped out the back door and left the trenches and got into the fort to Ptolemy the son of Lagus. Both of them returned to the feast and Clitus sat again in the same seat. Ptolemy saw Alexander as he was calling out for Clitus. He said that here is Clitus and what do you want to do with him? Thereupon Alexander ran Clitus through with his spear and slew him.
     
  10. Later when Alexander considered the foulness of this act, he grew as angry with himself as he formerly had been with Clitus. He resolved to make amends and therefore shut himself up 3 whole days and did not have food or drink nor took any care at all of what became of him.
     
  11. When he had now continued fasting into the 4th day, the captains of his bodyguard broke in on him. After a long time, they were able to persuade him to eat again. His soothsayers told him that this happened because he did not sacrifice to Bacchus. Therefore, he soon went and sacrificed to him. He was glad to hear that this event came from the anger of the gods rather than from the malice of his heart. Aristander reminded him of his dream and of the sheep. He told Alexander that what was done, was done by fate and could not have been avoided. Calisthenes the philosopher agreed with Aristander in this. Anaxarchus of Abdera, a subtil teacher, went much further in this shameless flattery. He quoted an old proverb that Justice always sits at Jupiter's elbow. From that he concluded that whatever kings did, was to be taken as right and just. To lift Alexander's spirits, all the Macedonians unanimously declared that Clitus was treated fairly and justly put to death. They would have forbidden his burial, if the king himself had not ordered it to be done.
     
  12. When he had spent 10 days in settling his mind over this, he sent Hephaestion with a part of his army into Bactria. He was to prepare his winter quarters there. Alexander made Amyntas, the son of Nicolaus the governor of Bactria to which Clitus was intended to be. He left Caenus there with his own and Meleager's brigade. He left 400 of his fellow cavaliers and spearmen on horseback, with the Bactrians and Sogdians, who were under the command of Amyntas. Alexander ordered everyone to obey Caenus and to spend that winter in Sogdiana. He wanted to keep order in that country and hoped to capture Spitamenes if he happened to come for his winter provisions into those parts. [Arrian. l.4.]
     
  13. Alexander journeyed to Xenippa which bordered on Scythia where the Bactrians who had revolted from him had retired to. As soon as it was known that Alexander was coming, the natives ordered them to get out. Therefore, they gathered into a body of 2200 cavalry and attacked Amyntas, a commander of Alexander's. There was a fierce and long skirmish between them. They fled after losing 700 men and having had 300 taken prisoner. They had killed 80 Macedonians and wounded 350 more. However, when they yielded to Alexander again, they were pardoned.
     
  14. After this, Alexander went with his army to a place called Naura or Nautaca. Sisimithres, its governor, had two sons born from his own mother. With those people, it was lawful for children to have intercourse with their parents. Sisimithres had taken the gates or passes which open through the mountains into his own country. With a strong force he had well fortified the pass which was naturally well defended by a most swift and violent river through it [??] and had a huge rock at the back of it. [Curt. l.8. c.6.] Arrian says that this rock was at Parataca and was (2.5) miles high and about 7.5 miles in circumference. He calls the name of the rock, Chorienes, after the name of him that kept it. However, Strabo, together with Curtius and Plutarch, calls it Sisimithres' Rock and locates it in Bactria. They say it was almost 2 miles high and 10 miles in circumference. It had a large plain on the top of it of good land and well able to support 500 men. They also say that on the rock [not on that other rock in Sogdiana] Oxyartes had his daughter Roxane whom afterward Alexander made his wife. [Strabo, l.11. p. 517.]
     
  15. Although Alexander saw this pass was naturally well fortified and strongly defended, his battering rams quickly made a breach in the fortifications. He entered the outer fortifications and approached the rock. At the base of the rock there was a vast bog caused by the rain which fell from the rock and was trapped there. He did not know how to fill it up quickly. Meanwhile, he had the beech trees which grew in abundance there, cut and made into long stakes which his army drove down into the bog. All the day long he stayed to encourage the work. Perdiccas and Leonatus, and Ptolemy the son of Lagus, the captains of his personal guard divided the rest of the army into 3 parts and continued the work at night. They could not advance more than 30 feet by day and less by night even though all the army incessantly worked at it. The rock was so craggy and the work was very difficult.
     
  16. At that time Oxyartes, a great man of that country, a prince and the father of Roxane, was with Alexander. When Alexander asked him about the spirit and courage of Sisimithres, he replied that he was the most cowardly man that ever lived. Alexander replied: "Surely you have said enough to teach me that this rock is possible to be taken since you tell me that the one defending it is so weak."
     
  17. Alexander sent Oxyartes to Sisimithres to immediately demand him to surrender with his mother, children and all that were dear to him. Sisimithres surrendered immediately. Alexander with 500 of his silver targeteers, went up into the rock to view its situation and strength. When he had offered sacrifices to Minerva and Victoria, he left Sisimithres as the governor of that fort and the surrounding country as he was before. Alexander gave him hope of a greater dominion, if he performed well and faithfully in this command. At Sisimithres' request, Alexander took along his two sons to serve Alexander in the wars.
     
  18. He left his Macedonian squadron to capture the other places which had revolted from him. He advanced with his cavalry up a steep and a rocky way. He had not gone far, but all his cavalry horses were exhausted by the journey and could not follow him any further. Each day, his company became fewer and fewer. Also the young gallants who never wished to be far from him, stayed behind all except Philip, the brother of Lysimachus. He was wearing his full body armour and other arms, an incredible thing to do. Although he was on foot, he kept up with the king for over 60 miles, although the king rode and often changed his horse. They came into a woods where the enemy attacked the king. Philip stepped between them and rescued Alexander from that danger. The barbarians were routed and the woods cleared of them. When they were gone, Philip fainted from over exertion and fell down between the king's own hands and died. No sooner had this happened then Alexander was told that Erigyius, was one of his greatest captains, was killed. He had both their funerals to be observed with all the honour that might be given them.
     
  19. Spitamenes with a rabble of 3000 wild Scythians who followed him, came to Gabae. It was a strong town of the Sogdians that was located between the Sogdians and the Massagetae. He easily persuaded them to join with him and to plunder the country of the Sogdians. When Coenus heard of his coming, he attacked him with his army and killed 800 of them. He lost only 25 of his cavalry and 12 of his foot soldiers. The Sogdians who escaped along with some Bactrians, deserted Spitamenes on the way and surrendered to Coenus.
     
  20. When the Massageraean Scythians saw how poorly things went, they plundered all the carriages of the Bactrians and Sogdians and accompanied Spitamenes into the deserts of Scythia. He heard that Alexander came after them and planned to follow them into those very deserts. They decapitated Spitamenes and sent his head to Alexander and hoped by this to make him stop chasing them. [Arrian. l.4.] However, Curtius, [l. 8. c.8.] writes, that when Alexander was not far off, Spitamenes' own wife met him with her husband's head in her hand. When he saw it he abhorred the sight and had her put out of the camp least the foulness of such an act might corrupt his Greeks with these barbarian ways.
     
  21. When the Dahae heard what had become of Spitamenes, they took Dataphernes the principal author of that revolt and delivered him bound to Alexander. They submitted to Alexander. Coenus, Craterus with Phrataphernes, governor of the Parthians and Stasanor governor of the Arians returned to Alexander at Nautaca when they had completed their missions.
     
  22. Alexander rested his army at Nautaca because it was now the middle of winter. Arrian expresses this, "in the strength of winter". He thought about how to avenge the soldiers wrongs, which they had suffered through the pride and avarice of their officers. Thereupon he ordered Phrataphernes to go into to Hircania and the countries of the Mardi and Tapuri. He wanted him to bring Phradates who was the governor there. Alexander had often sent for him based on complaints he received, but he would not come. Phrataphernes was to bring him to Alexander under a sufficient guard.
     
  23. He removed Arsanes from the government of the Drangi and put Stasanor in his place. Arsace, [according to Curtius] or Atropates [according to Arrian] was made governor over Media to replace Oxidates. The king thought that Oxidates was not loyal to him. The province of Babylon, after the death of Mazaens was committed to Deditamenes, or, to Stamines [according to Arrian]. Sopolis and Epocillus and Menedas, were sent into Macedonia to bring him a fresh supply of soldiers from there.
     
  24. Three months after this, he started to march into a country called Gabaza. The third day into the journey, there was a dreadful storm and it was extremely cold. His whole army was in danger of perishing in this storm. Curtius, [l. 8. c.4.] describes this event in great detail. He tells of the fierceness of the storm and the king's fortitude in enduring it. He showed his wisdom and humanity in keeping the army together and comforting the poor weather-beaten soldiers in that distress. However, about 2000 perished of the poorer sort of soldiers, the support personal and hangers on. Curtius adds further, that which is recorded by Valerius Maximus, [l. 5. c.1. and by Julius Frontinus, l.4. Stratag. c.6.]. While Alexander was warming himself at a fire, a common soldier of the Macedonians, half frozen with cold and benumbed in his wits no less than in his limbs, pushed his way to his fire. Alexander took him and set him down in his own chair and told him that would be for his good. In Persia, anyone who sat in the king's chair was executed.
     
  25. The next day, he called his friends and captains together, he made a proclamation that whatever any man had lost in that storm, he would personally make it good again to him. This he did to the smallest detail. For example, Sisimithres had brought along with him many beasts of burden, draught animals, 2000 camels, whole flocks of sheep and herds of beasts. These were distributed among the army. These compensated them for their losses and saved them from the famine. Thereupon the king, declaring publicly how much he was beholding to Sisimithres for that courtesy. He ordered every soldier to take 8 days' of food with him. They went to capture the Sacae who had revolted from him. When they had gathered all the spoil of that country, Alexander gave Sisimithres from the spoil 30,000 head of cattle.
     
  26. Alexander married Roxane, the daughter of Oxyartes. Strabo reports this to have been done in the rock or fort of Sisimithres when it was first surrendered to him. [l. 15.] Many of his Macedonians followed Alexanders' example and married foreign wives from the more illustrious families of the foreign countries. [Diod. Sic. l.17. in several chapters]
     
  27. Now he thought wholly about the war on India. So that everything would be safe and quiet behind him, he conscripted from every province, 30,000 men, whom he planned to take with him into India. They would serve as soldiers and for pledges of their fidelity whom he left behind. He moved into Bactria and he sent Craterus with 600 of his fellow cavaliers, his own foot soldiers with the regiments under Polysperchon, Attalus and Alcaetas. They were to pursue Anstanes and Catanes who only remained of the rebels of Paratacene. There was a great battle fought between them. Catanes was killed and Austaces was taken prisoner and brought alive to Alexander. The Greeks lost 150 cavalry and about 1500 foot soldiers. After this Craterus went into Bactria and Polysperchon subdued the country of Bubacene for the king.
     
  28. Alexander assumed divinity and affirmed that he was the son of Jupiter. He was no longer to be addressed in the Macedonian custom but would be adored with prostration after the fashion of the Persian kings. There were plenty of court flatterers to feed this desire of Alexander. These are the curse of all kings and by whose tongues more kings have perished than by the sword of their enemies. [Curt. l.8. c.5.] The main ones around Alexander were Agis of Argos, the worst flatterer that ever was after Choerilus. There was Cleo of Sicilia and Anaxarchus, an orator. Calisthenes, an honest philosopher and a scholar of Aristotle opposed Alexander in this and he paid for it with his life.
     
  29. Hermolaus was a gallant youth and one of the king's company of pages, and instructed in the basics of philosophy by Calisthenes. He was once hunting with the king and slew a boar which the king had aimed at. Upon this, the king commanded him to be taken away and whipped. The youth took this badly and started a conspiracy to kill Alexander. First he conspired with Sopater, the son of Amyntas, a youth like himself the same rank. Then he conspired with Antipater, the son of Asclepiodorus, governor of Syria and others of the same company of pages. When the conspiracy was exposed by Epimenes one of the conspirators, they were all executed and Epimenes was rewarded. Alexander in his letters to Craterus, Alcetas and Attalus, written at that time stated that they had confessed that the conspiracy was among themselves only without the encouragement of anyone else. However, in another letter written later to Calisthenes, he charges him as being the author of it and he observes that Aristotle, whose first cousin was mother to Calisthenes states: "The youths indeed were stoned to death by the Macedonians but that orator I myself will punish and those who sent him and any who received them that conspire against me into their towns."
     
  30. When he had seized Calisthenes, he kept him in irons for 7 months to have him judged and condemned in a court of justice when Aristotle would be present. Chares the Mitilenian tells us that when Alexander was in the country of the Mallians and Oxydracans in India, he was recovering from a wound received in a fight. 17 months had passed since the conspiracy. Calisthenes who was a fat man, became sick of the Pthiriasis, or lowsie disease and died of it. However, Aristobulus and Ptolemy state that the pages confessed upon the rack that Calisthenes had put them up to it. Again, the same Ptolemy says that Calisthenes was first racked and later hanged. However, Aristobulus says that he was carried about with the army in chains and so died. So we see that these great authors and who were present in the army and waited on Alexander at the very time when these things happened do not agree with each other. However, there is no doubt about the time when this happened.
     
  31. Alexander left Amyntas in Bactria with 3500 cavalry and 10,000 foot soldiers. Toward the middle of spring [according to Arrian] Alexander moved with his army from there toward India to make the ocean and utmost border of the east, the boundary of his empire. He prepared his army in their attire for this great plan of his. He had all their shields covered with silver plate and their horse bridles made of beaten gold. Their very body armour he had enriched with gold or silver. He had 120,000 men with him on the Indian expedition.
     
  32. Alexander crossed the Caucasus Mountains in 10 days and came to his city of Alexandria which he had built in Paropanisus. He replaced its governor for his bad behaviour and relocated more people into his new city from the neighbouring countries. Any Macedonians who were unserviceable for the war were allowed to live here. He made Nicanor, governor of the city and made Tyriaspes commander of the whole region of Paropamisus and of all that territory as far as the river Cophene.
     
  33. From there he went to the city of Nicaea and sacrificed to Minerva. He then marched to the river of Cophene and sent an herald who ordered Taxiles and the rest of the governors of the countries lying between Cophene and the Indus River to come to him.
     
