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Ussher's "The Annals of the World"
The Sixth Age: 400 BC - 351 BC
THE FIRST AGE
1a AM, 710 JP, 4004 BC
1a AM, 710 JP, 4004 BC
THE SECOND AGE
1657a AM, 2366 JP, 2348 BC
1657a AM, 2366 JP, 2348 BC
THE THIRD AGE
2083 AM, 2793 JP, 1921 BC
2083 AM, 2793 JP, 1921 BC
THE FOURTH AGE
2513b AM, 3223 JP, 1491 BC
2513b AM, 3223 JP, 1491 BC
THE FIFTH AGE
2992c AM, 3702 JP, 1012 BC
2992c AM, 3702 JP, 1012 BC
THE SIXTH AGE
3416c AM, 4126 JP, 588 BC
3504 AM, 4214 JP, 500 BC
3604b AM, 4314 JP, 400 BC
3654 AM, 4364 JP, 350 BC
3679b AM, 4389 JP, 325 BC
3704 AM, 4414 JP, 300 BC
3804 AM, 4514 JP, 200 BC
3829 AM, 4539 JP, 175 BC
3854 AM, 4564 JP, 150 BC
3904b AM, 4614 JP, 100 BC
3929b AM, 4639 JP, 75 BC
3954b AM, 4664 JP, 50 BC
3979 AM, 4689 JP, 25 BC
3416c AM, 4126 JP, 588 BC
3504 AM, 4214 JP, 500 BC
3604b AM, 4314 JP, 400 BC
3654 AM, 4364 JP, 350 BC
3679b AM, 4389 JP, 325 BC
3704 AM, 4414 JP, 300 BC
3804 AM, 4514 JP, 200 BC
3829 AM, 4539 JP, 175 BC
3854 AM, 4564 JP, 150 BC
3904b AM, 4614 JP, 100 BC
3929b AM, 4639 JP, 75 BC
3954b AM, 4664 JP, 50 BC
3979 AM, 4689 JP, 25 BC
3604 AM, 4314 JP, 400 BC
- During their stay here, they got their provisions partly from the market of Colyora and partly by plundering the countries around Paphlagonia. On the other hand, the Paphlagonians, if they found any of them straggling from the camp, they attacked them. Finally, Corylas, who was governor of the Paphlagonians, made peace between them. Afterward these Greeks were transported by ship by the men of Heraclea and Synope. They came to Harmone, a port of Synope where they stayed 5 days. From there they went to Heraclea in the country of the Myrianden. It was a colony of the city of Megara. They came to a peninsula called Acherusia and divided themselves into three companies.
- The 4500 plus foot soldiers of the Arcadians and Achaeans were transported by ship by the Heracleans. They hurried aboard hoping to surprise the Thracians who inhabited Bithynia so they might get all the more spoil. They landed at night at Calpe which is in the middle of their sea coast. They went to the next towns and villages about 6 miles up the country. When these Thracians were attacked, they fought back and killed many of the Greeks. One regiment of them with their colonel Smicrates was entirely cut off. Only 8 soldiers and their captain Hegesandrus escaped in another company. The rest fled to a hill for safety and were besieged by the Thacians.
- Chirosophus with 1400 foot soldiers and 700 targeteers, [who were Thracians and had followed Clearchus on that journey] went from Heraclea all along the country by foot. He finally came into Bithynia. Not feeling well, he with his men sailed to Calpe.
- Xenophon with his brigade of 1700 foot soldiers, 800 targeteers and about 40 cavalry came by sea into a country which separates the Thracians of Bithynia from the country of the Heracleans. He marched through the centre of the country and came and rescued those who were besieged in the hill by the Thracians. Finally they assembled again as one body at the port of Calpe. [Exped. Cy. l.6.]
- Chirosophus died here and was replaced by Neo, an Asinian. When he saw his troops hungry and short of supplies, he gathered 2000 men and went foraging all over the country of Bithynia. Pharnabazus sent his cavalry to help the Bithynians. He hoped to keep these Greeks out of his lands. On the first attack, the cavalry killed at least 500 Greeks and the rest fled to a hill for safety. Xenophon rescued them from the enemy and they all returned safely to the camp before sunset. When Spithridates and Rhathines came with more troops to help the Bithynians, the Greeks won a notable victory and erected a monument in memory of it there. They returned the 7 or 8 miles to their camp by the seaside. After this victory, their enemies provided for their own safety by driving their cattle and carrying away their families and goods to more remote parts. When the Greeks passed through Bithynia, they found nothing of use to them. They returned back a day and a night's journey into Bithynia again. They found and brought from there some prisoners, sheep and other provisions for their own needs. After 6 days, they came to Chrysopolis, a city of the Chalcedonians and stayed here 7 days. They sold their plunder here. [Exped. Cy. l.6.]
- Pharnabazus feared that these Greeks would make war on his country. He arranged with Anaxibius, the Lacedemonian admiral to ship them all out of Asia to Byzantium. When Anaxibius returned from there with Xenophon into Asia, he received word at Cyzicum from Aristarchus the new governor of Byzantium. Polus was appointed admiral in his place and he was on his way as far as Hellespont. Therefore he sailed from thence to Patros. He sent to Pharnabazus and requested the money which he had promised him for shipping the Greeks from Asia. When he did not get it, he planned with Xenophon to hastily carry the Greeks back again into Asia. Pharnabazus prevailed upon Aristarchus, the governor of Byzantium so that he thwarted that plan. Since the winter was not over, Xenophon hired himself to Senthes the king of Thracia. The cold was so extreme that many Greeks lost their noses and ears from frostbite. [Exped. Cy. l.7.] Diodorus tells us that some Greeks returned into their own country but almost 5000 followed Xenophon into Thracia. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olympiad 95.] Hence, it appears, that his number is incorrect where he says that only 3800 men came to Chrysopolis. [Diod. Sic. year (4). Olympiad 94.]
- The Ionian and other Greek cities throughout Asia did nor accept Tissaphernes' government. They wanted their freedom and feared Tissaphernes because they had always preferred Cyrus over him. They sent messengers to the Lacedemonians asking them for help. Since they were the protectors of all Greece, they wanted them to take over so that their country could be free from war and they could have liberty as other Greeks. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.3. Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymipiad 95.]
- This petition was very welcome to the Lacedemonians. Like most men, the more they had the more they wanted. They were not content to have doubled their empire by taking over Athens. Now they wanted to control all of Asia too. [Justin. l.6. c.1.]
- Therefore, the Lacedemonians promised them aid in the first message they sent back. They immediately sent to Tissaphernes to ask him not to make war on the Asian Greek Cities. Out of contempt for them, he wasted all the region around the city of Cuma and took many prisoners. Then he came with his army and besieged the city. Because the winter was coming, he could not take it at that time. So he set a great ransom on the prisoners and abandoned his siege. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymipiad 95]
- After this Thimbron went into Asia with an army of 1000 newly made citizens of Laconia, 4000 of Pelopnoesus and 300 Athenian cavalry. The cavalry had formerly served the 30 tyrants of Athens. The city desired that this group should be wasted by foreign services rather than be kept at home to do greater mischief. When Thimbron, came into Asia, he increased his army by troops from the confederate cities there. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.3.] At Ephesus, he added 2000 more troops from these cities for a total army of about 7000 men. He marched about 15 miles into the country and took Magnesia on his first assault. It was a city under Tissaphernes' government. From there he went to Tralles a city of Ionia and began to besiege it. Since its location was very strongly fortified, he left it and went back to the unwalled town of Magnesia. He feared that as soon as he was gone, Tissaphernes would take it again. He moved it to a hill nearby called Thorax which was a more easily defended position. He plundered the enemies' country and greatly enriched his army. When he heard that Tissaphernes was coming down upon him with an army of cavalry, he retired to Ephesus. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymipiad 95] He was not a match for the cavalry and dared not stay in the plain. He thought it enough if he were able to keep the countries where he was from being plundered by the enemy.
- When the Greeks under Xenophon had served Senthes 3 months in Thracia, Charminus and Polynicus were sent from Thimbron to tell them that he needed their help in Asia against Tissaphernes. He would pay each soldier a daric a month. Each captain of a company would be paid 2 darics and every colonel 4. Xenophon told them that he personally planned to return home. Most of the army came to him and earnestly asked him not to leave them until he had led them to Thimbron. Therefore, he went aboard with them and sailed to Lampsacus. There he met and conferred with Euclid, the Phliasian poet. After they passed through the territory of Troas, they came to Pergamus. Xenophon was entertained by Hellas the wife of Gongylus of Eretria and her two sons, Gorgius and Gongylus. By her counsel, he went to capture Asidates the Persian. This he failed to do and exposed himself and his men to great danger. Finally by chance, his soldiers captured him with his wife and children and cavalry and all that they owned. They were very rich. Thimbron came and received the army from Xenophon. He added these troops to the rest of the Greeks in his army and he led them against Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus. [Exped. Cy. l.7.]
- Here ends the 7 books of the Expedition of Cyrus. The writer of it, whomever he was, was present for all these events. He concludes his book, with this epilogue. The king's governors in the counties which we passed through, were these: "Artimas of Lydia, Articamas of Phrygia, Mithridates of Lycaonia and Cappadocia, Siennesis of Cilicia, Dernes of Phenicia and Arabia, Belesis of Syria and Assyria, Rhoparas of Babylonia, Arbacas of Media, Teribazas of Phasis and Iberia, the Carduchi, the Chalybes, the Azacrones, the Colchi, the Mosynacci, the Coeti. The Tybareni had no governors but were all free people. Corylas was governor of Paphlagonia, Pharnabazus of Bithynia, Seuthes was king of the Thracians, on the European side."
- The whole journey, going and coming, lasted 215 days. They travelled 1150 parasanges, or 4282 miles [4313 miles allowing 3.75 miles per parasange.] The whole expedition lasted 15 months.
- When Thimbron was strengthened with these new troops he dared to pitch his camp in the fields under Tissaphernes' nose. Pergamus voluntary surrendered to him. Likewise did Tenthrania and Halisarnia which were commanded at that time by Eurysthenes and Procles, the descendants of Demaratus of Lacedemon. Gorgins and Gongylus, the two brothers mentioned previously had already joined him. One held Gambrius and Palegambrius, the other Myrina, and Grinium and Thimbron captured the other weaker places by force. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.3.]
3605 AM, 4315 JP, 399 BC
- Thimbron besieged Larissa, a town in Asia called Egyptia when it would not surrender to him. While he besieged it with little effect, the Ephori at Sparta sent him letters stating that he should leave Larissa and march to Caria and on to Ephesus. Dercylidas, an excellent engineer and for his wit he was surnamed Sisyphus, was on his way to take command of the army. When Thimbron returned to Sparta, he was there accused by various confederate cities, for allowing his army to plunder them. Therefore he was banished from the city. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.3. Diod. Sic. 2nd year of the 95th Olympiad.]