  34. Taxiles and other petty kings under his government came and met Alexander. They received his orders and told him that he was now the 3rd son of Jupiter that had come into those parts. They had only heard of Father Bacchus and Hercules but they were happy to see him now personally present among them. They therefore brought him rich presents and promised him to send 25 elephants. Alexander entertained them very graciously and asked them to go with him to be his guides through the passes of that country.
     
  35. When he saw that no one else came, he divided his army and sent Hephaestion and Perdiccas into the country called Pencelaotis toward the river Indus. The armies led by Gorgias, Clitus and Meleager and half the company of his fellow cavaliers and all the mercenary cavalry were told to capture any town they found by any means. When they came to the bank of the Indus River, they should start building boats to cross over it into further countries. Taxiles was sent with them and other commanders of those parts.
     
  36. The governor of the country of Peucelaitis revolted and died in the city which he resorted to. Hephaestion came and besieged it and after a month's time took and sacked it. The governor was killed and Sangaeus was made governor of it. Before Sangaeus had defected from Astes had fled to Taxiles. This act helped Alexander trust him all the more.
     
  37. Alexander, with his troop of silver targeteers, the cavalry of his fellow cavaliers, Hephaestion with the troop of those who were called Assateri, his archers, Agrians and javelin man, marched into the country of the Aspians, Thyraeans and Arasocans. He journeyed to the Choes River. This way was mostly mountainous and rocky. When he crossed that river, he commanded Craterus to come after him with the foot soldiers. He took the whole body of his cavalry and 800 Macedonians, targeteers on horseback and marched quickly away. He had heard that the people of that country had fled, some to the mountains and others to fortified cities. They all planned to fight with him.
     
  38. Those who came to oppose him, Alexander easily routed and drove them back into the town by the way they came out. He easily defeated the townsmen, who stood all in battle array before their walls and made them take refuge within their walls again. Craterus came with the foot soldiers. Therefore to strike the greatest terror into the minds of a nation which did not know what manner of men the Macedonians were, he ordered the army to spare no life. They set fire to the outer works which they had made. As Alexander rode about the walls, an arrow wounded him through his armour into the shoulder but it was a minor wound. Ptolemy and Leonatas were both wounded at the same time. Then Alexander saw a place where the wall was the weakest. He pitched his camp against it. Early the next day in the morning, he easily took the outer wall which was of no great strength. At the inner wall, the inhabitants made some resistance. When the Macedonians had scaled the walls and the townsmen felt the arrows showering down upon them, the soldiers within broke out of the gates and ran every which way to the nearby mountains. Many of them escaped and saved themselves there. The Macedonians followed them and overtook and slew the greater number of them. The townsmen that were left behind, were all killed and the city levelled to the ground.
     
  39. After Alexander had subdued another weak country, he advanced to the city Nisa. It was located at the foot of a hill called Meros and was said to have been built in old times by Bacchus. By the entreaty of Acuphis, the chief man of the place, who was sent to him with 30 other leaders, he spared the inhabitants of Nisa. They were only commanded to give him 300 horses. When this was done, he restored their freedom and allowed them to live after their own laws and made Acuphis governor of the city and the province of Nisa. Alexander took Acuphis' son and grandchild for hostages. He sacrificed there to Bacchus under the name of Dionysius. He made merry and feasted his friends and all his Macedonians. They wore garlands of ivy on their heads and sang praises to Dionysius with all his titles and names. "Calling him Bacchus, Bromius and Lyaus, Born of the fire, twice born and not like others, But the only one that ever had two mothers."
     
  40. Ovid speaks of him in like manner although on a different occasion. [Ovid l.4Metamorph.] See also Philostratus in Vita Apollonii, [l. 2. c.4.]
     
  41. From there he went to a country called Dadala. All the inhabitants had fled to the woods and mountains. Therefore he went through Acadera which was also deserted by the inhabitants.
     
  42. When the city Ardacena surrendered, he left Craterus there with other commanders of the foot soldiers. They were to capture places that did not voluntarily surrender and to order matters there as they saw fit.
     
  43. Alexander with his silver targeteers and his squadron of Agrians and Caenus and Attalus their brigades and the body of his own cavalry and at most four companies of his fellow cavaliers and the one half of his archers on horseback, went to the river of Euaspla. Here the governor of the Aspians was. After a long journey, the 2nd day he came with his army to a city called Arigaeum. As soon as the inhabitants heard that he was coming, they set their city on fire and fled to the mountains. The Macedonians chased them and slew a vast number of them. Ptolemy killed their captain in hand to hand combat and brought his armour with him.
     
  44. Alexander came with his foot soldiers which rode on horse back. They got off their horses and attacked the natives. After a long skirmish, the natives were forced to flee for refuge to the mountains. Craterus came to Alexander with the main body of the army when he had fully completed the task he was sent on. Alexander commanded him to rebuild Arigaeum which the inhabitants had burnt and to repopulate it with the people from the nearby places who wanted to live there and with those Macedonians who were no longer fit for military service. Alexander went to the place where he heard that natives had fled to. When he came to the foot of a mountain, he pitched his camp there.
     
  45. Meanwhile Ptolemy, who was sent foraging, went further on with a small troop to discover what was ahead. He sent word back to Alexander that there seemed to be more fires in the enemy's camp than there were in Alexander's camp. Thereupon Alexander left part of his army in the camp and went with the rest to view those fires for himself. When he had examined the situation well, he divided the company which he brought with him into three parts. One part he gave to Leonatus, one of the captains of his bodyguard with the brigade of Attalus and Balaerus. The second one he ordered Ptolemy to take charge of. He gave him a third part of his own Argyraspides or silver targeteers, the brigade of Philip and Philoras with 2000 archers, all the Agrians and half of the whole cavalry. The third part he led himself to a place where he saw was the largest number of the enemy. The enemy had confidence in their numbers and supposed the Macedonians to be but few in number. They left the mountain and came down into the plain. After a bloody battle was fought, the Macedonians won. Ptolemy, who led one of the three brigades of Macedonians, reports, that there were taken in the that fight, almost 40,000 prisoners and more than 230,000 cattle. Alexander selected the best of the cattle and sent them back to Macedon, to breed there for the tillage of the ground.
     
3677 AM, 4386 JP, 328 BC
  1. From there Alexander went into the country of the Assacenians who were said to have mustered 1000 cavalry, 3000 foot soldiers and 30 elephants to fight with him. It was said also, that Assacenus, [which as it seems, was the common name which all their kings went by] recently died. His mother Cleophis, commanded all that force.
     
  2. When Craterus had finished rebuilding the city, Arigaeum, he brought all his heavily armed foot soldiers to Alexander with battering rams and other equipment for a siege, if it was required. Alexander advanced with the cavalry of his fellow cavaliers, his javelin soldiers on horseback, with Coenus' and Polysperchon's companies, with 1000 Agrians and the archers toward the Assacenoans. He marched through the country of the Guraeans and had great trouble crossing the Guraeus River. When the natives heard of his coming, they dared not fight him in one body but divided their army and dispersed themselves. Each went into the their cities and planned to make a stand there.
     
  3. First, Alexander went with his army to Massaga. It was the largest city of the Assacenian country and enclosed with a wall of about 4.5 miles. 30,000 men defended it which included 7000 mercenaries from the inner parts of India. These came to fight at the foot of a hill about a mile from the Guraeus River and were forced to flee back into their city when they lost about 200 men. Shortly after this, Alexander drew up his main battle line of the Macedonians before the gates of the city. He was wounded in his thigh by an arrow shot from the wall. In pain he cried out that they told him he was Jupiter's son but when he was wounded, he felt pain like any another man. He added [as Plutarch in his book of Alexander's fortune writes] that when he saw the blood running down his body he cited a saying from Homer in his 5th book of his Iliad, that this was blood indeed, but not: "Such blood as from the blessed gods doth flow."
     
  4. After 9 days of the siege, the courage of the defenders began to weaken. They saw Alexander's works, the incessant labour of the besiegers, what vast valleys they filled up, what towers they built and how they made them run upon wheels. However when their captain was shot through with an arrow from a battering ram their courage failed completely. They gave up of holding out any longer and retired into their citadel. From there they sent messengers to beg for a pardon and to surrender. Cleophis, the queen with a great multitude of noble ladies, all pouring wine into golden basins, came out to Alexander. The queen lay her young son at his feet and obtained not only his pardon but she was restored to her father's kingdom. This was owning more to her good looks than to Alexander's generousity. For men commonly said, that all that was but the fee of a night's lodging and that she got her kingdom again by her allurements which she could not do by force. After that among the Indians, she went by the name of the king's concubine. In that siege Alexander lost not more than 25 men.
     
  5. The Indians in the seige who were hired from the inner parts of India caused Alexander more trouble than all the rest. According to the terms of the truce, they were allowed to depart with their arms. However, they camped about 100 miles from there. When Alexander was told of this, he was very angry with them and attacked them. He said that he indeed allowed them to depart with their arms but not that they should ever use them against the Macedonians. The Indians were not aware of the greatness of their danger. They locked themselves close together and formed a ring and placed their wives and children into the middle of the circle. When the enemy attacked, they withstood them very courageously. If any man was slain, the women took up their arms and took his place in the ring. At last they were overcome by the numbers of the enemy and they all died in that place. Alexander gave the women and the rest of the rabble who were left to his cavalry. This massacre of the Indians blemished Alexander's glory and remained as a spot on all his former noble actions.
     
  6. Alexander sent Coenus to a strong and rich city called Bazira. Alexander supposed that the inhabitants would readily submit when they heard what happened at Assacan. However, they refused to surrender. He sent Alcaetas, Attalus and Demetrius general of the cavalry to besiege the city Ora until he came. The inhabitants made an attack on Alcaetas but the Macedonians easily pushed them back and quickly besieged them on that side. Alexander heard that Abissarus would secretly move more of the natives in to defend it. Alexander sent word to Caenus to build a strong citadel there and leave a large enough garrison in it to prevent the natives from tilling their ground. He was to return to Alexander with the rest of the army.
     
  7. The inhabitants of Bazira saw that Caenus had gone with most of his army and left the rest in the citadel. They went out into the open field for battle. When 500 were killed and 70 more taken prisoners, the rest returned into the city. They were more securely besieged than before and did not venture out of the gates.
     
  8. Alexander took the city Ora at the first assault and took as many elephants as he found there. When the inhabitants of Bazira heard this, they were afraid of being taken also. Therefore, in the dead of the night, they all fled out of the gates and got up into a rock called Aornus. The rest of the cities in the area did likewise. Every man went there with his weapons. Alexander put garrisons in Ora and Massaga. He strengthened the walls of Bazira and captured the towns which the inhabitants had abandoned.
     
  9. When Taxiles died, his son Omphis or Mophis who had persuaded his father to submit to Alexander, sent to him to know his pleasure. He wanted to know if he would be the next king or live a private man till Alexander came. Although word was returned to him that he should reign, yet he held off for the present. Meanwhile, when Hephaestion and Perdiccas were sent to make a bridge over the Indus River, came that way, Omphis received them with all honours and freely furnished them with provisions. However he did not go out to meet them on the way least he should seem to depend on any man for favour but Alexander himself.
     
  10. When Alexander came to Embolyma, a city not far from the rock Aornus, he left Craterus with some of the army there. He ordered him to make provisions of grain and other necessaries for a long time in case the siege of Aornus lasted a long time and he was not able to capture it on the first attack. Alexander took his Agrians, archers, Caenus' brigade, from the Macedonian squadron such as were of the nimblest sort and best armed, 200 of his cavaliers and 100 archers on horseback and marched to the rock.
     
  11. According to legend, when Hercules was in those parts, he tried to take that place but could not because he was thwarted by an earthquake. Alexander was all the more eager to take the rock and outdo Hercules. According to Diod. Sic. the rock was about 12.5 miles in circumference and 2 miles high. Arrian says that the rock was 12.5 miles in circumference and at its lowest point it was about 1.4 miles high. At the foot of it toward the south, the Indus River ran not far from its source. [Strabo, l.15.] The rest was covered with vast bogs and inaccessible cliffs. In one of the cliffs a poor old man with his two sons lived in a cave where three beds were cut out of the rock. Alexander promised him 80 talents if he would show him a way up the rock. Thereupon he told him there was but one way and showed him where it was. When Alexander found no way other but that one, he manned that place so strongly that those on the rock could not possibly receive any relief from others. Then he put his army to work. He cast up a mound of earth and rubbish so high that now he could come at least to fight with them at closer range. He launched an assault on them which lasted 9 whole days and nights without cessation. Alexander lost many of his men in the fighting and in climbing the rocks. Among those who died, were Chares and a person called Alexander. Although he had no hope of taking it yet he pretended to carry on the siege but left one passage which led to the rock open for them to flee. Those on the rock were overcome by his persistency and resolution. They took the advantage of a dark night and all fled from the rock.
     
  12. When the king saw no activities on the rock the next day, he sent Balacrus to see what had happened. He brought word that the enemy was all gone. Then Alexander took some of the captains of his bodyguard and 700 of his silver targeteers and went up onto the rock first. The rest of the Macedonians followed lending one another a hand to climb up as well as they could. Alexander then ordered them to pursue the enemy. This they did and killed many of them in the chase. Many fell over the rocks and were dashed to pieces. When Alexander had conquered the place, he offered many sacrifices, and built altars to Minerva and Victoria on the rock. He left a garrison there and made Sisicoptus or Sisocostus, the governor of that place and country around it. Sisocostus had come previously from India to Bessus in Bactria. When Alexander had subdued Bactria, Sisocostus came in with his men to Alexander and served him faithfully after that.
     
  13. Alexander left Aornus and went into the country of the Assaceni. He was told that the brother of Assaecanus, the last king, with a number of elephants and number of the inhabitants and bordering nations were fled to the mountains in those parts. When Alexander came to the city of Dirta, he found no one there, nor in the surrounding country side.
     
  14. The next day he sent out Nearchus with 1000 silver targeteers. He assigned to Nearchus some lightly armed Agrians. Antiochus was given 3000 silver targeteers. These were sent out as scouts and to see if they could find any of the natives of whom they might enquire among other things, about the elephants.
     