- Mania was a woman of Dardania, of manly courage. After the death of her husband Zenis, she had managed very well the government of Eolia under Pharnabazus and had taken in various sea towns, as Larissa, Hamaxitus and Colone. She was most treacherously murdered by her son-in-law Midias when she was about 40 years old. Her 17 year old son was murdered with her. Midias seized the two strong towns, Scephis and Gergitha where she had stored most of her treasure. The garrisons in the rest of the towns remained loyal to Pharnabazus. Midias sent messengers to Pharnabazus with great presents desiring that he might manage the whole government of those parts upon the same terms that Mania did. This was for nought. Pharnabazus answered that he should never rest if he did not avenge the murder of Mania. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.3. Polyae, l.8. in Tania, or Phania, for so by a misprint Mania is called.]
- Dercylidas saw that he had to deal with both Pharnabazus and Tissaphernes, two great commanders each supported by a large army. When he saw that they were at odds with one another, he made peace with Tissaphernes [Xenoph. Hellen. l.3. with Justin l.6. c.1. where yet Hercylidas is put for Dercylidas.]
- After Dercylidas had first conferred with Tissaphernes, he marched to Eolia without plundering the country. Eolia was under Pharnabazus' government. He had an old grudge against Pharnabazus for an insult he received from him while he commanded at Abydus under Lysander. Larissa, Hamaxitus and Colonae surrendered to him without a fight. [Note that here Diodorus Siculus has Arista instead of Larissa.] Neandrus, Ilium also surrendered to him. The Cocylitae did not fight with him. Cebrene, a very strong and fortified city did not wish to be assaulted and also surrendered. He left a large garrison there and he immediately marched with the rest of his army to Scephis and Gergithe. Midias feared the very inhabitants of that place and Pharnabazus. He went out with hostages to parley and to seek to join forces against a common enemy. Dercylidas laid hold of him and told him plainly that there was no hope of any friendship between them unless he would set free all the citizens of those places which he held to live according to their own laws. He marched into Scepsis with him and there offered sacrifice to Minerva. He expelled Midias' soldiers and persuaded the inhabitants to defend their newly acquired liberty. He next went to Gergithe with his army. When Midias desired that he would at least leave him that city, he ignored Midias' request. Midias ordered the gates to be opened and Dercylidas entered the city. He found the money which Mania had there, sufficient to maintain an army of 8000 men for almost a whole year. He took the money and sent back Midias to live as a private citizen at Scepsis. Xenophon tells us, that in 8 days, he took 9 cities. Diodorus [Diod. Sic. 2nd year of the 95th Olympiad], writes that what by force and tricks he used to take over all the cities and country of Troas.
- There was a quarrel between Artaxerxes and Euagoras the king of Salamis in the isle of Cyprus. He had expelled from there Abdemon Thyrsius who was governor of the place and one who was a good friend of Artaxerxes. Theopompus, [Excerpta Photii, (Numbers 176).] calls him, Abdymon Cityces. This quarrel was settled by the mediation of Conon the Athenian, who had lived with Euagoras and Ctesias the Cnidian, who had long lived in the court in Persia. The condition was that Euagoras would pay a certain tribute to Artaxerxes and also a gift was sent to Satibarzanes. Ctesias also sent letters to Euagoras to make amends with Anaxagoras a king of the Cyprians. Other similar letters were written by Euagoras and Conon. Ctesias has all these inserted into his History of the Persian Affairs.
- When Dercylidas had gone this far into these parts, sent to Pharnabazus, to know whether he wanted war or peace. Pharnabazus was afraid what might happen to Phrygia where he lived. Phrygia bordered Aeolia, which was now controlled by Dercylidas. Therefore, Pharnabazus wanted a truce. [Xenophon Hellen. l.3.]
3606 AM, 4315 JP, 399 BC
- When this truce was concluded, Dercylidas marched into that part of Bithynbia which the Thracians held and there spent the winter. Pharnabazus liked this because the Thracians of that country often made inroads on Phrygia and Dercylidas plundered that part of Bithynia at will. He had plenty of provisions for the winter. [Xenophon Hellen. l.3.]
- About 200 Odrysian cavalry and 300 targeteers were sent from Senthes, the king of Thracia, to help Dercylidas. When they first arrived, they forraged Bithynia and were almost cut off there. After this they stayed close with the Lacedemonian army and heavily plundered the territories of the Bithynians. [Xenophon Hellen. l.3.]
- When spring was coming, Dercylidas moved from Bithynia and came to Lampsacus. Three ambassadors from Sparta, told him that his command was extended for another year. The Ephori of Sparta told the army there, that in the former time the soldiers had been extremely injurious to their confederates. They were commended for their good behaviour. He replied that it was the same soldiers who followed Cyrus in his wars but that they were under new commanders. This was the reason for the change of behaviour. When this was done, Dercylidas sent the ambassadors from Ephesus to take their journey through the Greek cities and countries in those parts. He told them how glad he was that they would find them all in so peaceable and prosperous estate. [Xenophon Hellen. l.3.]
- When the ambassadors left, Dercylidas sent again to Pharnabazus, to know whether he would extend the truce from the previous winter or if he wanted war. Pharnabazus wanted to continue the truce. Therefore, Dercylidas passed with his army over the Hellespont and came into the Chersonesus of Thracia. This city contained 37 furlongs which he enclosed with a strong wall. This work started in the spring and was finished before the beginning of autumn. [Xenophon Hellen. l.3. Diod. Sic. year 2. Olympiad 95.] Contrary to his custom, Diodorus combines the events of two years in one passage.
- Conon the Athenian wrote his letters from Cyprus to Artaxerxes, concerning his own affairs. He desired these to be presented to him, either by Zenon of Crete, a dancer, or by Polycritus of Mendes a physician, or in their absence, by Ctesias, who was likewise a physician. It is said that when this letter came into Ctesias' hands, he added his own letter with it. Conon asked the king to send Ctesias to him, as an important man for the king's service in those parts especially in matters pertaining to the sea. Ctesias wrote that the king of his own accord sent and employed him in that service. Plutarch, [Plutarch in Artaxerxes,] wrote concerning the letters of Conon to the king and to himself and the speech which he gave to the king to understand the matter. These he has inserted into his own history. He relates also that at the same time when the Lacedemonians had sent ambassadors to the king, he committed them to custody and kept them there.
- After Pharnabazus made truce with Dercylidas, he journeyed to the king and charged Tissaphernes before him. He said that Tissaphernes had not opposed Lacedemonian's army when it came into Asia. Instead, he supported them there at the king's expense. He told the king that it was a shame that the king's war should not be pursued to a conclusion. Rather, his enemies should not be bribed with money and but driven out with armies. He persuaded the king to supply a fleet and make Conon the Athenian the admiral. He together with the advice of Euagotas the king of Cyprus persuaded the king to give 500 talents to Pharnabazus for this purpose. The king commanded him to commit the charge of the Phoenician fleet to Conon and to make him commander-in-chief, over all his naval matters. [Diod. Sic. year 2 of the 95th Olympiad, with Isocrates in his Euagoras and in his Oration ad Philip. and Pausanias, in Attices and Justinus, l.6. c.1.]
- When Pausanias returned from the court, he made Conon admiral of the seas. He made many generous promises on the king's behalf. Conon was not fully furnished with a fleet. He took the 40 ships he had ready and sailed into Cilicia. There he prepared for war. [Diod. Sic. year 2 of the 95th Olympiad]
- Ctesias was sent by Artaxerxes to the seaside. He went first into Cnidia his own country and from there to Sparta. He says toward the end of his History which as Diodorus says ended with the third year of this 95th Olympiad.
- Dercylidas returned from Chersonese into Asia. As he reviewed the cities he found that the bandits of Chios had taken over Atarne. They were using this as a base to make inrodes upon Ionia and lived on the spoil they found. Although Atarne was well fortified and contained much food, he besieged it for 8 months. [Xenophon, Hellenic. l.3.]
3607 AM, 4317 JP, 397 BC
- When Atarne surrendered, he put Dracon of Pellene in charge of it. He supplied the city with ample provisions so that he could use it for a good place to retreat to. He went to Ephesus. [Xenophon, Hellenic. l.3.]
- When the ambassadors from Ionia came to Sparta, they stated that if Caria where Tissaphernes resided was invaded, they thought that Tissaphernes would quickly grant them permission to live according to their own laws. The Ephori wrote to Dercylidas that he should march to Caria with his army. Pharaces their admiral was to sail the fleet into those parts also. [Xenophon, Hellenic. l.3.]
- At this time Pharnabazus went to Tissaphernes because Tissaphernes was the chief general and to let Tissaphernes know that he was ready to join with him in making war on the Greeks. Therefore they went to Caria to settle matters there. When they had put garrisons there, they returned to Ionia. Dercylidas heard that they had crossed the river Meander. He conferred with Pharaces and showed him that he feared lest Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus would both attack Ionia which now had no of garrisons. Then, Dercylidas crossed over the Meander also. [Xenophon, Hellenic. l.3.]
- In the Persian army there were 20,000 foot soldiers and 10,000 cavalry. Dercylidas' army had about 7000 men. [Diod. Sic. 2nd year of the 95th Olympiad] The soldiers from Peloponesus were prepared to fight. The ones from Priene and Achilium, the isles and the other towns of Ionia were cowards. They abandoned their weapons in the grain which grew abundantly in the fields lying upon the Meander and fled. However, Tissaphernes remembered how well the Greeks who were in Cyrus' army had fought against himself and imagined that all Crecians would likewise be cowards. Therefore he did not attack them as Pharnabazus wanted to. He sent to Dercylidas and desired to come to talk with him. After an interchange of hostages, they met to discuss a peace treaty. Dercylidas demanded, that the king should allow all the Greek cities to be free. Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus demanded that the Lacedemonian forces should withdraw from the countries of the king's dominions and their commanders from the cities. A truce was to continue until Dercylidas could receive an answer from Sparta. Likewise Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus waited for an answer from the king. So both armies withdrew. The Persians returned to Tralles and the other to Leucophris. [Xenophon, Hellenic. l.3.] [Diod. Sic. 2nd year of the 95th Olympiad]
3608 AM, 4318 JP, 396 BC
- Now a certain man called Herodas of Syracuse in Sicily was living at that time with a ship captain in Phoenicia. He noticed that war ships were arriving daily. Others were being outfitted and others were being constructed. A navy of 300 ships was being prepared. Herodas boarded the first ship bound for Greece and went to Sparta. He told them that a large fleet was being made ready at Phoenicia. The purpose and destination of this fleet, he did not know. The Lacedemonians were much troubled by this news. Agesilaus one of their two kings was asked by Lysander to go with an army into Asia against the Persians. He was to take with him 30 men of Sparta whom they would choose to manage that war. The first man they picked was Lysander. He hoped to use this occasion to restore the Decemvirates throughout all the cities in Asia which he had set up before. The Ephori later had abolished these and ordered every city to live according to their own laws. So Agesilaus took 2000 of the newly made citizens of Sparta and 6000 from their confederate cities with provisions for six months. They sailed from Geraeium a port in Eubaea, with all the forces that he could gather and came to Ephesus. He did this so quickly that he landed there before Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus heard that he had set out. Thereby it came to pass, that he found them all unprepared for his arrival. Xenophon in [Xenoph. Hellen. l.3.] and in his Oration, of Agesilaus with Plutarch and Emil. Probus, in their several lives of Agesilaus and Pansa in Laconicis. Pansa says that he landed first at Sardis.