  15. Alexander marched forward to the bank of the Indus River. He sent an army before him to clear his way. Otherwise it would have been impossible for him to have gone through. When he found that its narrow passes were controlled by Erix, he left Coenus to bring the main body of the army later at a less strenuous pace. Alexander advanced with his slingers and archers, cleared the forest and made a safe way for the army that followed later. Diodorus calls this Indian, Aphrices and says that he had with him 20,000 men and 15 elephants. Whether from a hatred to this Erix or Aphrices, or whether to ingratiate themselves with Alexander, the Indians killed him and brought his head and arms to Alexander. He pardoned them but did not thank them lest others follow their example.
     
  16. In 16 days he came to the Indus River. He captured the city Penceliotes not far from there which surrendered to him. He left Philippus with a garrison of Macedonians there to keep order. He subdued also a number of smaller towns that were along the river. Cophaeus and Assagetes, the governors of that country attended him as he went from place to place. Alexander learned from some natives whom he had taken prisoner that the men of that country were all gone to Barisades [or perhaps Abisarus] and that the elephants were left grazing on the banks of the Indus River. Thereupon he ordered them to show him the way to the place where the elephants were. They caught all but two which fell over the rocks and died. The rest were taken and trained for service and were added to his army. He found good trees for timber there. He ordered them cut down to make boats with. When the boats were launched, he went in them to the bridge of boats which Hephaestion and Perdiaccas had built for him. Since they saw that they would have more rivers to cross, they made their boats so they could be easily disassembled and carried on carts. Besides these boats, they built two others of 30 oars a piece and many more smaller craft.
     
  17. Alexander stayed there 30 days to rest his army. In that time he offered magnificent sacrifices to his gods and entertained his cavalry and foot soldiers by the river side. He made one of his friends, Nicanor, governor of all that region on this side Indus. After this he crossed the river by the bridge that was made at Pencolaites [Strabo, l.15.] with his army. Again he sacrificed to his gods after the manner of the Greeks. Alexander came into the region which lies between the Indus and the Hydaspes River in the beginning of the spring. This is noted by Aristobulus who was with him then and by Strabo [l. 15. p. 691.]
     
  18. When Alexander was about 8 miles away, Omphis the son of Taxiles met him with an army and elephants spaced at equal distances among the companies. At first Alexander did not know whether he came as a friend or a foe and prepared for a fight. When Omphis saw Alexander's actions, he halted his army and rode quickly by himself to Alexander and surrendered both himself and his kingdom [which was not much bigger than Egypt] into his hands. When Alexander asked him whether he had mostly labourers or soldiers in his kingdom he replied that he was at war with two kings. Hence he must of necessity keep more soldiers than labourers in his kingdom. His enemies were Abisarus and Porus who reigned on the other side of the Hydaspes River. With Alexander's permission, Omphis assumed title and position of a king. After the custom of his country, he was called by the name of Taxiles, for that name goes with the kingdom with whoever rules it.
     
  19. The city Taxila from which the king is named after, is the largest of all the other cities lying between the Indus and Hydaspes Rivers. All its inhabitants with Omphis entertained Alexander very joyfully. On the 4th day after his arrival there, Omphis told Alexander what grain he furnished Hephaestion for his army. He presented both Alexander and all his friends with crowns of pure gold. In addition he gave them a large number of cattle, 3000 oxen and almost 10,000 sheep. Arrian adds, that he sent Alexander 700 Indian cavalry and 200 talents of silver. Curtius mentions only 80 talents of silver ingots.
     
  20. Alexander was very impressed with this entertainment and sent him back his 200 talents of silver with 1000 talents more of his own. He also sent many dinner plates of gold and silver with a great deal of Persian attire and 30 of his own horses with their equipment. Alexander's liberality pleased and obliged Omphis to loyalty. It greatly offended his friends. One of those, Meleager was eating at supper and was quite drunk. He told Alexander that he was very glad to see that he found a man here in India whom he thought worthy of 1000 talents. Alexander remembering what penance he had done for Clitus, did not seek revenge but only said: "Envious men were nothing else but their own worst tormentors."
     
  21. The next day, Abisarus, king of the Indian mountaineers sent his own brother to him with other ambassadors to present him with money and elephants. He submitted himself and all that he had to Alexander's disposition and pleasure. When Alexander had made a firm league with him, he sent them back again to him. Also ambassadors with presents came to him from Doxareus, a governor in those parts.
     
  22. In the country of Taxila, Alexander offered again his usual sacrifices and made shows and contests with his cavalry and foot soldiers. He left Philippus the son of Machates, to be the governor in those parts with a garrison in the city. He left behind in the country of Taxila those of his army that were unfit for military service. He then went on toward the Hydaspes River.
     
  23. Alexander thought his fame would make Porus readily submit to him. He sent a message to him by Cleochares to require tribute of him and to order him to meet Alexander at the border of his kingdom. Porus answered that one of these two things he would not fail to do. He would meet him at the border of his kingdom with his army.
     
  24. There was another Porus a king of a neighbouring country in India. He was the nephew of the other Porus. Because he hated his uncle, he sent ambassadors to Alexander and offered himself and all his kingdom to his service.
     
  25. Alexander sent back Caenus to the Indus River with orders to dismantle the boats and bring them overland in carts to him. The smaller boats came apart in 2 sections, the larger were in 3 sections. They were all brought to the Hydaspes River.
     
  26. When they were reassembled and launched, he used them to return to Taxila with his army. He received 5000 Indians whom Taxiles and others had brought to him. He returned to the banks of the Hydaspes River. On the way, Barzaentes who was governor of the Drangians at times and the instigator of the revolt of the Arachosians was taken prisoner and brought to Alexander along with 30 of his elephants. This was a great prize for the Indians trusted more in their beasts than in their men. Gamaxus, a petty king in those parts and a confederate of Barzaentes, was taken and brought bound to him. Both were committed to prison and the elephants enlisted into Alexander's service and sent to Taxiles or Omphis. Alexander advanced and came to Hydaspes where he had executed Barzaentes for his old treason against his master Darius. [Arrian l.3. p. 72.]
     
  27. Porus was camped on the other side of the Hydaspes River. He planned to stop Alexander. He was a man of large statue and a brilliant mind. He was said to be five cubits high [7.5 feet] although Plutarch says that he was but four cubits high and a hand breadth [6 feet 4 inches]. His body was so big that his coat of armour was twice as large as any other man's. He rode upon an elephant taller than all the rest on which he sat like an ordinary man on horseback. Curtius says that in the forefront of his battle he placed 80 large elephants. Diodorus says he had 13. Arrian says that he had almost 200. He had 300 chariots and 30,000 foot soldiers in his army. Diodorus states that he had more than 1000 chariots and 50,000 thousand foot soldiers, although Plutarch says he had 20,000 soldiers and 200 cavalry. Diodorus says 3000 and Arrian 4000 cavalry. The Hydaspes River ran between the two armies. Porus with his elephants always appeared at the head of his army and was ready to hinder the crossing of Alexander. Alexander had noises daily to be made in his army to make the similar noises from the barbarians more normal and therefore less terrible to his men. After a while, in a stormy dark night, he crossed over the river with certain of his foot soldiers and most choice cavalry. He crossed way up the river onto a small island in the midst of the violent thunderstorm. Although, he saw some of his men hit by lightning and others seriously hurt, he was determined to cross and hide on the other side. The river was swollen with the rain and undermined its banks in many places with the swiftness of its current. Alexander got to land, where he could hardly stand for the unstableness of the ground and the undermining of the banks. When the Macedonians saw this, they also forced themselves to land being up to their very arm pits in water.
     
  28. When he crossed the river, he went ahead of his foot soldiers some 2.5 miles with his cavalry. He engaged 1000 enemy cavalry and 60 chariots. He captured all the chariots and 400 cavalry. When Porus learned that Alexander had crossed the river, he attacked him with all the troops he had except the ones he left to take care of the Macedonian army that had not yet crossed over. Alexander feared the number of the enemy and their elephants. He attacked one wing of them and commanded the rest to attack the other wing. When the natives were hard pressed anywhere, they always retired in a group to the elephants as a place of refuge. The fight grew confused everywhere and Alexander could scarcely route them until about 2 p.m. Alexander described the battle in detail in his own letters:
     
  29. Aristobulus says that in the former of these two fights he killed 400 cavalry and captured 60 chariots and Porus' son was killed in the fight. However, Ptolemy states when the forces who were sent out under Porus' son, he was killed in the fight. Ptolemy says the forces which were sent out with Porus' son were twice as many as Alexander mentions in his letter. Ptolemy says they attacked with 2000 cavalry and 120 chariots. Concerning the latter engagement which was fought with Porus, Alexander does not go into detail. Arrian gives more information concerning the number killed. The Indians lost almost 20,000 men and 3000 cavalry. All their chariots were scattered, two of Porus' sons were killed. Spitarches who commanded all that region of India and all the captains both of the elephants and chariots and of his cavalry and foot soldiers were killed in the battle. All the elephants which were not killed in the fight were captured. Of Alexander's foot soldiers, he lost 80 of the 6000 engaged in the first battle. He lost 10 of the archers on horseback, which led the first assault, 20 of his fellow cavaliers and 200 cavalry. Diodorus states that about 12,000 died including the two sons of Porus, all the chief commanders of his army and bravest captains that he had. 9000 prisoners were taken and 80 elephants captured. 280 of the Macedonian cavalry died along with more than 700 foot soldiers.
     
  30. When Porus was taken, Alexander asked him how he wanted to be treated. He replied: "Like a king."
     
  31. Alexander asked him again, whether he wanted anything else and his answer was that word: "Like a king."
     
  32. comprehends all. When Alexander saw his noble and royal disposition, he treated him accordingly and took him into the number of his friends. He restored him to his kingdom again which reached from Hydaspes to the bank of the Acesives River. In it were 300 cities. [Strabo, l. 15. p. 698.]
     
  33. Arrian shows that these things happened after the summer solstice in the rainy season in India. The Hydaspes River would swell greatly whereas in the middle of winter a man may wade across it. [Arrian. l.5. p. 107.] Jacobus Capellus compares another place of his, [Arrian. l. 7. p. 163.] where he writes the same thing of the Euphrates River, saying: "It is fordable in the winter. When the spring approaches, and much more when the sun returns from its summer solstice, it grows deep and overflows its banks."
     
  34. The Greeks call the four seasons of the years by the name of tropics. They may just as easily divide the year into two parts, summer and winter. Summer would start at the vernal equinox and winter from the autumnal equinox. However Arrian is speaking after the manner of the east when he says: "as the spring approached and after this toward the summer season, the rain began to fall there and the waters to rise."
     
  35. Concerning those Indian regions, Aristobulus was an eye-witness of them, and was present with Alexander at the Hydaspes River. He says that at the beginning of the spring, the rains begin to fall and so grow stronger from day to day. Strabo says the same. [Strabo, l.15. p. (114).]
     
  36. This battle was fought between the vernal equinox and the summer solstice. Arrian plainly shows this where he says: "This was the end of the battle fought by Alexander against Porus and his Indians on the other side of the Hydaspes River in the year when Hegemon was archon of Athens in the month Munichion:"
     
  37. In that year that month corresponds almost entirely to our month of May according to the Julian Calendar. The summer solstice did not happen until Alexander came to the Acesines River, as I show later from Nearchus.
     
  38. Alexander was glad for this victory which opened the way to the farthest borders of the east. Thereupon he had all his men that died in the battle to be honourably buried. He sacrificed to the sun, as the giver of this victory. He held games and contests both on foot and horseback at the river Hydaspes near the place where he crossed. Since there was of all manner of provisions in the place, he stayed there for 30 days to rest his wearied companies. To cheer up his soldiers for the remainder of this war, he called them together and gave them a pep talk commending their prowess and valor. He told them that all the forces of India were quashed by their one day's work. All the rest was a rich spoil for them to take. He gave the chief commanders of his army crowns to wear. Every one of them received 1000 pieces of gold. He rewarded the rest according to his place and rank in the army. For a description of the monument he made there, see [Philostratus l.2. Life of Apollion. c.ult.]
     
  39. Alexander planned that as soon as he set foot in India, to go and see the Indian Ocean. Therefore he had his shipwrights build boats for that purpose. In the Emodian hills nearby, there was an abundance of tall fir trees with a quantity of cedar and pine trees along with other timber fit for ship building. When they went to cut them down, they found there very many large snakes, as long as 24 feet. In those woody mountains, they found rhinoceroses as well as a huge number of apes, some quite large. The rhinoceros is a rare beast in other countries. When the Macedonians saw a number of them ranging on the side of a hill in a kind of array like soldiers, they first thought that they had been an enemy. They cried out, "Arm, Arm" and arranged themselves to attack them. It was not until Taxiles, who was then with Alexander, told them what they were that the fray ended. [Strabo. l.15. p. 698,699.]
     
  40. Alexander built 2 cities here, one on each side of the Hydaspes River. The one on this side the river at the place where he crossed and the other on the other side where he fought this battle. This city he named from the victory over the Indians and gave it the Greek name, Nicea. The other one he called Bucephalis or Bucephalia after his horse Bucephalus. He had died there not of any wound received in the battle [As some have it. A. Gellius [l. 5. c.2.]] but spent with travel and old age. He was 30 years old according to Arrian and Sicritus as cited by Plutarch. The king gave him a solemn funeral and build a monument and there built a city round it. [Pliny, l.8. c.42.] Near to these cities he built his navy for the ocean [Strabo. l.15. p. 698] on the Hydaspes River which ran between the two kingdoms of Porus and Taxiles. Both of these helped him greatly in building this fleet. [Curt l.9. c.7.]
     
  41. Alexander left Craterus there with a part of his army to finish the buildings of these two cities and their wall. He went further into India against those who bordered on Porus' kingdom. Aristobulus called the kingdom Glauconica but Ptolemy called it Glausa. He took one half of his fellow cavaliers along with him, the best men from every squadron, with all his archers on horseback, his squadron of Agrians and the other archers. On this expedition, 37 cities surrendered to him. The smallest city had at least 5000 inhabitants and many had more than 10,000. In addition, many towns and villages surrendered to him some which were as large as the cities. All this territory he added to Portus' kingdom. He made Taxiles and Portus good friends and sent Taxiles back into his own kingdom again.
     
  42. At the same time ambassadors from Abisarus came to Alexander. Arisarus promised to be at his command, provided that Alexander would not require him to give up his kingdom. For he would not live without a kingdom nor reign if he were enslaved to another man. Thereupon Alexander sent back word to him that seeing he would not come to Alexander, Alexander with his army would take the pains to go to him. This would cost Abisarus dearly. Ambassadors came to him from those Indians which lived as free states and from another Porus, king of the Indians also.
     
  43. Phrataphernes, the governor of Parthia and Hircania came at this time to Alexander with such Thracians that Alexander had left with him. Messengers came to him from Sicicus, governor of the Assacenians to tell him, that the Indians had murdered his vice-governor and had revolted from him. Against these Alexander sent Philippus and Tyriespes with an army ordering them to suppress the rebellion of the Assacenians and keep that province in order. About this time, Cleophis, the queen of the Assacenians bore Alexander a son, whom she named after Alexander and was later king of that country. [Justin. l.12. c.7. with Curtius, l.8. c.20.]
     
  44. The other Porus who was the nephew to the one whom Alexander had overcome, feared his uncle Porus more than Alexander. He left his kingdom and fled into the country of the Gaugaride. He took with him as many as would follow him and that were fit to bear arms.
     
  45. Alexander with his army crossed over the violent Acesives River which was almost 2 miles wide. Those who crossed on bags made from skins did much better than those in the boats. Those who crossed in boats were dashed many times on the rocks in the way. Some boats sunk, drowning some of the army as Arrian from Ptolemy reports, [l. 5. p. 145.] Alexander left Coenus with his brigade on the near side to provide for the crossing of those supplying grain and other things for the army and to protect them from any attackers.
     
  46. Nearchus, who was in the army at this time, says, [cited by Strabo, l.15. p. 692.] that Alexander first camped by the river side. He was forced to move his camp later to higher ground to escape the flood waters. This happened about the summer solstice. Arrian confirms this in his book [Indica, p. 172.] where he says that Alexander's army ran away from the Acesives River when its water flooded all the country at midsummer.
     
  47. There were vast forests and shady trees of an enormous size and incredible height. Some were over 100 feet high and so thick that 4 men could barely get their arms around them. They cast a shadow of 3 acres or 300 feet from their limbs. For the most part, they were like huge beams bowing downward to the ground and grew up from there again. The new plant was not nourished by the same bough but rooted itself were the bough touched the ground. For more information about the banyan tree see [Pliny. l.12. c.5. & Strabo l.15. p. 694.]. He states from Aristobulus that under one of these trees 50 men could sit at dinner.
     
  48. There were also a large number of deadly snakes. They were small and very colourful. Their bite was so deadly that it caused sudden death to any one that was bitten. To avoid this danger, the Macedonians hung their beds from the limbs of the trees and slept above ground. They got little sleep. At length they learned a remedy for the snake bite from the native people. They showed them a root to take if any man happened to be bitten.
     
  49. Alexander sent Porus back to his own kingdom with orders to return with an army of the choicest and ablest Indians that he could find along with any elephants he had. After the army crossed the deserts, they came to the Indian river of Hyarotis or Hydraotes. It was as wide as the Acesines River but not so violent. He left garrisons everywhere he went in convenient places so that Craterus and Caenus might safely come to him with grain which they were to gather from all the places they went. He committed part of his army to Hephaestion. He gave him charge of two squadrons of foot soldiers, both his own and Demetrius' Cornets of cavalry and half his archers. He sent them into the country of that Porus who fled away and ordered him to transfer the kingdom to his friend King Porus. If he found any other Indian nation bordering on the Hyarotis River which lived as free states, he should add them all to Porus' kingdom. Alexander crossed the Hyarotis River with less trouble than he had with the Acesines River.
     
  50. Next to this river there was a grove of shady trees not usually seen in other parts and wild peacocks that flew up and down in the trees. Alexander advanced and took over other countries. Some surrendered and others he took by force. For some he was forced to chase and overtake and make them yield to him.
     
  51. Meanwhile, Alexander was told that there were other Indian states and a people called the Cathaeans who intended to fight him if he came into their countries. They joined with other free states of India to form an alliance with them in this action. Also another nation of those parts called Oxidracans and the Mallians. A little before this, Abisarus and Porus with their joint armies along with many other confederate Indians, went to subdue them but were unable to. The Indians awaited Alexander's arrival in Sangalae, a large city of the Cathaeans. It was surrounded with a wall and with a bog. These Cathaeans are called by Polyannus [l. 4. Stratag.] the Calthaei. Diodorus call them the Cathari. He states that it was law, agreed to by all these countries that when the husband died, the wife would be buried with his body. Strabo also notes this of the Cathaeans. [l. 15. p. 699.]
     
  52. Alexander went into these parts and came the second night to a city called Pimprama. That country of the Indians are called Adraista. Diodorus calls them the Andrasta. These came to him and surrendered conditionally.
     
  53. Alexander rested his soldiers there the next day. On the third day, he marched to Sagala where the Cathaeans and their allies awaited his arrival. They stood in battle array on the rise of a hill before the city. Instead of a trench between them and the enemy, they placed 3 rows of chariots locked closely together. Alexander quickly scattered the chariots and they all fled back into the city. Alexander immediately besieged them. He cast up a double trench around the city except where the bog hindered them. He set Ptolemy there with 3000 of the silver targeteers, all the squadron of Agrians and one company of archers to guard that quarter. He set all the chariots which he had taken, in an escape route from the city to hinder them from escaping. The inhabitants tried to escape in the 4th watch of the night and fell over those chariots. They were beaten back by Ptolemy who killed 500 of them and forced them to retreat within their gates again. Meanwhile Porus came to him with the rest of his elephants and 5000 Indians. His battering rams were assembled and approached the wall. The Macedonians did not have to batter the inner wall but only undermined the outer earthwork made of brick and raised their ladders against the inner wall, thus taking the city by assault. 17,000 inhabitants were killed, 70,000 taken prisoner, 300 chariots were captured and 500 horses were taken. Alexander did not lose more than 100 men in this seige. 1500 more including Lysimachus, one of the captains of his bodyguard were hurt.
     
  54. After Alexander buried his dead after the Macedonian customs, he sent Perdiccas with sufficient forces to ravage and plunder all the country around there. He sent Eumenes the secretary, [that is that Eumenes who was secretary sometimes to King Philip and whose life, Plutarch and Probus have both written] with 300 cavalry to two cities which had allied with those of Sangala. He was to offer them a pardon and he should receive them in mercy. However when the townsmen heard what was done at Sangala, they all fled from the town before he came. As many as were not able to escape through infirmity, were all killed by Eumenes to the number of 500. Alexander gave up the idea of overtaking the rest and returned to Sangala and utterly destroyed it.
     
  55. Alexander went to besiege another strong town into which a great number of people from weaker places had fled. When they asked his mercy and opened him their gates, he pardoned them and took hostages. He marched away to the next town, which was a very large one and full of people. There he had the hostages whom he received to be presented before the walls. Those in the town knew them as their neighbours and they desired to speak with them. The hostages told them what a merciful man Alexander was and how dreadful he was to his enemies. They easily persuaded them to yield to him. Now the news went out that before people thought Alexander was more like a robber was wrong and he behaved more like a conqueror. The rest of the cities surrendered without a fight. [Curt. l.9. c.2. Polya. Stratag. l.4. in Alexan. s. 30.]
     
  56. From here he went into the kingdom of Sopithes who at more than 6 feet was taller than all men of those parts. He came from his chief city with his two mature sons. He gave Alexander his golden rod, all set with beryl stones and surrendered to him, himself, his children and all his kingdom. Alexander gave him his kingdom back again. A few days later, he feasted Alexander and all his army in a very sumptuous manner. He gave Alexander personally many large and costly gifts. He also gave him 150 Indian dogs which were, as was said, a cross breed between dogs and tigers. They were very strong and courageous. To prove this he had 4 of them attack a very large lion. [Strabo, l.15. p. 700. Elia. Histor. Ammal. l.8. c.1.]
     
  57. Meanwhile Hephaestion returned to him with the troops he left with. He subdued all the countries of the Indians far and wide wherever he went. Alexander spared no honour for him and praised him before the army.
     
  58. Alexander left Sopithes in his kingdom as he found him. He advanced still to the next country where Phegeus was king. All the inhabitants welcomed the Macedonians and Phegeus went out personally to meet Alexander with gifts and presents. He submitted himself wholly to his pleasure. Alexander re-established him in his kingdom. Alexander was royally entertained with all his army and stayed there 2 whole days.
     
  59. On the 3rd day he departed from there and came to the Hyphasis or Hypanis River. It is almost a mile wide and 36 feet deep. It was very rocky under water and quite difficult to cross. Phegeus told him what he wanted to know about the other side of the river. There was a vast desert of 11 or 12 days journey to cross bounded by the Ganges River. It was the largest in all of India. Beyond the river lived various peoples. The people there were the Gaugaridae or Gongaridae and Prasians or Praendians, or Praesiaeans, or Pharrasians, or Tabraesians, for they are all known by these different names. Their King was called Agrammes. [Diod. Sic. calls him Xagrames,] He had an army of 20,000 cavalry, 200,000 foot soldiers, 2000 chariots and 3000 or [as Diodorus says] 4000 elephants, all trained and equipped for war.
     
  60. These things seemed incredible to Alexander. When he had questioned Porus further, Porus told him that the force and power of that king and kingdom was indeed very great and no less than what he was told. However the current king was of ignoble birth and no better than a poor barber's son. He was hated and scorned by his subjects. Androcottus, who was then but a youth and had not only seen Alexander but also for a certain saucy prank played on Alexander, was ordered to be executed. He would have died had he not fled. Justin, [l. 15. c.4.] tells us that he later said that Alexander almost conquered all of India. The part he missed was of little note since their the king was too wicked, so base, so hated and so much scorned by his people.
     
  61. Alexander began to reflect that his soldiers were all tired out and spent with the length of the war. Every man began to look for an end of these dangers and for the reward and fruit of all their labours. They had now been 8 whole years [for so long it was since he became king] in a continual perilous war. It happened that for 70 consecutive days, it poured rain accompanied with violent thunderstorms according to Diodorus. Diodorus says that to pacify the soldiers, he gave them permission to plunder a most rich and bountiful country of the enemies and to take all to themselves. While they were busy at this, he called together their wives and children and made there a law that the wives would receive their monthly allowance in grain and their children the same wages that their fathers did.
     
  62. When the soldiers were returned home laden with wealth and riches, the king called them all together. He made a prepared speech to request them to accompany him cheerfully to the conquest of the Gangaridae. Caenus the son of Polemocrates replied in the name of the whole army and concluded that they all desired an end of the war. The Macedonians would not listen to Alexander's request. Ptolemy reports that he went on and offered sacrifices for the crossing of the river. When the entrails portended all direful things if he proceeded, he called together his friends and such as were the oldest and most intimate with him. He told them first and afterward declared to all the army that since all things seemed to be against his going any farther, he was now content and resolved to return home.
     
  63. Pliny very improbably writes that notwithstanding all this, he crossed the Hypanis River and erected altars on the other side. [l. 6. c.17.] For a similar action occurred in the same place, that is in the king's own letters to confirm as much. I think that those words refer not to his crossing over the Hypanis or Hyphasis River but to that which went before concerning the order and distance of his camps and journeys from place to place. These were described and recorded by Diognetus and Baeton, his two principal harbingers and camp masters. For who can believe that Alexander alone without his army and without any purpose of going any further would offer to cross such a dangerous river as that was. If he would, then the enemy who were on the other side, would have attacked him and hindered his work. Strabo, [l. 15. p. 700.] notes that he went no further eastward because he was forbidden to cross the Hypanis or Hyphasis River. Plutarch also tells us that in his time the kings of the Praesiaeans or Prasians crossed the river to his side and worshipped those altars which Alexander then set up and offered sacrifices on them after the customs of the Greeks.
     
  64. It is obvious that Alexander divided his army into various companies. He had 12 altars to be built, all of square stone on the west side of the Hyphasis River and not on the east side. Each alter was 75 feet high and similar to so many large towers and of a greater size than towers were usually constructed. On these altars, he offered sacrifices after the Greek manner to his gods. He held for his men, games of all sorts, wrestling, dancing and sports on horseback. Then he made his camp three times larger in every respect than it was ever done before. He made trenches 50 feet wide and 10 feet deep. He had the earth cast up from the ditch. He made a good wall around the trench. He commanded his foot soldiers that in their tents they should set up two bedsteads, each of them 7.5 feet high. The cavalry men should do this as well as make mangers for their horses as large as at other times. They should do the same with their weapons, horse bits and other equipment, they were leaving behind. They should make them in the same proportion and to hang them up. This was to give posterity an imaginary belief of his greatness. Concerning the inscriptions and titles of his altars, we may see more in [Philostratus, his life of Apollonius.]
     
  65. When these things were done, he returned by the same way he came to the Hydraotes River. He crossed it and came back to Acesines.
     
  66. There he found this city already built by Hephaestion whom he left to do it. Into the city he relocated as many of the neighbouring places as wanted to live there. He left his mercenary soldiers who were unfit for military service here.
     
  67. Arsaces, who ruled over all in the province bordering on the kingdom of Abisarus and the brother of Abisarus and his associates came to Alexander. They brought him presents of the most valuable items in those parts. Abisarus sent 30 elephants. They said that Abisarus would have come to him but he was sick. Alexender sent messengers to Abisarus and they confirmed his story. Thereupon he made Abisarus governor under himself of that province and made Arsaces subject to him. He appointed what tribute they should pay to him. Alexander offered sacrifices again at the Acesines River.
     