- Agesilaus raised 4000 more soldiers at Ephesus. He had an army of 10,000 foot soldiers and 400 or [as the Latin translation has it] 4000 cavalry. To this a rabble of other men who followed the camp for pillage. These were as numerous as the army. [Diod. Sic. year 4 of the 95th Olympiad.]
- Tissaphernes sent to him to know why he came into Asia. He replied that he came to restore freedom to the Greek cities. Tissaphernes desired him to wait for 3 months so that he might send to the king. He assured him of a favourable reply from the king. Agesilaus sent Heripadas, Dercylidas, and Migialius to him to take an oath of him that he meant no guile but would do what he possibly could to procure the peace which he had promised. On behalf of Agesilaus, they would swear to Tissaphernes to keep the truce if Tissaphernes would keep his part of the bargain. Tissaphernes disregarded his oath and sent to the king to increase his army. Although Agesilaus knew well what he intended to do, yet he kept the truce. [Xenoph. Hellen. l. 3. and in his book of Agesilaus; with Plutarch and Emil. Probus. in Agesil.]
- While Agesilaus stayed at Ephesus, civildisorder broke out in the cities. Neither the democratic government was obeyed which the Athenians set up nor the Decemviral which Lysander had set up. All became suitors to Lysander who was well known among them that he would obtain from Agesilaus for them what they desired. Hereupon it was that Lysander always had a large court of attendants and suitors about him so that Lysander now seemed to be king and Agesilaus a private citizen. This was a thorn in Agesilaus' side. Therefore he began to take the administration of matters from Lysander's hands and to reduce his authority. Then he sent him on an errand into Hellespont. When Lysander found that Spithridates, a Persian, [Plutarch calls him Mithridates] was under Pharnabazus, he desired to speak with him. After a conference Lysander persuaded him with his children and such wealth as he had and 200 calvalry to defect from Pharnabazus. Spirthrides left what he had safely at Cyzicum and came with his son to Lysander. He escorted them to Agesilaus who was glad to see him. Spirthides told Agesilaus exactly how things were with Pharnabazus. [Xenoph. Hellen. 3. and Plut. in the life of Agesilaus and Lysander.]
- When Tissaphernes got more troops from the king, he became insolent and proclaimed war against Agesilaus unless he would leave Asia. Agesilaus was glad for this and ordered his men to prepare for war. He sent to the Ionians, Eloians and those of Hellespont to send to him at Ephesus all the troops they could spare. Tissaphernes thought that he would march into Caria but Agesilaus went with his army into Phrygia. In a suprise attack on the cities there, he obtained a vast some of money and other provisions from them and so came safely and without halting near to Daseylium. His cavalry scoured the country ahead of the army. They met with the cavalry of Pharnabazus and were routed. In that encounter they lost 12 men and 2 horses. When Agesilaus with his foot soldiers came to their rescue, the Persians on the other side retired having only lost one man. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.3. and in his Agesilaus, with Plutarch and Emil. Probus in their Agesilaus likewise.]
- Agesilaus spent most of that summer plundering Phrygia and the nearby countries. He enriched his army with plunder. Toward the autumn he returned to Ephesus, [Diod. Sic. year 1 of the 96th Olympiad] and there spent the winter. [Emil. Prob. in his Agesilaus.]
3609 AM, 4319 JP, 395 BC
- Nephereus or Nepherites reigned in Egypt for 6 years.
- The Lacedemonians sent to Nephereus to join them against the Persians. Instead, he sent them a gift of tackle and 100 war ships and 30,000 bushels of wheat. [Diod. Sic. year 1 of the 96th Olympiad.] Justin calls him Hercinion and so does Orosius. He relates the matter in this manner. The Lacedemonians' ambassadors asked for naval help from Hercinion They received 100 war ships and 600,000 bushels of wheat, [Justin l.6. c.2. and Orosius l.3. c.1.]
- Pharax the admiral of the Lacedemonian fleet, set sail from Rhodes with 120 ships and came to Sasanda a citadel in Caria about 19 miles from Caunus. He sailed from there and attacked the town of Caunus and Conon the Athenian who had 40 ships there. When Artaphernes and Pharnabazus came with an huge army to relieve Caunus, Pharax lifted his siege and returned with all his fleet to Rhodes. After this, Conon assembled 80 ships and sailed toward Chersonesus. At the same time the Rhodians kept out the Poloponesian fleet and revolted from the Lacedemonian state. They received Conon with all his fleet into their port and city. It happened that the Egyptian fleet which knew nothing of this change of affairs, boldly anchored off the island with all their cargo of wheat which was sent to the Lacedemonians. Conon with the Rhodians attacked them and brought all their men and cargo into the port and stored the grain there. [Diod. Sic. year 1Olympiad 96.] The soldiers rebelled against Conon because the king's officers defrauded them of their pay. They asked for their pay the more boldly, because they were used in so great a service and served under so great a commander as Conon. [Justin. l. 6. c.2.]
- Agesilaus knew that he was no match for the enemy in the plains without sufficient cavalry. He raised more troops. He ordered throughout all the confederate cities that such of them as were rich and did not want to fight themselves should send to him a horse with a rider in his place. When the spring was coming, he commanded all his army to assemble at Ephesus. He carefully trained both cavalry and foot soldiers for war. During this preparation, he made the city of Ephesus seem more important than before. He made it the centre of the war effort. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.3. and in his Agesilaus: and Plutarch and Emil. Pro. in the same man's life.]
- A whole year had elapsed since Agesilans came from Sparta. The 30 commissioners assigned to him returned to Sparta. Lysander the head of the commissioners returned with them. 30 others were sent to replace them of whom Heripidas was the leader. From these Agesilaus chose Xenocles and another one to lead the cavalry and Scythes to command the foot soldiers of the newly made citizens of Sparta. Heripidas was to lead them who had served under Cyrus. Migdon was over those who were sent by the cities of Asia. Agesilaus let it be known that he would march into the strongest part of the enemies' country so that they be mentally prepared for a fierce battle. Tissaphernes thought that he had done this to amuse him a second time and to keep him at home. He marched directly into Caria commanding his cavalry to stay behind and hold the plain of Maeander. However Agesilaus did indeed, exactly what he had said and his whole army attacked the country of Sardis. When he had marched for 3 days and saw no enemy, he gathered from there a huge stock of all kinds of provisions for his army. On the 4th day the enemies' cavalry was spotted. They found the Greeks scattered abroad and busy plundering the country. They attacked and killed most of them. When Agesilaus came to their rescue, he saw that the enemies' foot soldiers had not arrived. Since he was fully prepared, he attacked the enemy near the River Pactolus and won a great victory. He captured their camp. He found riches amounting to more than 70 talents of money. He transported all their camels into Greece. At this time, Tissaphernes stayed at Sardis. Therefore, he was charged by the Persians to be a deserter.
- That is according to Xenophon. However, Diodorus, states that Tissaphernes was present in the fight with 10,000 cavalry and 50,000 foot soldiers. Agesilaus came down from the hill country of Sipalus and overran all the plain around Sardis. He pillaged the land and destroyed a garden of Tissaphernes. It was enclosed and set with all sorts of trees and other things for pleasure, infinitely sumptuous and of most exquisite workmanship and beauty. Agesilaus turned from there and sent Xenocles with 14,000 to lie in ambush midway between Sardis and Tybarnae to intercept some Persians who were to pass that way. In this second battle with the Persians, he defeated them and killed over 6000 men. He took a great multitude of prisoners and captured their camp that was full of wealth. After all this, Tissaphernes fled to Sardis and Agesilaus returned to the seaside with his army. Pausanias also in his Laconica, writes, that Agesilaus fought with Tissaphernes in the plain country of Hermus and there defeated the cavalry and foot soldiers of the Persians. This was the largest Persian army since the time when Xerxes went into Greece or when Darius went into Scythia. It is best to trust Xenophon's account who was not only a reader to Agesilaus, [as Cicero 3 de Orators affirms,] and was very intimate and familiar with him. [as Emil. Pro. Says in the Life of Agesilaus and Diogenes Laertius, in the Life of Xenophon reports] Moreover, he was with him in all this war in Asia and the next year returned with him to Greece.
- Conon the admiral of the Persian fleet had often sent letters to the king asking for pay for the navy. When this failed, he went personally to the king. Pharnabazus also encouraged him to accuse Tissaphernes of treason to the king. Therefore, Colon committed the charge of the navy to Hieronimus and Nicodemus [both of Athens] in his absence. He sailed into Cilicia and from there came to Thapsacum in Syria. He went on a barge down the river Euphrates to Babylon. There he talked with Tithraustes the Chiliarch who held the highest position next the king. Colon showed him who he was and that he desired to speak with the king. He could not be admitted to the presence or speak with the king without adoration, that is by prostrating himself before the king. Therefore he did his business with him by letters and messengers. He was successful. The king declared Tissaphernes to be a traitor and ordered Conon to take charge of the war against the Lacedemonians and to pay the navy using whomever he pleased to choose for that office. He was highly rewarded for his service and sent to the sea with authority to order what shipping he needed from the Cypriots and Phoenicians. These ships would guard the sea before the next summer and Pharnabazus was assigned to him for an assistant as Colon requested. [Diod. Sic. year 1. of the 96th Olympiad, Justin l.6. c.2. Emil. Pro. in the life of Conon.]
- Concerning the Cypriots, it is to be noted that at the very time while there passed courtesies and presents between Artaxerxes and them, the king intended to make war against them. It lasted 10 years before it ended, 8 of which he spent in preparations for it. This we shall show later when we come to the fourth year of the 98th Olympiad, from Diod. Sic. He speaks of the cause of that war, of which 8 years, it seems that only 6 were spent in preparation. At this time, Isocrates made his Panegirical oration in which he mentions many vain attempts made upon Euagoras by Artaxerxes. He says: "He made war on Euagoras who was governor of one poor city in Cyprus and one who had formerly served him and became his vassal and lived on an island. He suffered a great loss at sea and had no more than 3000 targeteers to defend his state with. Yet, weak as he was, the king has not been able to have his will of him, though he has now spent six whole years in a war against him."