  68. He crossed the Acesines River and came to the Hydaspes River. He repaired with the help of his soldiers, whatever the flooding of that unruly river had destroyed of his two cities, Nicaea and Bucephalis recently built there. From the time that he went from there until his return, it had rained continuously with monsoon winds according to Aristobulus as cited by Strabo. [l. 15. p. (691).] The rain lasted 70 days with violent thunderstorms, as I showed before from Diodorus.
     
3678 AM, 4387 JP, 327 BC
  1. Alexander had built a large number of ships by the side of the Hydaspes River. Two of these had three banks of oars. He planned to sail down to the Indian Ocean with his cavalry and foot soldiers. For his venture, he gathered all the Phoenicians, Cypriots, Carians and Egyptians who followed his camp and put them aboard his ships.
     
  2. At the same time Coenus died who was one of his best and closest friends. He grieved his death and had him buried with all honour and sumptuousness which that time and place afforded. However, he did not forget the speech which he made in the armies behalf promising them to return home. Had he known how short a time he had to live, he would never have made so long an oration.
     
  3. He received fresh troops from Greece. These were auxiliaries and mercenary soldiers under their various commanders, that (Isaiah 30,000) foot soldiers and 6000 cavalry. This also brought rich arms for 25,000 foot soldiers and 100 talents in medicines [Diod. Sic. & Curt. l.9. c.5.] Memnon also brought him from Thracia, 6000 cavalry besides those which came from Harpalus and 7000 foot soldiers. He also brought weapons inlaid with silver and gold which Alexander distributed in the army and had the old ones burnt.
     
  4. Harpalus, who Curtius says sent the new supplies to him, was the same person whom Alexander had entrusted with the keeping of his tributes and treasure in the city and province of Babylon and whom he had left as his overseer of all that country. [Plutarch in Alexand. ] However, he gave the government of it to Mazeus who had delivered it up into his hands and when he died Ditamenes succeeded him in that charge. Although Diodorus calls Harpalus, the president of that province in his history of [year 2,113th Olympiad] in which time we are. Diodorus further tells us that Harpalus hoped that Alexander would never return alive from India and gave himself over to all kinds of intemperance and luxury, sparing no expense. First he committed of all manner of whoredom and luxury with the women of that country. Then he indulged in all sorts of unseemly and unseasonable delights and pleasures. He squandered the king's money committed to his charge. He ordered various fish to be brought to him from as far off as the Red Sea [Indian Ocean, ed.] and was so lavish in his feasting and usual diet that every man was ashamed of him. He sent for a noted strumpet, Pythonice by name from as far as Athens and when she died, he sent for another one from the same place called Glycera. Therefore Theopompus complained in his letter to Alexander telling him that Harpalus spent more than 200 talents in making two tombs for Polynice when she died, one at Athens and another at Babylon. He dedicated a grove, an alter and a temple to Pythonice by the name of Venus Pythonica. He set up Glycera's statue in brass at Tarsus in Syria and let her live in the king's palace. He commanded the people to call her by the title of a queen and reverence her as such. [Athenaus l.13. c.23.]
     
  5. Cleander, Sitacles and Heracon in Media did the like, hoping that Alexander would never return alive from India. They plundered private men's estates, pulled down temples and ravished the young virgins of the noblest families. They did many other kinds of villainies to their citizens and belongings. The very name of a Macedonian was odious to all nations for their avarice and luxury of all kinds. Worst of all, Cleander, who having first ravished a noble virgin himself, gave her later to his slave for his whore. [Curt. l.10. c.1. Arrian. l.6. p. 142.]
     
  6. Alexander prepared for his voyage into the ocean. He saw old grudges rekindled between Porus and Taxiles and made them friends again. He made them pledge friendship to each other and then sent them away to their own kingdoms. He had made Porus king of all the countries lying between Hydaspes and Acesines River as before. In addition he gave him all the free states which he had subdued between the Acesines and Hypanis River, which were various countries containing over 2000 cities. [Arrian. l.6. p. 124.] Others say that within these 15 countries were more than 5000 large cities besides towns and villages. [Plutarch in Alexand.] In fact the region lying between the Hydaspes and Hypanis River contained no more than nine countries with 5000 cities. Each city was as large as Coos in Meropis, [Strabo, from Apollodorus, who wrote of the affairs of Parthia, reports, l.15. p. 686.] Strabo thinks that his opinion is a bit outlandish. He says it seems that this number is put a little hyperbolically and therefore Pliny thinks this is the number of all the cities which he subdued in India. [l. 6. c.17.] Those who were with Alexander in his expedition report that in that part of India which he subdued there were 5000 towns and cities each as large as Coos in these 9 countries. Philippus, who was one of his company of friends with Alexander, was appointed governor of a country beyond the Indus River by Alexander.
     
  7. The cavalry of the city of Nisaea were sent back. Craterus and Hephaestion were commanded to march before him into the capital city of Sopithes' kingdom and await the arrival of his fleet. Craterus went on the right hand side of the Hydaspes with a part of the cavalry and foot soldiers. Hephaestion was on the left hand with the remainder and far greater part of the whole army and 200 elephants. The whole army at this time consisted of 120,000 men with those whom he brought from the sea coast. Those returned to him also whom he sent to levy fresh troops. They brought with them men of various nations and different weapons. [Arrian. l.6. & in his Indica. p. 181.] Plutarch says that at this time he had 20,000 foot soldiers and 15,000 cavalry.
     
  8. Curtius says that this fleet had 1000 ships. Of these, Diodorus says, 200 were open and the rest were barges propelled by oars. Arrian, [in his Indica] says he had only 800 boats, some for transporting the horses and the rest for cargo vessels grain and other provisions. In total this amounted to little less than 2000 vessels.
     
  9. The admiral of this fleet was Nearchus from Crete and Euagoras from Corinth was in charge of all the provisions. In Alexander's ship, the captain was Onisieritus from Astypula. Arrian [in his Indica], records the name of every capatin for each ship.
     
  10. When the preparations were complete, Alexander sacrificed to his native gods and to the other gods as the priests advised him to. These included, Neptune, Amphitrite and the Nereides or Sea Nymphs. Most importantly he sacrificed to the ocean, to the Hydaspes River, the Acesines River into which the Hydaspes flows and to the Indus River which receives them both. He held various sorts of games, of music and wrestling and the like with prizes for those who would enter the contests. He distributed animals to every company so they could sacrifice by themselves.
     
  11. In the morning, the army boarded the ships. This included the silver targeteers archers and such of the cavalry as were called his friends. This totalled 8000 troops and happened not many days before the setting of the Pleiades. [Strabo. l.15. from Aristobulus]. This time is about the end of our October. Alexander boarded and poured out a golden viol of wine from the prow of the ship into the river. He called on the Acesines, Hydaspes and Indus Rivers all at once. Afterward when he offered to his progenitor Hercules, to Ammon and the rest of the gods according to his accustomed manner the trumpet sounded at his command. This signal was to draw down the vessels into the water and to start the journey. This was done. The order was given how far every barge, horse carrier and ship of war should stay away from each other lest they should collide with each other. They were to keep their rank and position and not to out row each other as if this were a race.
     
  12. In this manner Alexander came on the 3rd day to the place where he had appointed Craterus and Hephaestion to meet him. He stayed there 2 days so that Philip might there catch up to him with the rest of the army. Alexander had sent him to the Acehnes River with orders to march down by the bank. He sent away Craterus and Hephaestion again with orders where to march by land.
     
  13. Alexander followed the Hydaspes River which was at least 2.5 miles farther than going by land and landed his soldiers and went to Sibarus, the country of the Sobians. These were said to be the descendents of those who along with Hercules had besieged the Rock of Aornus. When they could not take it, they were left here by him when they were not able to march with him any further. Their clothes were nothing but skins of wild beasts and their weapons nothing but clubs. Although the Greek manners and customs were long gone, yet a man might easily perceive some traces and marks of their Greek origin among them. When Alexander pitched his camp near to the chief city of their country, the principal men of them came to him and were admitted into his presence. They reminded him of their Greek origin and what reverence they had for the Greek nation. They offered him their service in whatever his pleasure was as became men of the same blood with him and his Greeks. They witnessed to this with the extra-ordinary presents they gave to him. Alexander received them very graciously and made them a free state to live according to their own laws.
     
  14. From there he rode further into the country some 30 miles and after he had wasted all the fields, he came and besieged the chief city of that country.
     
  15. The Agalassians opposed him with 4000 foot soldiers and 3000 cavalry on the bank of a river. He crossed the river and quickly routed them after killing most of them. The rest ran into the towns. When he had captured them, he slew those who were of age and sold the rest for slaves.
     
  16. Other inhabitants there took up arms also and about 20,000 gathered together into one city. He broke into the city by pure force. When they barricaded their streets and fought on them from the battlements of their houses, he was forced to retire and left many of his Macedonians dead behind him. Therefore in a rage he set fire to the houses and burnt both the city and most of the people in it with fire. When 3000 who had fled into the citadel sued for pardon, he gave it to them.
     
  17. He then returned aboard ship with his friends. He went with all speed into the countries of the Mallians and Oxydracans because he was told that they were two very populous and warlike countries. They had carried their wives and children into fortified places and planned to meet in the battle. Therefore he made the more haste, so that he might attack them while they were still making preparations and not fully ready for him.
     
  18. On the 5th day of sailing down the river, he came to the confluence of the two rivers, the Acesines and Hydaspes. They both meet in a very narrow channel. Therefore, the river runs with a most violent and rapid current making many whirlpools. Many of their ships sprung leaks and two of the largest of them ran afoul of each other, broke up and sank, drowning their passengers. Alexander's own ship, was sucked into one of these whirlpools and was in extreme danger of sinking and drowning Alexander. When they had gone a little farther, the channel became wider and the stream grew calmer. The ships came to the right hand bank and found a safe harbour to stay in behind a bank which ran out into the river. This broke the violence of the river and so they were able to draw their ships to land.
     
  19. The king set up altars on this side of the bank and sacrificed to his gods for escaping so great a danger. Then he marched about 4 miles further into the country and attacked the natives that would not submit to him. He ordered them only not to help the Mallians and returned to his ships again. He was met by Craterus, Hephaestion and Philippus who brought their armies to help him.
     
  20. The countries of the Oxydracans and Mallians lie between the place where the Hydaspes River joins the Acesines River and they both flow into the Indus River. [Arrian. in his India, p (171).] These were usually at war with each other but now united against their common enemy, Alexander. To further secure their alliance, they gave 10,000 virgins to each other to intermarry. They had 80,000 foot soldiers and 10,000 cavalry besides 700 chariots. Curtius says 900. Justin [l. 12. c.9.] and Orosius [l. 3. c.19.] call these people the Mandri or Ambri and Sabracans or Subagrans or Sugambrians. By all these names, the Malli and Oxydracans [who in Diodorus are incorrectly written Syracusions] in various editions go. They had 60,000 cavalry.
     
  21. The Macedonians thought they were past all danger and looked for an end of the fighting business. When they saw themselves engaged in a new war with more fierce and warlike countries than they had before in any part of India, they were terrified. They began again to murmur and rebel against Alexander. Alexander pacified them with a good speech and made all well again.
     
  22. Commander-in-chief of all this native army was a man of proven valour and chosen from the Oxydracans. He pitched his camp at the foot of a hill and made many fires so that he might make his army seem all the larger. They made loud shouts and noises after the manner of their country to terrify the Macedonians. The next morning Alexander was full of hope and confident of victory. He encouraged his soldiers and attacked them. Whereupon, the enemies whether for fear or some disagreement among themselves, all ran away and fled to the mountains and woods. When the Macedonians could not overtake them, they started rifling their camp.
     
  23. When Alexander had rigged his navy he sent Nearchus with it down river into the country of the Mallians. He ordered him to be there 3 days before the army. Alexander crossed the Hydaspes and ordered Craterus, who was on the right hand of the Hydaspes to take charge of the elephants, of Polysperchon's brigade, his archers on horseback and of Philip's regiment. He ordered Hephaestion to go 5 days march ahead of him. Ptolemy was to come 3 day's journey behind him. This ensured that whoever escaped from Hephaestion, would be sure to fall into the hands of one of the two of them. He ordered those that went ahead of him to go to the confluence of the Acesines and Hydraotes Rivers which was the farthest border of the Mallians, as the confluence of the Acesines and Hydaspes Rivers was border of the Oxydracans. They were to stay there and await his arrival and the armies of Craterius and Ptolemy.
     
  24. Alexander took his regiment of silver targeteers, his squadron of Agrians, Python's brigade and all his archers on horseback and one half of his fellow cavaliers. He went through a sandy dry country into the region of the Mallians to attack them before either the Oxydracans could come to help them or they could go to the Oxydracans.
     
  25. The first day he camped near a little river about 12 miles from the Acesines. When they rested for a while, he ordered every man to fill what bottles he had with water. They marched on the remainder of that day and the next night some 50 miles. On the next morning, they attacked a great many of the Mallians. They never thought that he would come over that dry wilderness and were walking abroad idly outside the city. He killed most of them and the rest fled into the gates of the city and there locked them. Alexander had his cavalry surround the walls, instead of a trench, until his foot soldiers came.
     
  26. As soon as the foot soldiers came, he sent away Perdiccas with his own troops, Clitus' cavalry and the Agrians to besiege another town of the Mallians. He understood that many of the Indians were gathered together there. He wanted to keep them in but not to make any assault until he came. This would prevent them from carrying news into other parts that he had come into the country. He began to make his approaches and to assault the city which he besieged.
     
  27. He killed many of them in the assault and the rest left the walls and fled to the citadel. When he took that, he killed 2000 men.
     
  28. When Perdiccas came to the city which he was commanded to besiege, he found all the inhabitants had fled. When he found that they had just recently escaped he followed them as fast as he could. All the ones he overtook, he killed. The rest escaped into the bogs and marshes.
     
  29. When Alexander had rested and refreshed himself and his army, he marched at the first watch of the night. At day break, they came to the Hydraotes River where he found that many of the Mallians had already crossed. He attacked and killed the rest that were crossing the river. Then he crossed the river with his army and overtook those that had crossed earlier. He killed many of them and took others prisoner. However, most of them escaped into a well fortified city.
     