- Parysatis, the queen mother, urged the king on against Tissaphernes. She hated him because of what he did to her son Cyrus. The king committed the war to Tithraustes and gave him letters for the cities and commanders in those parts ordering them all to do whatever Tithraustes required of them. [Diod. Sic. year 1. of the 98th Olympiad.]
- When Tithraustes left, the king gave him two letters. In the one for Tissaphernes, he requested him to continue the war against the Lacedemonians. In the other, he sent to Ariaeus the commander of Larissa requiring him to help Tithraustes in the murder of Tissaphernes. Tithraustes delivered to Ariaeus as soon as he came to Colossae in Phrygia. When Ariaeus had read them, he sent for Tissaphernes asking him to come to Colossae. He wanted to consult with him about the king's matters especially concerning the war against the Greeks. Whereupon Tissaphernes suspected nothing and left his army at Sardis. He came quickly to Colossae with a troop of 300 Arcadians and Milesians and stayed at the house of Ariaeus. When he went to take a bath he laid aside his sword. Ariaeus with his servants seized him and put him into a closed coach and sent him away as a prisoner to Tithraustes. He took him as far as to Celaena and there cut off his head and sent it to Artaxerxes. Artaxerxes ordered it carried to his mother who was exceedingly glad to see it. So were all the Greek women, whose husbands had followed Cyrus in his war and were afterward killed by Tissaphernes' treachery. [Diod. Sic. year 1. of the 98th Olympiad, Polyanus stratagem. l.1. Xenoph. Hellen. l.3. and in his book of Agesilaus. and Plut. in the lives of Artax. and Agesilaus.]
- Tithraustes sent messengers to Agesilaus to let him know that Tissaphernes who had started this war, had been punished for it. He stated that now the king had a good reason to withdraw his army from Asia and to leave the cities there to the use of their laws and pay the king their former tribute. Agesilaus told Tithraustes that he could not do this without the consent of his country. Finally, they came to this agreement, that he with his army would withdraw into Pharnabazus' country and would receive 30 talents to support them there until he received instructions from Sparta. [Xenophon Hellen. l.3.] However, Diodorus writes, that after a parley Thithraustes and Agesilaus made a truce for 6 months. Xenophon in his book written to glorify Agesilaus, added that when Tithraustes offered him a great sum of money, if he would withdraw out of the king's territories, Agesilaus replied: "Tithraustes, it is more honourable with us that a general to enrich his army rather than himself and to take spoils from his enemies rather than rewards."
- While Agesilaus marched toward Phrygia which was under Pharnabazus' command, he received a Scytala or a letter from the magistrates of Sparta. They said that he should take charge of the navy as well as of the army. He should appoint as admiral of the navy whomever he saw fit. Whereupon in a short time, he raised a navy of 120 ships from the public contributions of the cities and the generousity of private citizens who desired to reward him personally. He appointed as admiral, Pisander, his wife's brother. He was a man desirous indeed of praise, honour and courage but unskilled in naval matters. [Xen. Hellen. l.3. Plut. in his Agesilaus. Pausan. in his Laconica.]
- Pisander went away to the navy and Agesilaus continued on his way into Phrygia. Tithraustes knew that Agesilaus had no intention of leaving Asia but rather hoped to vanquish the king's forces right there. He sent Timocrates of Rhodes [for so Plutarch also calls him in his Laconical Apophthegmes, however the name of Hermoerates has crept in, in his life of Artaxerxes] into Greece with gold of the value of 50 talents of silver. He bribed the chief cities to conspire together, in a common war on the behalf of the Athenians against the Lacedemonian party. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.3. Plut. in his Artax. Pansanias in his Laconica and Messenica.]
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- About the beginning of autumn, Agesilaus entered into Phrygia which was under Pharnabazus' government. He pillaged all that country and took over all its cities either by force or voluntary surrender. He was persuaded by Spithtidates to march into Paphlagonia and to cause them to revolt from the Persians. Coyts its king, was previously sent for by Artaxerxes but would not go. He joined with Agesilaus. Spithridates persuaded Coyts to give 1000 cavalry and 2000 foot soldiers to assist him. Agesilaus rewarded Spithridates for this by procuring Cotys' daughter for his wife. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.4. and in his Agesilaus and Plutarch likewise in his.] Agesilaus was always very desirous to reward his friends as it appears by that Epistle Laconically written and attributed to him. "If Nicias has not done you wrong, forgive him: if he has forgive him for my sake, however forgive him."
- [Plutarch in his Agesilaus and in his Laconical Apophthegmes.]
- He marched from Paphlagonia to Dascylium where Pharnabazus' palace was. Around there were many towns full of provisions. Here he spent the winter and maintained his army. [Xen. Hellen. l.4.]
- When his soldiers were foraging, they were not as wary as they should have been of their enemy because up until now they had never been bothered by them. By chance, Pharnabazus attacked them with two hooked chariots and 400 men as they were pillaging the area. The Greeks saw him and rallied into a troop of 700 men. Pharnabazus put his hooked chariots in the front, followed them with his cavalry and ordered them to drive into the middle of them. When the chariots had broken in and disordered them, his cavalry attacked killing 100 of them. The rest fled back to Agesilaus who was not far off with his foot soldiers. [Xen. Hellen. l.4.]
- Three or four days later, Spithridates found that Pharnabazus was with his army in a spacious unwalled town called Caije about 20 miles from there. He told Heripadas, chief of the council of war, about this. Spithridates asked Agesilaus to give him 2000 foot soldiers, 2000 targeteers and as many cavalry that would voluntarily go with him. Less than half of each type of soldiers went with him. However, he set out with those which he had as soon as it grew dark. He came upon Pharnabazus at the very dawning of the day and slew the Mysians who happened that time to be on guard. The whole army was terrified and fled. Spithridates entered their camp and there took much booty including Pharnabazus' pavilion with all his luxurious furniture and wealth. Pharnabazus feared the Greeks and like the Scythian nomads, moved his camp here and there, never staying long in any one place. His main concern was that the enemy would not know where to find him. Heripedas made a rigourous search for the spoil. His soldiers stripped Spithradates and his Paphlagonians of all there plunder. After this, they spent all the next night taking what they could and went to Sardis to Araeus. He had formerly revolted from the king and served against him. In this Asian expedition, Agesilaus was more troubled by this departure of Spithridates, Megabates his son whom Agesilaus exceedingly loved and of these Paphlagonian troops. [???] [Diod. year 1,98th Olympiad and Plutarch in his Agesilaus.]
- After this, Agesilaus and Pharnabazus came to a parley by the mediation of Apollophanes from Cyzicum who was a friend of both of them. They tried to come to an agreement. Pharnabazus [as Xenophon has it in his oration concerning Agesilaus] openly stated that unless the king would make him absolute and sole commander of the army, he would revolt from him. If he could command all the forces then he would fight the war against Agesilaus as long as he could. Agesilaus told him that he would quickly depart out of his territory and not trouble him as long as he could find business elsewhere. As soon as Pharnabazus left, the son of his wife Pharapyta came running to Agesilaus and entered into a league of friendship with him. They gave each other gifts as tokens of their love. [???] [Diod. year 1,98th Olympiad, and Plutarch in his Agesilaus.]
- When spring came, Agesilaus came into the plains of Thebes and pitched near the temple of Diana Astyrina. There he gathered an exceedingly great store of wealth. He outfitted his troops to march into the upper countries. He did not doubt that the countries which he left behind him would defect from the Persians. [Xenophon. l.4. Hellen.] His fame was very great in Persia after spending two years in that war. [Plutarch, in his Agesilaus.]
- The Lacedemonians learned that the Persians were bribing the principal cities in Greece to unite and revolt against them. They sent Epicidas to Agesilaus, to recall him to defend his own country. Although, Agesilaus was bothered by being taken from this great war, he wrote that he would obey their command. [Plutarch, in his Agesilaus.] He sent this letter to the Ephori which Plutarch inserted among his Apophthegmes. "Agesilaus to the Ephori, greetings: we have subdued a great part of Asia, routed the barbarians and provided a great store of arms in Ionia. However because you have set a certain day to return by, I will obey your command and peradventure be back before that day. For I am king not for myself, but for you and our confederates. For a king is truly a king, when he is commanded by the laws, Ephori and the other magistrates of the city."
- It is said also that he told his friends in jest that the king had driven him from Asia with 30,000 archers. He meant that Timocrates' agent had distributed 30,000 golden darics, which were stamped with archers among the leaders of every city to create a common war against the Spartans, [Plutarch in his Laconical Apophthegmes and in his Artaxerxes., c.15. 5:43]
- When Agesilaus returned, he left Euxemus behind him to be commander-in-chief with 4000 soldiers to assist the Ionians if needed. So that he might return with a good army, he promised great rewards and honours to those cities and commanders who would send him the best cavalry and foot soldiers. Hence he made them all jealous of one another to see who could supply the best troops for him. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.4.]
- When Xenophon returned with Agesilaus into Boeotia to fight against the Thebans, he deposited half the gold which he had obtained on his expedition with Cyrus, at Ephesus with Megabyzus, the treasurer of the temple of Diana. He knew that by going with Agesilaus to battle he might be killed. He was killed later at Coronaea. Therefore, Xenophon ordered the treasurer that if he survived the battle he wanted the gold back. Otherwise all of it was to be consecrated to the goddess Diana. The rest of his gold he sent as offerings to Apollo at Delphi. [Expedit. Cy. l.5. and Diog. Lacrtius in Xenophonte.] Agesilaus consecrated a tenth of all that he had obtained in his two years of war in Asia to Apollo at Delphi. This amounted to about 100 talents. [Xenoph. and Plutarch, in their several lives of Agesilaus.]
- When Agesilaus had crossed the sea at Hellespont, he received news of the victory which the Lacedemonians had near Corinth. Thereupon, he sent back Dercylidas into Asia to inform the Ionians. This was to encourage them and strengthen their loyalty to the Lacedemonian party. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.4. and Plut. in his Agesilaus.]
- About this time the famous naval battle happened at Cnidus near the hill called Dorius. [Pausan, in the 2nd book of his Eliaca] Eubulus or Eubulis was governor at Athens. He took office at the very beginning of the 3rd year of 96th Olympiad according to Lysias, a very good author in his Oration concerning the acts of Aristophanes.
- The commanders of the Persian fleet lay near to Doryma in Chersonesus with more than 90 ships. Pharnabazus commanded the Phoenicians and Conon the Athenian commanded the Greek squadron. Pisander, [for whom Periarchus is incorrectly written by Diodorus] the Lacedemonian admiral sailed from Cnidus with 80 ships and came to a place called Physeus in Chersonesus. After he left there, he came upon a part of the king's fleet. He won the first battle with them. When the rest of the king's fleet came to their rescue, the friends of the Lacedemonians cowardly fled to land. Pisander with his ship attacked the thickest part of the enemy and slew many of them but died heroically in the fight. Conon with his men pursued the Lacedemonians hotly to land and took no less than 50 of their ships. The rest fled and returned safe to Cnidus. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.4. Diodorus year 2 of the 96th Olympiad. Justin l.6. c.3. Emil. Probus in the life of Conon.]
- When Agesilaus was now ready to invade Boeotia, he received news of the defeat of the Lacedemonian fleet and of the death of Pisander, his wife's brother. At that very instant, the sun was eclipsed and looked like a half moon. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.4. and Plut. in his Agesilaus] This happened on August 14th 394 BC, as appears by the astronomical accounts.
- After this great victory at Cnidus, Pharnabazus and Conon expelled all the Lacedemonian governors and garrisons from all the islands and sea towns. They were told that they would never put any citadels in their towns but that they should hence forth live according to their own laws. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.4. Hellen.] First the Coi, then the Nisaeans, then the Teians, and those of Chios defected from the Lacedemoians. Then they of Mitylene, of Ephesus and Erythrae, did so also. Almost immediately, all the rest of the cities defected from the Lacedemonians. Some expelled the Lacedemonian garrisons, set up and maintained their own government. Others put themselves into Conon's hands. From that time on, the Lacedemonians lost the sovereignty of the seas. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olympiad 96.]
- Dercylidas, an old enemy of Pharnabazus, at this time was at Agidus. He did not yield to Pharnabazus' commands as the others did but having made a grave and pithy speech to the inhabitants. He urged them to remain loyal to the Lacedemonians. When other commanders were expelled from there cities, they came to Dercylidas and were warmly received. Those that did not come voluntarily, were invited to come. When a multitude of them were come, Dercylidas went over to Sesus on the other side and there wooed all who were expelled from their commands on the European side. He encouraged them as he had done to the rest on the Asian side. He told them that in Asia itself which from the beginning belonged to the king, various places, as the small town of Temneus, Egae in Eolia and other places remained loyal and did not yield to the king. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.4.]
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- When Pharnabazus planned to attack Ephesus, he turned over 40 ships to Conon. He ordered him to meet him at Sestus. He himself sent threatening letters to both places telling them that unless they expelled the Lacedemonians he would count them as his enemies. When they refused, he commanded Conon to blockade them by sea. Pharnabazus went and wasted all the country about Abydus. When they still refused to yield to him, he left and went home. He ordered Conon to deal with the cities bordering on the Hellespont. He was to assemble the greatest fleet that they could possibly make by next spring. So the winter was spent making this fleet.
- At the beginning of spring, Pharnabazus assembled a mighty fleet and hired any ship he could. Pharnabazus took Conon with him and went through the middle of the islands of the Aegean Sea and came to Melus one of the Sporades. From there he could easily land in Laconia the country of the Spartans.
- When Pharnabazus had wasted the country, he planned to return into Asia. Before he went, Conon prevailed with him to leave the navy with him. With it he would go to Athens and would repair the long walls and fortify the port of Poyroeum. He said that this would greatly trouble the Lacedemonians. Pharnabazus approved of this plan and gave him money to do that work. Conon came to Athens with 80 ships and started to repair the walls both of the city and port. He gave 50 talents that he received from Pharnabazus, to his fellow citizens. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.4., Diod. Sic. year 2. and 3. of the 96th Olympiad. Plut. in his Agesilaus and Laconical Apophthegmes. Justin l.6. c.5. Emil. Prob. in the life of Conon.]
- When the Lacedemonians heard that the Athenians were rebuilding their walls, they sent Antalcidas to Tiribazus, another chief commander of the king who lived at Sardis. He wanted to make Tiribazus their friend and to mediate a peace between him and them. The Athenians also sent Conon and various others to him as did the Boeotians, Corinthians and those of Argos. Now when they all came before Tiribazus, Antalcidas told him that he was come to sue for a peace between the king and his country men as the king desired. To that end, the Lacedemonians would not fight with him for the Greek cities in Asia but would be content if all the islands and other countries outside Asia might be free and live according to their own laws. When all the rest of the messengers disavowed that motion, the meeting broke up and every man returned home again. Although Tiribazus saw that it was not safe for him to make a league with the Lacedemonians without the king's consent, yet secretly he furnished Antalcidas with money to build up their navy again. He did this so that the Athenians and their confederates might be the more agreeable to a peace with the king. He imprisoned Conon at Sardis charging him guilty of everything the Lacedemonians said of him. They said Colon had used the king's soldiers and money only to get towns and cities for the Athenians and to restore Ionia and Eloia to them. After that, Tiribazus made a journey to the king to inform him of the Lacedemonians' purposed treaty and to tell the king what he had done to Conon and why he had done it. He then wanted direction from the king as to what to do. [Xen. Hellen. l.4. with Plut. in his Laconical Apophthegmes: an in his Agesilaus. Diod. Sic. 3rd year of the 96th Olympiad: Emil. Prob. in the life of Conon.]
- After Saryrus, King of Bosphorus died, his son Leuco reigned for 40 years. [Diod. Sic. 4th year of 96th Olympiad.]
- Parysatis the king's mother, had her trusted servant, hide slips of palm trees in the heap of sand and dust that buried the body of Clearchus as I mentioned earlier. Now after 8 years, a beautiful grove of palm trees grew which shaded all the place, as Ctesias reports in his Persica. He adds that when the king knew of this he greatly repented for killing Clearchus, a man whom the gods themselves respected. [Ctesias, in the Excerptions of Photius, and Plut. in the life of Artaxerxes.]
- Some write that Conon was carried away prisoner to the king and executed. [Isocrates in his Panegyric.] However, Dinon, an historian and of great authority in Persian matters says that he escaped from prison. Dinon did not know if this happened with or without Tiribazus' knowledge and consent. [Emil. Prob. in his Conon.]
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- While Tiribazus was with the king, the king sent Struthas into lower Asia to take charge of the naval affairs. The Lacedemonians knew that Struthas hated them for the many injuries which Alcibiades had inflicted on the Persians in those parts and that Struthas favoured the Athenian party and their confederates. Therefore, they sent Thimbron to attack him. Thimbron sailed to Ephesus. From there and other places, on the Meander and from Priene, Leucophrye and Achillium, he plundered the king's neighbouring countries. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.4.] He took over Ioadae and Coressus, a mountain 5 miles from Ephesus. He had 8000 men whom he had brought with him in addition to those which he raised in Asia. He often made incursions from there and wasted all provinces and nearby places that were under the kings control. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 97.]
- After a while, Struthas, with a large company of cavalry, 5000 foot soldiers and almost 12,000 targeteers camped near the Lacedemonian army. When Struthas knew that Thimbron did not keep military order in sending his men out for service, he sent some cavalry into the plain country. He intended that they would attack whomever they found. When he saw Thimbron send out forces in small numbers and not in military order to relieve them that were attacked, then Struthas and his main body of his cavalry, all in good battle array, attacked them. Thimbron and his dear friend Thersander were killed in the first attack. Thersander was an excellent minstrel and a very good soldier. Hereupon, the rest of the Greeks fled. The Persians chased them. Some they killed, others were captured and only few Greeks escaped to Cnidus and other Greek cities. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 97]
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- Ecdicus was sent by the Lacedemonians with 8 ships to help the bandits of Rhodes. He came to Cnidus and found that the Rhodians were very strong on land and sea and had a fleet twice as big as his. Therefore he stayed at Cnidus without attacking them. [Xenoph. Hellen. 4. Diod. year 2. Olympiad 97.]
- In the same fleet, the Lacedemonians sent Diphridas with orders to land in Asia and to man all those cities which had adhered to Thimbron. He was to assemble the remaining troops from Thimbron's defeat and any other soldiers he could get. He started the war anew against Struthas. It was his good fortune to capture Tigranes, Strathus' son-in-law as he was going with his wife to Sardis. He let him go after extracting a large sum of money from him which he used to pay his army. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.4.]
- Euagoras the king of Salamis in Cyprus, ruled almost the entire island through the exploits of his son Protagoras. [Isocrates in his Euagoras.] The rest of the island, he took over partly by force and partly by persuasive words. The inhabitants of Amathusa, Solos and Citium sent to ask for help from Artaxerxes. They charged Euagoras with the killing of Argyris who was, while he lived, a confederate of the Persians and undertook to help the king get the whole island under his control. Artaxerxes wanted to check Euagoras and desired to control Cyprus so he could use it as a base to defend Asia. He ordered an attack against Euagoras and sent away the ambassadors. He ordered that all his sea towns in Asia to start building and outfitting all the ships they could. Artaxerxes went through the cities of upper Asia and raised a large army. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olympiad 97.] He made Antophradates, the governor of Lydia the general of the army. and Hercatonnus the commander of Caria, the admiral of the naval forces. [Theopomp. in Biblioth. Photis, p. 176] Instead of making war against Euagoras, Hercatonnus secretly gave him money to hire mercenaries. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olympiad 97. and year 3. Olympiad 98.]
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- When the Lacedemonians saw that Ecdicus did not have enough forces to help their friends, they recalled Telentias from the bay of Corinth and sent him with 12 ships to replace Ecdicus. Telentias was to support as best he could the Rhodians who favoured the Lacedemonian party and to repress their enemies. When Telentias came to Samos he added more ships to his fleet. From there he sailed to Cnidus and dismissed Ecdicus. He set sail for Rhodes with a fleet of 27 well furnished ships. [Xen. Hellen. l.4. with Diod. Sic. year 2. 97th Olympiad.]
- As he was on his way to Rhodes he came upon Philocrates who was sailing from Athens to Cyprus with 10 ships to help king Euagoras. Telentias took these and carried their spoil to Cnidus where he sold it. So it happened that they who were enemies to the king of Persia, plundered them who were going to make war against the king. [Xen. Hellen. l.4.]
- The Athenians saw that the Lacedemonians were recovering their naval power. They sent Thrasybulus with a fleet of 40 ships against them. He sailed first into Ionia and gathered money from their confederates. He found that all the cities in Asia welcomed him because of that correspondence which was between the king and them. Therefore he set sail for Byzantium and farmed out the collection of the 10% duty on all ships that passed through that strait. When he made a league of friendship with the Chalcedonians, he returned from the Hellespont. [Xen. Hellen. l.4. with Diodor. year 1. Olympiad 97.]