  30. When his foot soldiers came up, Alexander sent Python against them with his own and two other regiments of cavalry. On the first attack, he chased them into the town and took it. All those who were not killed, were made slaves. After this Python returned to the camp.
     
  31. Alexander led his army against a city of the Brachmanni where he understood more of the Mallians had fled. As soon as he came, he besieged it all around with his squadrons very heavily. The soldiers immediately left the walls and fled to the citadels. When this was captured, some of the inhabitants, set their own houses on fire and threw themselves into it. Others died fighting. About 5000 perished and few were captured alive.
     
  32. Alexander stayed there one day to give his soldiers a rest. The next day he marched against the other towns of the Mallians. He found all the cities deserted and the inhabitants all fled to the woods and mountains. He stayed there one day.
     
  33. The next day he sent Python and Demetrius, the captain of a regiment of cavalry back to the riverside. He sent other troops and companies with them. He wanted them to deal with any that had escaped to the woods. If they did not surrender they were to be killed. A great many were killed by them.
     
  34. Alexander marched against the capital city of the Mallians into which he learned that many others had fled. When this large city heard of his coming, the inhabitants fled and crossed over the Hydraotes River. They put themselves into battle array on the high clifts of that river, as if they would stop him from crossing there. Alexander followed them immediately with his cavalry and ordered his foot soldiers to come later. When he was in the middle of the river, the Indians abandoned the place and although they were in good battle array, they fled. There were at least 50,000 of them. Alexander saw them in a strong compact body. Since his foot soldiers had not come to him, he offered to charge them from all directions. However, he did not think it wise to fight with them at that time.
     
  35. As soon as the Agrians, other well-ordered squadrons and the archers came, the main battle with the foot soldiers started. The Indians fled and all ran away to the next fortified city. Alexander pursued them and slew many of them. When they were there, Alexander presently surrounded the city with his cavalry before the foot soldiers came.
     
  36. Demophoon a soothsayer, talked with Alexander and told him that by certain signs and prodigies he observed that Alexander was in some great danger. He wanted Alexander to stop or at least to defer the siege of the place. The king reviled him with sharp words for disheartening the soldiers while they were in action. He divided his army into two parts and led one part and gave the other to Perdiccas. They both went together to scale the wall. The Indians could not endure the attack and abandoned their stations on the wall and all fled all to the citadel. Alexander with those about him broke open the first gate himself and got into the city. He began to set ladders against the citadel wall. When he saw his Macedonians not coming on so quickly as he wished, he took a ladder himself and set it against the wall and climbed onto the top of it. Pencestes, carried his shield which he borrowed out of the Temple of Minerva in Troy. In all encounters he was always ahead of Alexander but this time he was behind him. After him came Leonatus, one of the captains of his bodyguard on the same ladder. Abreas [one of the Duplarians, of that order of knights or esquires had double pay or allowance] was on another ladder. When the silver targeteers heard of the danger the king was in, they fought to set up the ladders so thickly that the ladders broke and so all came tumbling to the ground. By this they were of no use and hindered others from getting up that would help. [See Appiannus toward the end, l.2. Bell Civil.]
     
  37. Alexander was shot at on every side from the adjoining towers. No man dared come and fight hand to hand with him on the wall. Alexander leapt off the wall down into the citadel yard and put his back to a wall there and killed those that came to attack him with his own hand. He killed the captain of the Indians who came boldly to attack him. After that no one dared come near him but all shot at him from a distance.
     
  38. Meanwhile Pencestes, Leonatus and Abreas, leaped down from the wall into the yard after him and came to his rescue. Abreas was shot through his face into the head and died in there. Alexander [as Ptolemy reports] received so great a wound in the breast that his very breath came forth at it together with his blood. Pencestes, who interposed with Minerva's buckler in his hand and Leonatus, who took in his own body the blows which were meant for Alexander were likewise seriously wounded. No one wanted this but Alexander himself, who had there poured out his soul together with his blood. All agree that Pencestes defended him with his Palladian buckler. Hence Pliny calls him, [l. 34. c.8.] the preserver of Alexander the Great. Concerning the actions of Leonatus and Abreas, the Duplarian, all do not agree. Ptolemy the son of Lagus, was at the rescue of him. This is affirmed by Clitarchus and Timogenes and Pausanias in his Attica. However he denies this and says he was not. All that while he fighting with the enemy elsewhere. Curtius says that so great was the carelessness of those old historians, it is hard to know what to believe.
     
  39. The Macedonians at last broke into the citadel and killed everyone there with the sword. They did not spare man or woman, old or young. They brought the king out upon their shields, dead or alive, they knew not which. The cure of his wounds was more grievous than the wounds themselves. He endured the pain and started to recover. The army could hardly be brought to believe this. It was widely said he died from his wounds. Therefore as soon as possibly he could, he had himself carried to the river side. From there he sailed down in a barge to the place where his army camped which was at the confluence of the Hydraotis with the Acesines River. Hephaestion was here in charge of the army and Nearchus was over the navy. As soon as he came to land, he admitted the soldiers to kiss his hand and he refused his stretcher. He mounted his horse so all could see him. Then he alighted and went on foot to his pavilion.
     
  40. When the king's wounds had been healing for 7 days, he heard that the Indians were sure he was dead. He had two barges joined together and upon them he had his royal tent spread. It was open on every side so all could see he was still alive. This would put an end to the rumour of his death among the enemies. From there he went down the river and ordered, that none should come near the barge he was in, for fear of jolting his weak body with the beating of the oars. So on the 4th day, they came to a country that was deserted by the inhabitants. It had abundant provisions of grain and cattle. Since the place pleased him well, he stayed there to refresh both himself and his army.
     
  41. Nearchus the admiral, reports, that his friends blamed him for acting like a soldier rather than a king or captain in the army. When he grew angry at this remark, he showed his dislike by his looks. A certain old Baeotian pleased him again by reciting an old limerick: "He who would do any great thing, reason was he should suffer something too."
     
  42. Curtius [l. 9. c.12.] mentions a speech made to him by Craterus in the name of his friends for the same purpose. His answer to it to this end that a man can never lack an occasion to win glory by. "After the 9th year of my reign and 29th of my age, do you think it possible for me to be lacking to myself in advancing my glory which I have ever addicted and devoted myself to?"
     
  43. For so Curtius quotes him in saying this. However, the correct time of the chronology, was the 10th year of his reign [which agrees well enough with this saying] in his 30th year.
     
  44. The king stayed here many days until he was fully recovered from his wounds. He built more ships. There were about 3000 Greek soldiers who he had located in certain cities of Bactria and Sogdiana which he had built there. They grew tired of living among those barbarous people and were encouraged by the supposed news of Alexander's death. They defected from the Macedonian government and killed some of the chief of their own country men. They took up arms and seized the citadel of the city Bactra. It was not so carefully kept as it should have been. They drew the inhabitants in with them in this revolt. The leader of this conspiracy was Athenodorus. He assumed the title of a king not so much out of a desire for any kingdom but to bolster his plan to have the men follow him back to Greece. Biton or Bicon, was a Greek. From a grudge and envy against Athenodorus, he invited him to a banquet and had Boxus kill him. The next day Biton called a company together and there persuaded some that Athenodorus would have killed him. Others thought it was nothing but a mere roguery of Biton. They quickly persuaded others and they all took up arms to kill him. The leaders among them persuaded the rest and so all grew quiet again.
     
  45. When Biton had escaped this action, he started to plot the deaths of those who had saved his life. When they knew this, they laid hold on him and Boxus. Boxus was killed immediately. They planned to put Biton on the rack. All of a sudden, the Greeks, like madmen, rose up all in arms for no apparent reason. They did not rack Biton for fear of a rescue by the multitude. Although he was naked, he fled to the Greeks. When they saw what a distress he was in and ready to be racked, they changed their minds and rescued him from the danger he was in.
     
  46. Meanwhile, the Mallians that were left, sent their messengers to Alexander, to surrender their nation to his mercy. Likewise the Oxydracans surrendered. They sent the captains and chief men of every city and with them 150 of the principal men of the whole country to Alexander. He wanted them to send him 1000 of their principal men or as Curtius says, 2500 cavalry. These he would keep as hostages or as soldiers to serve him until he had ended his war with the Indians.
     
  47. Alexander invited all the principal men and petty kings of these countries to a feast where he had 100 golden beds to be set up at a reasonable distance from each other. Everyone of those beds was enclosed with curtains made of scarlet and gold. The purpose of the feast was to display whatever the old luxury the Persians had or the new extravagances of the Macedonians both mixed together could afford.
     
  48. Dioxippus the Athenian was at this feast. [Pliny l.35. c.11. Athena. l.6. c.6. Elian. l.10. c.22. & l.12. c.58. & Plut. in his book of Curiosities.] Dioxippus was a famous champion and one whom the king made much of for his great strength of body and courage. Choragus was a Macedonian of mighty strength and who had in many a fight shown his courage. When Choragus was drunk, he challenged Dioxippus to a fight. The next day Dioxippus came stark naked and all over anointed with oil with only a truncheon and a cloak for his arms. He approached the Macedonian, who came in armed with sword, buckler, pike and a javelin and laid him to the ground at his foot.
     
  49. The Macedonians and Alexander took this defeat as a disgrace on the Macedonian nation in the sight of these barbarians and there were embarrassed by it. As short time later at another feast, a golden cup disappeared. Dioxippus was suspected of taking it. This upset him so much he wrote a letter to Alexander and then killed himself.
     
  50. Alexander shipped his cavalry, 1700 of his fellow cavaliers and about 20,000 of his foot soldiers. He went not far on the Hydraotes River before he came to the confluence of it and the Acesines River. He sailed down the Acesines, and finally came to the confluence of the Acesines and Indus River. He stayed there with his navy until Perdiccas came to him with the main body of the army. On the way he subdued the Abastenians who were a free state among those Indians.
     
  51. While he stayed there, there came to him other ships of 30 oars a piece and certain cargo ships which had been recently built in the country of the Xathri. This was another free state in those parts. Ambassadors came and submitted to him from the Ossadians, another free state.
     
  52. Likewise the messengers of the Oxydracans and Mallians returned to him with presents. Among these were a small quantity of linen cloth, 1000 Indian shields and 100 talents of steel. As well they brought huge lions and tigers that were tamed, the skins of huge lizards and tortoise shells. There were also 300 chariots and 1030 horses to draw them, 4 to a chariot. [Curt. l.9. c.15.] Arrian says also that they sent him 3000 men for hostages. These were the bravest and best men they could find among them. They also sent 500 chariots with men in them to fight. This was more than what Alexander had asked of them. Arrian adds that Alexander accepted their chariots and returned their hostages again.
     
  53. Alexander commanded them to pay him such tribute as they formerly paid to the Arachosians and set Philip to be their governor. His government was to extend to the confluence of the 2 rivers, the Indus and Acesines and no further. We can hardly believe Plutarch where he says that the extent of Philip's government was three times the size of Porus' kingdom especially if it were so big, as he himself states it to have been. Alexander left him to guard that province all the Thracian cavalry and such companies of foot soldiers as he thought fit and necessary for that purpose. Moreover he had a city built at the confluence of those two rivers. He thought it would quickly grow quite large and be famous. Therefore he constructed a great number of docks for ship building.
     
  54. At that time Oxyartes, father of Roxane whom Alexander had married came to him. Alexander cleared him of all suspicion of having any hand in the revolt of the Greeks that were in Bactria. 3678c AM, 4388 JP, 326 BC
     
  55. After this Polysperchon was sent to Babylon with an army. [Justin, l.12. c.10.] Craterus was ordered to take most of the army that was left with the elephants and to march down on the left bank of the Indus River. This way was easier for the heavily armed foot soldiers and the bordering countries were no more loyal to him on either side of the river. [??] Alexander took some choice companies and sailed down the Indus River to the ocean. It is said that he went at least 75 miles a day on the river and yet the journey lasted a full five months. [Pliny, l.6. c.17.]
     
  56. In the voyage down the river, the first country Alexander came to was the Sabracans or Sambestans. This was a country as great as any in India both for population and the number of warriors. It was governed by a democratic government throughout all their cities. When they heard of the coming of the Macedonians, they armed 60,000 foot soldiers and 6000 or [as Curtius says] 8000 cavalry with 500 chariots. These were under the command of their 3 most expert captains. When the navy came to them, [For more details see Curt. l.9. c.15. & Pliny, l. 19. c.1,] they were frightened by the strangeness of the sight. They recalled the invincible glory of the Macedonians and took the advice of the old men among them. They said they should avoid so imminent a danger and should submit to the Macedonians. Thereupon they sent messengers and surrendered themselves wholly into his hands. Alexander graciously received them. They gave him many gifts and the honours befitting a demigod.
     
  57. Four days later he came to a country which lay on both sides the river which was called the Sodrans [or Sogdans, as in Arrian] and Massanians. Alexander received them as graciously as he had done to the former. At this place on the bank of the Indus River, he built another Alexandria and selected 1000 men to populate it. He made places for merchants and docks for shipping. He repaired any of his ships that were damaged. He made Oxyartes, his father-in-law and Pithon, governors of all the country from the confluence of the Acesines and Indus Rivers to the sea. He also included all the sea coast. He sailed down the river and quickly came into the country of King Musicanus and he was there before Musicanus ever heard of his coming. Not knowing what else to do, he immediately went out to meet him and presented him with the choicest gifts that India could afford and in particular with all his elephants. He surrendered himself and all his whole kingdom into his hands and asked a pardon for not doing it sooner. Alexander pardoned him and asked about the country and the city there. [For more details see, Strabo. l.15. p. 694,701. which he gathered from Aristobulus and Onesicratus] Alexander restored him to his kingdom as he was before.
     
  58. Here he heard the complaints brought against Tiriolte or Tityeste, whom he had made governor over the Parapamisadae with his accusers in person. He found him guilty of many acts of cruelty and avarice and executed him there. He gave that government to his father-in-law, Oxyartes.
     
  59. He ordered Craterus to build a citadel at the city of Musicanus. This was done before Alexander left the place. He saw that location was excellent to keep neighbouring nations in check and to keep them in order.
     