- After this he returned into Asia with his fleet and he sent for the required tribute from those of Aspendus which they paid. He anchored his fleet at the mouth of the river Eurymedon. However, some of his company went up into the country and plundered their goods. The men of Aspendus were furious and waited for a chance to strike back. When it came, they attacked and killed many of them including Thrasybulus while he was sleeping in his tent. This act terrified the Athenian captains and they quickly boarded their ships and sailed to Rhodes. The Athenians immediately sent Argyrius to replace Thrasybulus. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.4. Diodor. year 3. Olympiad 97.]
3615 AM, 4325 JP, 389 BC
- Although the Lacedemonians had little reason to find fault with Dercylidas' actions, yet they sent Anaxibius to replace him in the government of Abydus. Anaxibius was in favour with the Ephori and promised to do wonders if he might be furnished with men and money. Therefore they gave him 3 ships and money to hire and pay 1000 sailors. When he came to Abydus, he raised the land forces with the money which he brought. He caused various cities of Eolia to defect from Pharnabazus. He wasted the enemies' country. When he got 3 more ships, he troubled the Athenians which sailed along that coast. If he happened to find any of their ships straggling from the rest, he captured and brought them to Abydus. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.4.]
- When the Athenians heard of this, they sent Iphicrates who recently returned from Corinth, with 8 ships and 1200 targeteers, to maintain what Thrasybulus had gotten. He sailed into those parts against Anaxibius. When he came into Chersonesus both he and Anaxibius established a company of pirates and land robbers, to carry on the war for them. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.4.]
3616 AM, 4326 JP, 388 BC
- Anaxibius went to Antandrus with his mercenaries and his own country men and 200 foot soldiers from Abydus. There he was very kindly welcomed and entertained. Meanwhile Iphicrates placed ambushes for him in the mountain passages before Anaxibius could return from there to Abydus. The vessels which had carried Iphicrates over at night, Iphicrates ordered to row up the Hellespont that men might think that he was on-board and that he was going as his custom was to collect money. The men of Abydus who led the troops came into the plain which lies near a place called Cremastes, [where there are gold mines] and the rest were coming down the steep hill and Anaxibius with his Laconian troops followed them. Iphicrates with all his men, rose out of their ambush and attacked them. Anaxibius was thus entrapped, fought courageously and died along with 12 other Lacedemonians' governors of various cities. The rest fled and Iphicrates pursued them to the very gates of Abydus. Of these, 200 died in addition to 50 foot soldiers from Abydus. Iphicrates returned into Chersonesus. [Xen. Hellen. l.4. in. fi.]
- The Lacedemonians sent Hierax to replace Teleutias as admiral of the fleet. Teleutias returned home. He was dearly loved and admired by his troops. [Xenophon Hellen. l.5.]
3617 AM, 4327 JP, 387 BC
- Shortly after, the Lacedemonians sent Antalcidas to replace Hierax hoping that they would please Tiribazus. When Antalcidas came to Ephesus, he left Nicholochus' lieutenant there. Antalcidas and Tiribazus went together to the king to conclude the peace which was then being disturbed. [Xen. Hellen. l.5. Diod. Sic. year 2. Olympiad 98.]
- To secure Abydus, Nicolochus sailed from Ephesus and on the way he landed at Tenedos. He wasted their country and extracted a sum of money from them and then went on his journey to Abydus. Meanwhile the Athenian captains, who were at Samothrace Thasus and other places nearby hurried to come to the relief of Tenedos. When they found that Nicolochus had safely arrived at Agidus, they left Chersonesus with 32 ships and besieged him as he stayed at Abidus with 25 ships. [Xenoph. Hellen l.5.]
- Chabrias with 800 targeteers and 10 ships was publicly sent by the Athenians to help Euagoras. He did not leave the place till he had subdued the whole island for him. By this the Athenians became famous in the world, [Xenoph. Hellen l.5. and Emil. Prob. in the Life of Chabrias.] Lysias the orator, in his oration upon Aristophanes, mentions the embassy sent from the Cypriots to the Athenians asking for aid.
- Artaxerxes detested the Lacedemonians and always said [as Dinon reports] that they were the most impudent of all men living. However, when he saw Antalcidas, the Leonidas and the Calicratidas dance before him, he fell infinitely in love with him. When Antalcidas was eating supper, Artaxerxes sent him a garland made of roses and saffron from his own head. It was dipped in a most costly ointment. He was to wear it for the king's sake. Antalcidas replied: "Sir, I take and thank you for this noble gift and favour but the perfume of its ointment mars the natural scent and fragrance of the flowers."
- [Plut. in his Artax. and in his Polopidas and in his Sympos. l.7. ques. 8. Athenaeus Deiphos. l.2. Elia. Varia, Histor. l.14. c.39.]
- Tiribazus returned from the king with Antalcidas when he had made a firm league and alliance in case the Atheninas and their confederates would not partake in that peace which he had negotiated. When Pharnabazus went to the king who was in upper Asia, he married the king's daughter. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.5.]
- When Antalcidas returned, he heard that Iphicrates and Diotimus besieged Nicolochus in Abydus with all their fleet. Antalcidas went there by land and sailed at night. He let on that he was summoned to Chalcedon. However, he besieged the port of Percope. When 4 captains on the Athenian side heard that Antalcidas sailed for Chalcedon, they planned to follow him upon the trade route to Proeconesus. As soon as they sailed by, Antalcidas sailed back to Abydus. By this stratagem, he placed 12 swift ships in an ambush and intercepted 8 ships which Thrasybulus the Athenian brought from Thrace to join the main Attic fleet. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.5.] Polyanus, l.2. Stratag. in Antalcida.]
- Antalcides received 20 ships from Syracusae and other parts of Italy which were brought him by Polyxenus and others. From Ionia, Pharnabazus sent ships. He also received ships from Atiobarzanes, his old friend. With his fleet of 80 ships he was absolute master of the sea. Thereby he forced those ships which came from Pontus and were bound for Athens to discharge their cargo in a port friendly to the Lacedemonian party. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.5.]
- When Tiribazus had summoned all to come that would subscribe to the peace treaty of Artaxerxes, all the Greek cities sent their ambassadors. He showed them the document with the king's seals attached. He had it read to them: "The King Artaxerxes thinks it reasonable that the cities which are in Asia as also the islands of Clazomena and Cyprus should be under his government. All other Greek cities, regardless of size, should be free and live according to their own laws. This excludes Leminus, Imbrus and Scirus, which are under the control of the Athenians. Those who shall not receive this peace, I will with those who agree to his peace, wage war by land and by sea with ships and with money."
- The ambassadors returned to their respective cities with the terms of the peace. Although they were grieved to see the Greek cities in Asia under subjection, they accepted the peace. [Xen. Hellen. l.5. Isocrates in Panathen, Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 98. Plutarch in Agesil. and Artaxers. and in his Laconical Apophtheg. Aristides in his Leutric. 1,2.] This peace was proclaimed 19 years after the sea battle at Egospotamos and 16 years before the battle at Leuctra in Boeotia. [Polyb. l.1.]
- When this peace was made, Agesilaus, [according to Xenophon] was very earnest to see that the terms were observed. The Lacedemonians appointed themselves defenders of the peace in Greece. Artaxerxes wrote a letter to Alcibiades which he sent by a Persian with Callias a Lacedemonian. He offered Alcibiades both hospitality and friendship. Alcibiades declined the offer and told the king's messenger to tell his master that: "He need not trouble himself to write letters to him. For if he continued a good friend to the Lacedemonians, they would be good friends. But if he did any illto them, he should not think that any of his letters should win him his friendship." [Plutarch in his Laconical Apophthegmes.]
- In those articles of Antalcidas' peace, formerly related from Xenophon, who could not be ignorant of its terms, we find that not all the islands bordering on Asia but only two were given to the king. However Plutarch in the life of Artaxerxes, seems to think otherwise. These islands were Clazomenae [which as I showed before, 3504 AM and 3509 AM was then an island] and Cyprus. The nature of this peace now drew Chabrias from Cyprus, when he had already subdued it for Euagoras. Euagoras armed almost every man in the island and mustered a huge army against Artaxerxes. When Artaxerxes had made peace with the Greeks, he ordered all his forces to prepare for the conquest of Cyprus. [??] [Diod. Sic. 2 year, Olympiad 98.]
3618 AM, 4328 JP, 386 BC
- Artaxerxes mustered 300,000 foot soldiers and prepared 300 ships to attack Euagoras, the king of Cyprus. Orontes, the son-in-law to the king was the general of the army. The admiral of his fleet was Tiribazus. These two assumed their positions at Phocia and Cuma. They first sailed to Cilicia and from there landed in Cyprus. They waged a fierce war against Euagoras. He procured supplies from the Egyptians, Tyrians, Arabians and others who were enemies of the Persians. He had a fleet of 90 ships of which 20 were from Tyre and the rest were his. He had 6000 foot soldiers and a huge number of auxiliaries from other parts. Since he had plenty of money, his army grew exceedingly large. [Diod. l.15. year 3. Olympiad 98.]
- Euagoras encouraged a number of pirates he had at his command, to attack the enemy cargo ships. Some they captured, others were sunk and the rest dared not sail for fear of them. When the food ran out for the Persian army, some of the mercenaries killed their commanders and the whole army was in rebellion. Hence the officers of the army and Gaus the chief officer at sea were barely able to quiet them. Whereupon, the whole navy sailed for Cilicia and brought food from there for the camp. Acoris king of Egypt supplied Euagoras all the grain, money or other provisions that he could wish for. [Diod. l.15. year 3. Olympiad 98.]
- Euagoras knew that his fleet was far too weak for the enemies. Therefore he furnished 60 more of his own ships and had 50 more sent to him from king Acoris. His fleet now totalled 200 ships. In the first encounter by land, he defeated the Persians and routed them again at sea. He suddenly attacked their fleet as they were sailing to Citium and sunk some of them and captured others which were separated from the main body of the navy. When the admiral of the Persian navy and the rest of the commanders had time to recover, they counter attacked and the battle was fierce. At first Euagoras had the upper hand. When Gaus attacked with all his forces and personally fought very courageously, Euagoras' men fled with the loss of many of his ships. After the Persians won, they assembled their land and naval forces at Citium. When they outfitted, they went to besiege Salamis, the chief city, by land and sea. [Diod. l.15. year 3. Olympiad 98.]
- Immediately after the fight Teribazus went into Cilicia to carry the news of the victory to Artaxerxes. Euagoras left Salamis to be defended by his son Pythagoras. [Protagoras perhaps, of whom I formerly made mention from Isocrates in 3613 AM.] He committed the charge of the whole isle to him. Euagoras escaped by night with only 10 ships and sailed to Egypt. He persuaded Acoris to make a war upon the Persians with all the power he could. [Diod. l.15. year (3). Olympiad 98.]