  60. From there he sailed with his archers, Agrians and all the cavalry which he had on board, he came to another country of the Indians, called Praestans. He marched against their king Porticanus or Oxycanus because the king did not come to meet him neither did he send ambassadors to him. Alexander captured two of the largest cities in the kingdom. Porticanus was in one of them which Alexander took on the 3rd day of his siege. Porticanus fled into the citadel and sent ambassadors to treat for conditions. Before they came to Alexander, two great pieces of the wall fell flat down to the ground. Through these breaches the Macedonians rushed into the citadel. Porticanus, with those few who were with him stood on their guard. They were all killed and the citadel was pulled down. All in the town were sold for slaves. Its spoil was given to the soldiers. Alexander kept only the elephants for himself.
     
  61. Diodorus says that Alexander first gave those two cities to be plundered by his soldiers and then he burned them. After that he went and took in all the rest of the cities and towns and destroyed them. By this action, he struck terror into all the neighbouring countries. When the rest of the countries heard only of his coming, they sent ambassadors and surrendered to Alexander without any resistance, as Arrian notes.
     
  62. After this, Alexander entered the country of the Brachmanes where Sambus or Sabus or Samus according to Curtius, or Sabbas according to Plutarch, or Ambigerus according to Justin, or Ambiras, according to Orosius, was king. When he heard that Alexander was coming, he fled. When Alexander came near his main city called Sindomana or Sindonalia, he found the gates open wide for him. and Sambus' servants came to meet him with presents of money and elephants. They told him that Sambus was fled not from any hostility to him. He feared Musicanus whom Alexander had let go and pardoned and they were enemies.
     
  63. Alexander took in this and many other places. He went and by force and took another city which had revolted from him and put to death many of the Brachmanes who caused the revolt. For by their instigation, Sambus, who had but recently submitted to him and the cities of his kingdom had revolted from him. Curtius says that Alexander took the city by undermining the wall and that the natives stood amazed to see men rise from the ground in the middle of the city.
     
  64. Clitarchus as by Curtius, says that there were 8000 or rather [as Diodorus with others have it] 80000 men slain in that country. A large number were sold for slaves. The Brachmanes brought these disasters on themselves. The rest who simply submitted to him and asked for his pardon were not harmed. King Sambus saved himself and got away as far as he could with 30 elephants.
     
  65. Alexander had taken over 10 men of the Gymnosophistae, who had persuaded Sambus to flee away and had caused much trouble for him and his Macedonians. He asked them some hard and obscure questions and threatened to hang every man if they did not answer those questions. Plutarch records these in his "Life of Alexander" . Plutarch says that when Alexander heard their replies, he sent them away and gave them many honours for their trouble.
     
  66. In the meantime, Musicanus revolted and Alexander sent Pithon with an army against him. He destroyed some of the cities in his kingdom and put garrisons in others. He built citadels to keep them in line. He captured Musicanus and brought him alive to Alexander who had him immediately crucified in his own kingdom along with as many of the Brachmanes who had encouraged him to revolt.
     
  67. Alexander returned to the Indus River where he had ordered his navy to wait for him. They sailed down the river again and came to a city called Harmatelia which belonged to Sambus and the Brachmanes. The inhabitants trusted in their strength and fortifications of their city and shut the gates to him. Alexander ordered 500 of his Agrians to go close under the walls with their arms. If the townsmen sallied out against them, they were to retreat. 3000 attacked the 500, who fled as they were ordered to. The enemies pursued them and came unknowingly on other companies which waited in ambush for them. Alexander waited personally for them. In the ensuing battle, 600 were killed, 1000 captured and the rest fled back into the city and stayed there. On the king's side many were grievously wounded almost to the point of death. The Indians had poisoned the heads of their weapons with a deadly poison. Ptolemy the son of Lagus was among the wounded and almost dead. It is said that Alexander in his sleep saw an herb which was a remedy for that kind of poison. The herb was squeezed into a drink and taken to neutralize the poison. Others of the wounded made use of that medicinal herb and recovered. It is most likely that someone who knew the medical value of that herb, told Alexander about it. To flatter and honour him, this fable was made up. So says Strabo, [l. 15. p. 723.] who tells this story as happening among the Oritae of whom we shall speak later.
     
  68. When Alexander started to besiege Harmotelia which was a strong and well fortified city, all the inhabitants came out to him and humbly begged his pardon. They surrendered themselves and their city to his pleasure. Thereupon he pardoned them.
     
  69. Moeris king of Patalena, its neighbouring country, came to Alexander and put himself and his kingdom wholly into his hands. When Alexander had freely restored him to his kingdom again, he ordered Moeris to provide for his army.
     
  70. Alexander commanded Craterus to take with him the regiments of Attalus, Meleager and Antigenes with some of his archers and of his allies and Macedonians which were grown unserviceable for the war. He was ordered to take them to Macedon by the way of Caramania through the countries of the Aracotti and Zarangi or Drangi. Some of the rest of the army were led by Hephaestion on the one side of the Indus River. The javelineers on horseback and the Agrians were led by Pithon on the other side. He was ordered to get inhabitants for the cities which Alexander had built. If any new revolts happened in those parts, he should put them down. When that was done, he was to come and join with the rest of the army at Patala.
     
  71. When Alexander had now sailed down the river for 3 days, he received news that Moeris with a large company of the Patalenians had left the city and fled to the mountains and woods. Thereupon, he hurried as fast as he could to get there.
     
  72. Strabo, [l. 15. p. 691.] tells us from Aristobulus that Alexander came into Patalene about the rising of the dog star [Sirius] had spent 10 full months in his trip down the river. For he set out shortly before the rising of the seven stars [Pleiades]. Alexander arrived in Patala about the end of our July after sailing since the beginning of the 10th month previously. Hence it appears that he spent 9 full months sailing down the Hydaspes, Acesines and Indus Rivers. This we determine from rising and setting of these stars. We find Plutarch's account in this matter inaccurate. He states: "that his sailing down the rivers to the sea took him up to 7 month's time."
     
  73. Alexander came to Patala and found no inhabitants in the city and country side. He found there great numbers of flocks and herds of cattle and grain in great abundance. He quickly sent his fastest soldiers to overtake those, who had fled. As they overtook them, they were to send them away to overtake the rest and to persuade them to return. They were promised peace and their belongings and home in both the city and country.
     
  74. Alexander ordered Hephastion to build a citadel at Patala. He sent others into a region of theirs which was altogether destitute of water to dig wells to make it more habitable. Some of the natives attacked and killed them. When the natives had lost many of their own in the fight, the rest fled away to the woods and mountains. When Alexander heard what had happened to his men, he sent more to help them to complete the work.
     
  75. Alexander asked Nearchus, his admiral, to select some suitable season of the year to set out from the mouth of the Indus River and to sail along until he came to the Persian Gulf and to the mouth of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. [Arrian in his Indica, reports from Nearchus' writings, p. 182.] Plutarch says Alexander made Nearchus the admiral of the fleet and Onesicritus its chief pilot. Onesicrtius in his story says of himself, that he was the navarch or admiral. Both [Arrian. l.6. p. 124. & Pliny l.6. c.22.] call him commander of the fleet. Strabo [l. 15. p. 721.] more correctly calls him the chief pilot. See [Arrian. l.7. p. 162. & in his Indica. p. 191.]
     
  76. At Patala the Indus River divides into two large branches both of which retain the name of Indus until they empty into the sea. Between these they create a triangular shaped island after which the city Patalene is called. This island is larger than the delta in Egypt. Onesicritus tells us that each side of this island (Isaiah 250) miles long. Aristobulus says that the side facing the ocean is about 125 miles long. The land is marshy where the rivers empty into the sea. Nearchus and later Arrian say that this side was 225 miles wide. Pliny says that it was 220 miles wide. [Strabo, l.15. p. 701. Pliny l.6. c.21. Arrian l.5. p. 103. & l.6. p. 135,137.]
     
  77. Alexander planned to sail down to the sea by the right hand branch. He selected his fastest ships all of two decks, all his galleys of 30 oars a piece and some fast barques. He picked guides who knew the river and so set out. He wanted Leonatus with a 1000 cavalry and 8000 foot soldiers to keep up with him along the river bank.
     
  78. The morning after he set out, there arose a mighty storm. The wind and tide crossed each other to create huge waves on the river so that his ships collided with each other. Most of them were leaking and many of the ships of 30 oars a piece broke apart before they could get to an island which was in the middle of the channel.
     
  79. Alexander was forced to stay here a long while to build new vessels to replace those that were lost. His river guides had fled and he was unable to replace them. So they were forced to go on without them. When they had gone 100 miles the pilots all agreed and told Alexander that they could smell the sea and therefore the ocean could not be far away. Therefore he sent some to go ashore and get some of the natives. He thought they might be able to confirm this. They searched for people in their cottages for a long time. At last, they found some people in them whom they asked, how far away was the sea. They replied that they did not know what the sea was nor had they ever heard of any such thing. However, if they went on for 3 days, they would come to salt water which mixed with the fresh.
     
  80. Arrian tells us that when certain Macedonians landed, they found some Indians whom Alexander used for guides on the river for the rest of the journey. They came to the place where the river widens to 25 miles, which is its greatest width. The wind blew very strongly from off the sea and they were forced again to take refuge into a creek which his guides directed him to. Curtius says that he came on the 3rd day to salt water as he was foretold. He found there another island in the river where they observed that the boats moved not as fast as they were going because of the incoming tide.
     
  81. While they lay there at anchor, some went foraging. A new danger confronted them. For there came in on them a mighty tide [which to this day is usual in Cambay where the Indus River empties into the sea] and flooded all the countryside. Only the top of some hills, like so many little islands, were above water. Those who had gone ashore, resorted to these hills. When the sea was gone out again and the land left dry as it was before, then their ships were left high and dry. Either they stuck nose first into the bank or they fell over on their side. When the next tide came in, those ships which stood upright on their keels in the mud floated again with the rising of the water and were not damaged. Those that had settled on hard ground when the sea was gone out were fallen on their sides. When the tide returned, these ships were driven against one another or beaten and broken on the shore.
     
  82. Everything was repaired as best as the time and place would permit. Alexander sent two barques down the river to view the island which the guides had told him that he must land at if he wanted to sail out into the ocean. The natives called that island Cilluta, Alexander called it, Scillustin and others Philtucin. They brought back word to him that the island was large and had in it excellent ports and lots of fresh water. He ordered the whole navy to sail to that island. Alexander took some better vessels and went further to discover whether at the mouth of the river there was no barrier but a safe passage out into the open ocean. When he had gone 50 miles, he saw yet another island lying further out in the open ocean.
     
  83. Alexander returned to the former island lying at the mouth of the river and came ashore at a certain cape in it. He offered sacrifices to certain gods he said Jupiter Ammon commanded him to sacrifice to. The next day he sailed to another island lying out in the same ocean and offered more sacrifices to other gods in the same manner he had done previously. He said that what he did was by the command of Jupiter Ammon. He sailed far out of the mouth of the Indus River into the vast ocean. There he sacrificed certain oxen he had on the ship to Neptune and threw them overboard into the sea. He also made a drink offering and first poured that into the sea. Then he threw a golden vial and various golden goblets for a thank offering after it into the ocean. He prayed that since he planned to send Nearchus into the gulf of Persia, that he might safely arrive there. [Arrian. l.6. p. 136.]
     
  84. Justin [l. 12. c.10.] states that when Alexander returned to the mouth of the Indus River, he built a new city called Barce as a memorial and erected some altars there. Curtius [l. 9. c.16.] says that at midnight he set out with a small company of ships when the tide started to go out and went far out from the mouth of the Indus River about 50 miles into the open sea. When he had done this, he sacrificed to the gods of those seas and neighbouring lands. Then he returned to the rest of his navy. Diodorus Siculus states that he went with some of his closest friends, out into the main ocean. He landed at two little inlets and offered there a magnificent sacrifice to the gods. He threw into the sea a number of very expensive golden cups and made drink offerings to the sea. When he was finished, he built some altars in honour of Tethys and Oceanus. Now that he had finished his intended voyage into the east, he returned with his navy up the river. On that journey he came to a prosperous and famous city called Hyala which government was very similar to that of Lacedemon.
     
  85. Two kings, descended from 2 houses, inherited their office from their fathers. They were in charge of military matters. Civil affairs were managed by a council of elders.
     
  86. When Alexander returned to the Patala against the stream, he found the citadel completed according to his directions. Pithon returned with his army, having completed his assigned task. Alexander planned to leave a part of his navy at Patala. The Indians of Cambais call it by this name to this very day]. Here the Indus River divides into two branches. He put Hephaestion in charge of making the ports and docks for the navy.
     
  87. Meanwhile he made another journey to the ocean by the channel on the left hand side of the same river to determine which of the two channels was the best and easiest journey to the ocean and to return again. When he was almost at the mouth of the second channel, he found a certain lake in the channel. It was made either by this river's meandering or by waters which flow in there from other parts and made the river more wide there than in other places. The lake looked like an arm of the sea. He left there Leonatus with most of his army and with all his smaller ships. Alexander went on with his ships of 30 oars a piece and of two tiers of oars. He sailed again out into the vast ocean and found that this was the more spacious channel of the two to sail for taking commerce to Patala. He went ashore with certain cavalry and made a three day journey along the sea coast. He explored the coast where he had sailed. He had wells dug in various places for fresh water for his navy if they needed it. [Arrian. l.6. p. 137.]
     
  88. The next day after his return from the ocean, Curtius [l. 9. c10.] says that he sailed up the river to a certain salt water lake. Some men went into it not knowing the nature of it. They developed an infectious scab that spread to others. However, they quickly found an oil which cured it. If this was the same lake which I mentioned before from Arrian, then in all this history concerning Alexander's last return from the ocean, no author mentions this except for Arrian.
     
  89. When Alexander returned to Patala the second time, he sent a part of his army to dig those wells by the sea side. He ordered them to return to Patala as soon as they were done. He sailed again into the lake and made there new ports and other docks for his ships. He left a garrison there and stored a 4 month supply of grain and other supplies for the coastal voyage. [Arrian. l. 6. p. 137.] Now it seems that at this lake he built the city called Potana so that he might have a good port for his navy in that part of the ocean. [Diod. Sic. l.3. p. 181. in the Greek and Latin edition, compared with Agatharchides, his Excerptions in Photius, Cod. 250. c.51] and with this place in Arrian.]
     