3619 AM, 4329 JP, 385 BC
- Euagoras returned to Cyprus but with far less money than he expected. When he found Salamis strongly besieged and himself abandoned by his confederates, he sent to Tiribazus to ask for peace. Tiribazus who was commander-in-chief, replied that he would grant peace provided that he would surrender all Cyprus except Salamis into the king's hand and pay the king's tribute. He would submit to the authority of the king. As hard as these conditions were, Euagoras agreed to them only he would be subject to the king as one king is to another not as a slave to his master. Tiribazus rejected this. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 98.]
- Orantes the other commander-in-chief who envied the position of Tiribazus, secretly sent letters to the king, his father-in-law. Among other matters, he accused Tiribazus of planning a rebellion. Also that he had secretly made an alliance with the Lacedemonians and used all means to win over to himself all the main captains and commanders of the army. The king believed these lies and ordered Orontes to seize Tiribazus and send him to him. [Diod. Sic. year (4). Olympiad 98.]
- Orontes feared Tiribazus but devised this plan. There was a house which had a great vault in it. Over this vault he placed a bed and removed its bottom. He covered it over with tapestry and many costly covers. Then he asked Tiribazus to come to him, pretending that he wanted a conference about some urgent matters. When Tiribazus came in, he sat down on the bed and fell through into the vault. He was caught and sent bound in chains to the king. [Polyan. Stratag. l. 7.]
- Now Orontes commanded all the forces in Cyprus. He saw that Euagoras had taken fresh courage and endured the siege more stoutly than before. His soldiers were discontented by Tiribazus' misfortune. When Orontes received no commands he abandoned the siege. He granted Euagoras a peace on the terms Euagoras had purposed to Tiribazus. These were that he would pay a yearly tribute to the king, he would continue to be king of Salamis and as a king he would be obedient in all things to the king. Hence this war in Cyprus ended, which had lasted 10 years of which 8 years were spent in preparations and only 2 years in the war. The king had spent 50,000 talents on it. When all was done, Euagoras was in the same state as he was when the war began. [Isocrates in his Euagoras, Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 98.]
- Gaus, vice-admiral of the navy and son-in-law to Tiribazus, feared lest he be thought to know of Tiribazus' plans that he might meet the same fate as Tiribazus. He thought of defecting from the king. With wealth and soldiers enough and having the loyalty of the chief captains of the navy, he confederated with Acoris king of Egypt and the Lacedemonians to make war on Artaxerxes. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 98.]
- Artaxerxes followed the example of Cambyses, [Herod. l.5. c.25. Valer. Max. l.6. c.3.] and had certain of his judges to be flayed alive and their skins hung over the judgment seats. He did this so that they who judged would know what hung over their heads and might be the more careful to do justice to his people. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 98.]
3620 AM, 4330 JP, 384 BC
- Artaxerxes lead an army of 300,000 men against the Cadusii, a people lying between the Euxine and the Caspian Sea, [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 98. Plut. in Artaxerxes.] In this war, many important men died on each side. One on the king's side was Camislates, a Carian who was a brave and valiant man. The king had made him governor of the part of Cilicia, which lies next to Cappadocia and is inhabited by the Leucosytians. In honour of him, the king made his son Datames, governor in his place. He also did great exploits for the king in this war, [Emil. Prob. in the Life of Datames.]
- Artaxerxes' army in this war was very short of supplies. So much so that a man could hardly buy the head of an ass for 60 drachmas. Teribazus, who lived then as a poor neglected and contemptible soldier in the army, relieved them in this manner. There were at that time two kings of the Cadusians and they kept their camps separated. Therefore Teribazus told his plan to Artaxerxes. He went to one of the kings and sent his son secretly to the other. Each deceived the king and persuading him that the other king had secretly sent to Artaxerxes to make a peace with him for himself and to leave the other out. Hereupon, each king sent ambassadors, the one with Teribazus, the other with his son to the king and he made peace with them both. So the war was ended. [Plut. in Artaxerxes.]
- Upon this, the king referred the case of Teribazus to three honourable persons. He made his innocence so obvious and showed that his services to the king were so great, that they declared his innocence. After this, the king held him in very high esteem and heaped great honours on him. Orontes was condemned as a false accuser and thrust from the king's favour. He was counted as an ignominious person after that. [Diod. Sic. year. 4. Olympiad 98.]
- While Gaus was in Cyprus, the Greeks who served under him there, wrote letters against him and sent them to Ionia. To find out who they were, and what they wrote he did the following. He prepared a ship with sailors. He had the captain say that he was sailing for Ionia. The ship stayed for a while to get as many letters aboard as possible and at last set out. Shortly it turned back into a creek not far from the place where it set out from. Orontes went there on foot. All the letters aboard were given to him. After Gaus had read them and found out who had sent them, he had them all executed by torture. [Polyan. Stratag. l.7. for "Gaus" is incorrectly written "Alos" and "Glos."]
3621 AM, 4331 JP, 383 BC
- After Gaus had provoked the Egyptians and Lacedemonians to war against the Persians, he was killed. I do not know how nor by whom and his plans came to naught. After his death, Tachos got an army and built the town Leuca on a high hill that bordered on the sea. He also built a temple for Apollo. Shortly after this he died. The Clazomenians and the men of Cuma disagreed over who owned this town. The Clazomonians were quicker and took control of it. So all rebellions in Asia ceased. After the death of Gaus and Tachos, the Lacedemonians abandoned Asia and had nothing more to do with it. [Diod. Sic. year. 2. Olympiad 94.]
3622 AM, 4332 JP, 382 BC
- When Pharnostratus was governor of Athens, in the month Possideon in the 366th year of Nabonassar's account on the 26th day of the Egyptian month, Thoth, at 5:30 am December 23rd 383 BC, there was a small eclipse of the moon observed at Babylon. [Hipparch. in Ptol. in his great Syntax. l.4. c.ult.]
- In the same man's time, in the month Scirrophorion and in the same year of Nabonassar, on the 24th day of the month Phammenoth at 6:30 pm June 18th 382 BC another lunar eclipse was observed at Babylon. [Hipparch. in Ptol. in his great Syntax. l.4. c.ult.]
3623 AM, 4332 JP, 382 BC
- When Evander was governor of Athens, in the month of Possideon, in the 367th year of Nabonassar's account, the 16th day of the month Thoth, at 9:30 pm December 12th 382 BC there was a third lunar eclipse observed at Babylon. This was a total eclipse. [Hipparch. in Ptol. in his great Syntax. l.4. c.ult.]
3627 AM, 4337 JP, 377 BC
- Acoris king of Egypt bore an old grudge against the king of Persia. He gathered a huge army of aliens, especially from Greece. He made Chabrias the Athenian the general of the army. He, without any orders from or consent from Athens, assumed this charge in Egypt and prepared all he could for this war against the Persians. Artaxerxes made Pharnabazus general of his army for this war. When he had made many preparations for it, he sent messengers to Athens and there charged Chabrias for offering his service to the Egyptians. Thereby they would lose Artaxerxes favour. He desired that they would send to him Iphicrates their general. The Athenians who were mainly desirous to endear the king to them and to keep Pharnabazus as their good friend, sent for Chabrias from Egypt and gave Iphicrates orders to go and help Pharnabazus. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 100.]
- Iphicrates had the charge of 12,000 mercenaries committed to him by Artaxerxes. By continual training and exercise, he made them expert in the art of military affairs. Later among the Romans a skilful soldier was commonly called a Fabian soldier after Fabius and likewise in Greece a good soldier was called an Iphicratian soldier after Iphicrates. [Emil. Prob. in Iphicrates,] Pharnabazus spent many years in preparing for this war. One time when Iphicrates found Pharnabazus a man so voluble in his speech and so slow in his actions, he asked him the reason why. Pharnabazus said the reason was because I am master of my words, but the king of my actions. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad. 101.]
- Hecatonus Mausolus was made a governor of Caria and so ruled for 24 years. [Diod. Sic. year 4 of Olymp. 106.] He married Artemisia, the older of his two sisters. [Strabo. l.14.]
3628 AM, 4338 JP, 376 BC
- After Acoris died, Psammuthis reigned 1 year in Egypt.
3629 AM, 4339 JP, 375 BC
- After him, came Nepherites, the last of the dynasty of the Mendesians, and reigned 4 months. Then arose the first of the dynasty of the Sabennitae, called Nectanabis who reigned 12 years.
- Artaxerxes was now ready to make war on Egypt. To get more aid from Greece, he sent his ambassadors there to encourage them to make a general peace among themselves. The terms were that every city should from that time on live according to their own laws and they should have no garrisons among them. All the cities of Greece accepted this, except the Thebians. [Diod. Sic. year. 2. Olymp. 101.]
3630 AM, 4340 JP, 374 BC
- When Artaxerxes' army was assembled at Acon in Syria, he had 200,000 troops under Pharnabazus and 20,000 Greeks under Iphicrates. In the navy, excluding cargo ships, he had 300 ships with 3 banks of oars and 200 of 30 oars a piece. The first type are called trireis in Greek, the other teiacitioui. In the beginning of the summer, i.e.in the first of the spring, the Persian navy sailed for Egypt and came to the frontier town near Syria called Pelusium. They found it exceedingly well fortified by Nectanabis. Hence they put out to sea again and when they were out of sight, they steered for Mendesium, a city on one of the mouths of the Nile. There the shore runs a great way out from the land. They landed 3000 men and Pharnabazus and Iphicrates went to surprise a fort that stood on the very mouth of the river. When they came there, 3000 Egyptian cavalry and foot soldiers came to defend the place. There was a fierce skirmish between them. At last, the Egyptians were overwhelmed with the number of Persians which came thronging from the ships to help their troops. They were totally surrounded and were slaughtered. Many of them were taken and the rest fled to a little town nearby. Iphicrates' men pursued them and entered pell mel with them into the gate and captured it. They rased it to the ground and carried away its inhabitants as prisoners. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 101.]
- Iphicrates advised them to go presently by water to assault Memphis, the main city of all Egypt. It had no garrison and he thought they should attack it before the Egyptian forces came in to defend it. Pharnabazus did not agree. He would stay until his army came and so they could attack them with less danger. By this delay, the Egyptians had enough time to get supplies into Memphis and from there they made various attacks on the small town which the Persians had seized as I had said before. They skirmished frequently with them and slaughtered many of them. When the time of the year came, the Nile flooded all the country around there and helped fortify Memphis. Therefore the Persian commanders thought it foolish to fight against nature and withdrew from there for the present. So all those huge preparations came to naught. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 101.]