  90. Curtius [l. 9. c.16,17.] writes that Alexander with his army stayed on the island of Patalena awaiting the arrival of spring. During that time he built many cities there. As winter was drawing to an end, he burned his ships which were unserviceable and marched away by land. Strabo [l. 15. p. 721.] states that towards the summer season, [which according to his account always began with the spring] he left India. I think he would not have said this had he better considered what Alexander said and was later affirmed by Nearchus, who was admiral concerning this voyage. He says: "When the king was now on his way, he himself began his voyage in the autumn when the Pleiades or seven stars began to appear in the evening."
     
  91. Therefore it is obvious that in September, Alexander had sent Leonatus before him to dig wells in suitable places for the army in their overland march through a dry and desert country. He burned his ships which were leaky. He marched from Patala and came with all his army to the bank of the Arbis or Arabis. This river separates the Arbites or the Arabites and India [whom Dionysius Periegetes calls the Aribes and others call Abrite] from the Orites. For the Arbites inhabit the sea shore of India which lies between the Indus and Arbis Rivers for a distance of 125 miles according to Nearchus. [in Strabo, l.15. p. 720. & Arrianus in his Indica, p. 185. in fi.] These are the farthest Indian people to the west. [Arrian. in his Indica, p. 184. & Pliny. l.7. c.2.] They are neighbours to the Oritans [Pliny, l.6. c.23. & Arrian in his Indica, p. 185.] and speak their own language that is different from the Indians.
     
  92. These Arbites or Arabites were a free state living under their own laws. They were not strong enough to withstand Alexander nor willing to submit to him. As soon as they heard of his coming, they fled away to the woods and wildernesses.
     
  93. Alexander turned the rest of his army over to Hephaestion. He took one half of his silver targeteers, some of his archers, some regiments called Asseteri and a troop of his fellow cavaliers. From every regiment of cavalry he took one troop and all his archers on horseback. He kept the ocean on his left and journeyed westward. He ordered a number of wells dug along the seaside to supply his navy with fresh water when they passed by on their way to the Gulf of Persia.
     
  94. As soon as Alexander left, the Patalenians were inspired with fresh courage and the desire for liberty. They attacked Nearchus and the army that was left with him and forced him to flee to his ships. He had no wind to sail with. [Strabo from Nearchus l.15. p. 721.] For before the beginning of winter, which began with the rising of the Pleiades in the month of our November in those parts, it was a poor time for sailing. [Arrian. l.6. p. 137.]
     
3679 AM, 4388 JP, 326 BC
  1. Therefore as soon as the etesian or trade winds were ended Nearchus prepared for the voyage. These winds blew all summer long from the sea to land and made all navigation along that coast impossible. When Nearchus sacrificed to Jupiter the deliverer and held certain gymnastic games, he set sail from there in the 11th year of Alexander's reign. This was the time when Cephisodorus was the archon of Athens. He left on the 20th day of the month Boedromion or October 1st according to the Julian Calendar. [This I have already showed in my discourse of the solar year among the Macedonians c.2.] [Arrian. his Indica.] Now we had the name of Cephisidorus 4 years earlier in year 3 of the 113Olympiad and also 3 years later in year 2 of the 114th Olympiad. This was the year following Alexander's death according to the tables of the archons of Athens. If this name was correctly recorded by Arrian in this place, then this Cephisidorus may be the same person because of the closeness of the times. Then the following differences will happen in the 4th year of the 113th Olympiad for the names of the archons of Athens between Diodorus Sicilus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Arrian: Olympiad 113Year Diodorus Dionysius Arrian 1Euthycritus Euthycritus Hegemon 2Chremes Hegemon Chremes 3Anticles Chremes Cephisodorus 4Sosicles Anticles Anticles
     
  2. Pliny tells us that Alexander built a city at the place where Nearchus and Onesicratus started on their intended voyage. It is the same city we find called, Xulinopolis. [l. 6. c.23.] It is amazing that in the same place, he adds that no man can farm there on that river. For where should it be, but on the island of Patalene, where they were left by Alexander to wait for a suitable season to begin their voyage. Where else but on the Indus River where the navy sailed and along which that fleet passed when it sailed down to the ocean. [Arrian from Nearchus, in his Indica, p. 183.]
     
  3. The 1st day after they sailed from the port of Xulinopolis to go down the Indus River, they came to a good deep channel called Stura about 12.5 miles from the port. They anchored here for 2 days.
     
  4. The 3rd day they sailed and came to another channel about 3.75 miles downstream. They found the water a little brackish. The tide had come up that far and mixed with the fresh water. This left a taste of salt in the place even at low tide. The name of the place was Caumana.
     
  5. From there they parted and came to a place 2.5 miles farther down on the river called Coreatis.
     
  6. They sailed again and had not gone far when they spied a rocky reef just at the place of the Indus River's mouth. It stretched to the shore which was also very rocky. They put in with the tide where the ground was softer and better to land ships at. They made a ditch 5/8 of a mile long as a breakwater between them and the sea.
     
  7. They sailed on for another 19 miles and came to a sandy island called Crocala and stayed there another day. Near the island on the mainland lived the Indian tribe called the Arabii from the Arabius River. This river divides them, as was said before, from the Oritans.
     
  8. Their journey is described in detail by Arrian from Nearchus' accounts [l. 6. p. 143.] and later by Jo. Ramusius, in his Navigations. [l. 1. fol. 169.] The high points of the voyage are described by Pliny [l. 6. c.23.] as gathered from Onesicritus by King Juba. Those words from him show this where he says: "It is fit I should here set down what Onesicritus records of this voyage, wherein he was by the command of Alexander, sailed from India into the very Mediterranean parts of Persia. From him again the story is related by King Juba."
     
  9. From this we may also understand those next words of Pliny: "The voyage of Nearchus and Onesicritus, had neither names of places where they landed nor distances from one place to another."
     
  10. That is, as it is described by Juba or Onesicritus himself. For that both were told by Nearchus, as from Arrian noting from his account and has recorded both the one and the other.
     
  11. When Alexander had crossed the Arbis or Arabius River, the next night he marched through a great part of the sandy country and came the next morning into places that were well inhabited and cultured. He left the foot soldiers to follow in good array. He went on horseback with several troops and squadrons in very good order. They were widely spread out that they might take in and clear all the country before them. They were attacked by the Oritans. Many of them were killed or taken prisoner. Then they came to the bank of a small river and camped there.
     
  12. Alexander divided his company into three brigades. He gave one to Ptolemy to lead along by the coast, the second to Leonatus to pass through the middle of the country and its plain. Alexander took the third brigade and marched into the hill and mountainous country of that region. He wasted all that he found whereby the soldiers enriched themselves and slew many 10,000's of men.
     
  13. When Hephaestion, who had the greater part of the whole army under his command, came to Alexander, he marched forward to Rambacia. This was the principal division of all that country. When he found a place by the seaside, safe from all wind and weather, he presently ordered Hephaestion to build a city there. When it was finished it was called Alexanderia. He relocated the Arachosians to live there.
     
  14. Alexander took half of his silver targeteers, Agrians, a squadron of cavalry and archers on horseback. He marched away to the borders of the Oritans and Gediosians where he was told there was a narrow pass which separated the two countries. Both countries were camped there with their armies to keep the pass. No sooner had they heard of his coming but most of them abandoned the place and fled. Thereupon the chief of the Oritans went to him and submitted themselves and their whole country to him. The only charge which he laid upon them was to call home their country men to their homes. They were to assure them that in so doing all would be well with them and they would receive no harm.
     
  15. Alexander made Apollophanes joint governor of the Oritans with Leonatus, a captain of his bodyguard. He left Leonatus all his Agrians and some of his archers. He ordered the Oritans to await the coming of the fleet into those parts. In the meantime they were to go and help with the building of a new city and to order all matters there for the benefit of the people.
     
  16. He then marched with most of his army [for now Hephaestion had come to him] into the country of the Gedrosians which was mostly abandoned by the inhabitants. In this desert, Aristobulus says the Phoenicians which followed the army, bought what was sold there. They loaded their camels with myrrh and spikenard. Such spices and apothecary ware grew in abundance there. The whole army used it for coverings and beds to lie on. The spikenard which they walked over, gave off a most sweet smell that spread afar off. [Arrian. l.6. p. 138. & Strabo, l.15. p. 721.]
     
  17. He sent Craterus before him with a part of the army into the midland countries. He was to subdue Arimania [all the regions to the west of India even as far as Carmania were called this] and to go into those places which Alexander planned to go through. Craterus marched through the countries of the Aracotti and the Drangae. He subdued by force the country of Choarma which refused to submit. [Strabo, l.15. p. 721,725.] When Ozines [whom Arian calls Ordones] and Tariaspes who were two Persian nobles, revolted in Persia, Craterus subdued them by force and laid them in irons. [Curt. l.9. c.18.]
     
  18. Alexander with another part of the army went through the country of Gedrosia about 60 miles from the sea. Sometimes they camped near the sea. They marched through a barren, craggy, dry and desolate country. Alexander wanted to go by the sea coast all along so that he might discover what places there were in those parts fit to make ports in and make provision for his fleet. It was to come that way by his orders and for that purpose, he had wells dug and made ports for his navy. [Strabo, l.15. p. 721. & Arrian. 16. p. 139.]
     
  19. For this purpose, he sent before him Thoantes with a competent company of cavalry to scout the sea coast. He was to see whether there were any good landing places or fresh water near the shore or other suitable provisions for them. When he returned to Alexander, he told him that he found there some poor fishermen. They lived in little cottages built and covered over with shells of fishes and the backbones of them serving for rafters. The men used little water and they had to dig for it in the sand and the water was not very sweet.
     
  20. Alexander finally came into a country of the Gedrosians where there was a supply of grain. He seized it all and sealed the sacks with his own signet. He placed it on wagons and sent it all away to the seaside. While he went to the next ports, the soldiers, broke the seals, opened the sacks and ate all the grain to satisfy their extreme hunger. Those who were the leaders in this matter were the ones entrusted with keeping it. When Alexander understood that it was done because of their hunger, he overlooked it. He sent all over the country to get more grain and had Cretheus carry it away to the seaside to supply the fleet and the army. The fleet at that very time landed in those parts. Alexander ordered the natives to go farther up into the country and from there to bring as much flour, dates and cattle as they possibly could. They were to carry it to be sold at the seaside to the army. He sent Telephus one of his friends to get more provisions of flour. He found some quantity of it although not much and carried it to another port according to his orders.
     
  21. Meanwhile some of the Oritans who dwelt in the mountains attacked Leonatus' brigade and killed a great number of them and then retired to safety again, according to Diodorus. Then the whole country of the Oritans joined with other neighbouring countries and made an army of some 8000 foot soldiers and 400 cavalry and made a general revolt. Leonatus attacked them and killed 6000 of their foot soldiers but he died in that fight. Apollophanes was the governor of that country and was appointed by Alexander, as we noted before. [Curt. l.9. c.18. Arrian. l.7. p. (149). and in his Indica, p. 184.]
     
  22. Nearchus landed at this place with his fleet and loaded provisions of grain provided by Alexander. This would serve his army on board for 10 days. He repaired his ships that were leaky. He left any unfit sailors with Leonatus to serve on land and took others in their place from his companies. [Arrian. in his Indica, p. 185.]
     
  23. Philippus, whom Alexander had made governor over the Oxydracans and Mallians, was attacked and murdered by his own mercenary troops. The murderers were attacked by the Macedonians who were his guard. They shortly were taken and hewed in pieces for their deeds.
     
  24. It is said that Alexander endured more hardships and suffered more losses in the country of the Gedrosians than he did in all Asia. Of that army which he went into India, he scarcely brought a quarter of them out of Gedrosia. They endured grievous diseases, poor diet, burning heat, deep sands, shortages of water and famine. Nearchus says that Alexander knew of the difficulties of going that way. Purely from selfwilled ambition which reigned or rather raged in him, he was determined to force his way through. Someone had told him that Semiramis and Cyrus had gone that way into India. Therefore he was determined to return the same way out of it although it was told him that she was forced to save herself by fleeing from there with only 20 men in her company and Cyrus with only 7. Alexander thought to enhance his reputation if when they suffered there so much, he would be able to get out with his army safe and sound. Therefore Nearchus says that this desire to return home this way was partly from this ambition and partly to favour and relieve his navy which he had appointed to meet him in those parts. His guides lost their way through those vast sands because the wind had covered all the tracks which lead through the desert. Alexander had a hunch that the way must be on the left hand. He took a small company of cavalry with him and went to see whether he could find the sea shore. Their horses were all exhausted except for 5 by the length and heat of the journey. He left them behind and went with those 5 and came to the sea coast. He dug for a while and found fresh water to drink. Presently he sent back for his whole army to come there to him. When they came, he marched forward for 7 days along the sea coast and found plenty of fresh water all the way. When his guides recognised the way again, they led him up into the midland countries, as he wanted. [Strabo, l.15. p. 722. Arrian. p. 142.]
     
  25. After 2 months he left the country of the Oritans and came to the chief city of the Gedrosians, called Pura. He rested his army there and refreshed them with feasting, as was very fitting and a good time for him to do so. [Strabo, l.15. p. 723. Arrian. p. 140,142. & Plut. in Alexan.]
     
  26. From there he sent away the swiftest couriers that he could possibly find to Phrataphernes whom he had left governor of Parthia and to the two governors of the provinces of Drangia and Aria which lay at the foot of the Taurus Mountain. They were ordered to assemble as many camels, dromedaries and others with all sorts of beasts of burden as they possibly could. They were all to be loaded with supplies of all sorts and sent immediately to meet him when he first entered into the country of Carmania. These letters were speedily carried to them and obeyed. When he came into Carmania he found there all kinds of provisions ready for him and his army at the appointed place.
     
  27. Menon, the governor of the Arachosians, recently died. Alexander appointed Sibyrtius as governor of both Arachosia and Gedrosia.