- As soon as they returned to Asia, Iphicrates lost favour with Pharnabazus. Iphicrates feared that he might be thrown into prison as happened to Conon. Therefore, he sailed secretly to Athens by night. Pharnabazus sent for him and charged that he was the reason why Egypt was not conquered. The Athenians replied that they would punish him if they saw fit. Shortly after this, the Athenians made him the admiral of all their fleet. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 101]
- Nicocles an eunuch in Cyprus, murdered Euagoras and made himself king of Salamis according to Diodorus in this year's account. Euagoras was murdered by an eunuch, [Aristotle 5. of his Politic, c.10.] but states that his name was Thrasydaeus. We learn from Theopompus [Biblioth. Photii. n. 176.] that Euagoras, by this eunuch's help got to lie with the daughter of Nicocreon. He was that tyrant of Cyprus, who [Plutarch in his life] invited Isocrates to supper and that was the cause of his death. Nicocles was Euagaoras' own son according to Isocrates. He had 20 talents from Nicocles for his written oration that he sent to him. [Plutarch in the life of Isocrates] We still have his oration addressed to Nicocles concerning the functions of a king. Another oration entitled Nicocles concerns Nicocles' duties as a prince. A third oration called Euagoras, is a funeral oration made for him. Nicocles in this very year solemnified his father's funeral in a costly and magnificently pompous manner. He held all types of games of music, dancing, wrestling, ship fights and cavalry battles for the funeral. Therefore Isocrates wrote this oration to him in praise and commendation of his father. He hoped that this would serve both Nicocles and his sons and children after them as an example and exhortation of well doing. "Supposing, that this will serve both you and your children, and the other descendants of Euagoras for utmost encouragement to your well doing," [Isocrates in his Euagoras.]
- Hence we may amend that error in Diod. Sic. and say truly that Euagoras was murdered by Thrasidaeus an eunuch and that his own son Nicocles succeeded him in the kingdom of Salamis.
3633 AM, 4343 JP, 371 BC
- When Alcisthenes was governor at Athens, the Greek cities resumed their infighting. Artaxerxes sent ambassadors to urge them to obey the peace treaty and live peacefully with each other. All the Greek cities except Thebes swore an oath to keep the peace. When the peace was made and agreed to by the Athenians, Lacedemonians and Artaxerxes, Iphicrates was recalled with his fleet. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 102. with Xenoph. Hellen. l.6. and Diony, Halicarnas. in the life of Lysias.]
- Plutarch [in the life of Agesilaus], shows that this peace was concluded and made among the Greeks at Lacedemon on the 14th day of the month Scirrophorion with the Athenians and in the last month of Arcisthenes' governorship at Athens on Thursday, July 16,371 BC.
3634 AM, 4344 JP, 370 BC
- The Lacedemonians were badly defeated at Leuctra by Epaminondas. They immediately sent Agesilaus to Egypt and Antalcidas to Artaxerxes to get money. Artaxerxes rejected Antalcidas' request with much scorn and indignation. When he returned he starved himself to death because he had been so spitefully used by Artaxerxes and he feared what the Ephori would do to him. [Plut. in Artax.]
3635 AM, 4345 JP, 369 BC
- Artabarzanes sent Philiscus of Abidus, who was one of Artaxerxes' lords to Greece to resolve matters between Thebes and their confederates and the Lacedemonians. Philiscus summoned them all to Delphi. Thebes was adament that Messene should not be under the Lacedemonian jurisdiction. Philiscus was so offended by this that he left 2000 of his best soldiers to assist the Lacedemonians against Thebes. Philiscus returned to Asia. [Xenoph. Hellen. 7. Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 102.]
3636 AM, 4346 JP, 368 BC
- When Thebes controlled Greece, they thought it good to send their ambassadors to the king of Persia. For this purpose they called their confederates together and pretended that Euthycles of Lacedemon was already with the king. They sent to the king, Pelopidas from Thebes, Antiochus the athlete from Arcadia, Archidamus of Eleus, a town in Thrace and one other from Argos. When the Athenians heard this, they sent their ambassadors, Timagoras and Leontes, to the king. Among them all Pelopidas was the most gracious in the king's eyes and next to him was Timagoras. All of the others were most honourably treated by the king. [Xen. Hellen. l.7.]
- Ismenias from Thebes was joint commissioner with Pelopidas in this embassy. When he was brought by Tithraustes the chiliarch into the presence of the king, he was asked to prostrate himself before the king. He dropped his ring before him and presently fell all down and recovered his ring. The king thought he did this to honour him and gave him whatever he asked. [Plut. in Artax. Elia. Var. Hist. l.1. c.21.]
- At the same time, Timagoras the Athenian sent a confidential letter by Bubaris' secretary to the king. For his trouble he received 1000 darics. Timagorous had a rich supper sent him at his lodging. Whereupon the king's brother Ostanes, said to him: [??] "Remember Timagoras this supper. For it is not sent you for any lowly purpose."
- This sounded like he was upbraiding Timagoras for some treasonous purpose in him rather than congratulating him for the gift sent to him. [Plut. in Artax.] It is also said that the king gave Timagorous 80 cows because he was so sickly and the cattle would give him milk on his journey home. The king also gave him a costly bed and furniture along with some servants to make it because the Greeks were not skilled in such matters. Moreover the king had him carried all along to the seaside in a litter because of his weakness. The king gave those who carried him 4 talents for their work. [Plut. in Artax. and in his Pelopidas] In [Athena. l.2.] we are told that Timagoras, after his prostration to the king was treated with great honour by the king. He adds only: [??] "that the king sent him some dishes from his own table."
- Concerning the costly bed and furniture and the men to make it, [as if the Greeks knew not how to make a bed,] that were sent by Artaxerxes, he says it was to Timagoras of Crete or Eutimus of Gortyna in Crete, as Phanias in the Peripatetic calls him.
- Pelopidas by his gracious behaviour with the king, got letters from the king stating that the king ordered that Messene should be exempt from Lacedemonian jurisdiction and the Athenians were required to withdraw their ships. If they did not obey, the king proclaimed open war against both of them. If any city refused to follow him in this war then that city would be the first of all other cities to be made an example of. When Leontes spoke publicly that it was time for the Athenians to look for new friends instead of the king, Artaxerxes asked that if the Athenians did not like it, they should come and state the reasons why not. [Xen. Hellen. l.7.]
- When the ambassadors came home, the Athenians took Timagoras and decapitated him for his prostration to the king. They were insulted that the grovelling flattery of one of their citizens should subject the whole honour of the Athenian state to the domineering power of the Persians. [Valer. Max. l.5. c.3.] [In the text, "Darius" is written by mistake for "Artaxerxes."] Others say that it was for his base acceptance of the king's gifts. For more of this see [Plutarch in his Artax. and Pelopidas.] Xenophon says that he was accused by his companion Leontes of not lodging with him and communicated all his counsels with Pelopidas. This no doubt was the main cause for his execution.
- Thebes summoned all the cities of Greece to hear the king's letters read. They were publicly read by the Persian that brought them. He first showed them the king's seal on the letters. The letters stated that all who would be friends to the king and Thebes were required to take an oath for the observance of the contents of those letters. The delegates and later the cities refused to take that oath. Hence that mission to Artaxerxes and the sovereignty of Greece engineered by Pelopidas and Thebes came to naught. [Xen. Hellen. l.7.]
3638 AM, 4347 JP, 367 BC
- Jubilee 22.
- Artaxerxes sent other ambassadors into Greece to require them to stop these wars and to make a peace among themselves. In the end, he prevailed with them. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. (103).]
- Eudoxus the Cnidian, surnamed "Endoxos", that is "the famous", was in his prime at this time. He went to Egypt with Chrysippus a physician, and carried with him letters of commendation from Agesilaus to Nectunabis who commended him to the priests there. After spending time with Iconupni of Heliopolis, [whom Clemens Alexan. in the first book of his Stromat. calls Conuphis] Apis the bull came to lick his cloak. Whereupon the priests said, that he would become very famous but it would not be long lived. [Phavorinus in his commentaries] When Eudoxus had stayed in Egypt for 16 months, he shaved himself all over to his very eye brows and wrote the Octocris, as some say. This we have in our discourse on the Macednian and Asiatic year. [c. ult.] From there he is said to have travelled to Cyzicum and Propontis and to have spread his philosophy in those parts. He finally came to Mausolus. [Diog. Laertius in his Eudoxus,] Others say that Eudoxus went with Plato to Egypt and they both studied 13 years with the priests there. [Strabo, l.17.]
3639 AM, 4349 JP, 365 BC
- At Heraclea in Pontus, the common people wanted all debts to be cancelled and all lands equally shared among them. The nobility sent to Timotheus, Prince of Athens and also to Epaminondas of Thebes for help against them. When they refused, they recalled Clearchus home whom they had formerly exiled and begged his help to repress the common people. [Justin l.16. c.4.]
3640 AM, 4350 JP, 364 BC
- Clearchus used the dissention among the people as an occasion to become ruler of the city. He dealt secretly with Mithridates king of Pontus. He was an enemy in Greece. Clearchus agreed with Mithridates that when he was called home, he would betray the city into Mithridates' hands and control it after this as governor under Mithridates. When Clearchus set a time to deliver the city into Mithridates his hand, Clearchus captured Mithridates and those that accompanied him when they came to take over the city. Clearchus threw them into prison and let them go when he had extorted a huge sum of money from them. So instead of maintaining the rich men's cause against the people, he made himself a patron of the common people against them. He stirred up the common people against them and behaved cruelly toward the nobility. When the people had made him ruler Clearchus cast 60 of the chief of them [for the rest were fled] into prison. After first taking away their goods, he had them executed. [Justin l.16. c.4.] He followed the example of Dionysius the tyrant of Syracuse and he ruled the city for 12 years. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olympiad 104. with the Collections of Photius in his Biblioth. from Memnon the Historiographer of Heraclea, n. 224.]
3641 AM, 4351 JP, 363 BC
- Tachos, whom Polyanius [l. 7. Stratgem.] calls "Thamos", Aristotle [l. 2. of his Oeconomics] "Taos" and Julius Africanus, "Teos", reigned in Egypt for 2 years.
- With this year Xenophon concludes his 7 books of his Greek history. Anaximes Lampsacenus concludes the first part of his history. He starts from the birth of the gods and creation of mankind and ends with the battle of Manthinea in which Epaminondas was killed. The history is in 12 volumes and records almost all things that happened among either the Greeks or the barbarians. [Diod. year 2. Olympiad 104.] In the second part he sets down all the deeds of Philip of Macedonia and his son, Alexander the Great. [Pausa. 2. of his Eliaca.]
- After Mithradates king of Pontus died, Ariobarzanes, the governor of Phrygia under Artaxerxes, seized the kingdom of Pontus and ruled it for 26 years. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad (104). and year 4. of Olympiad 110.]
- When Clearchus the tyrant of Heraclea found that the chief men of Heraclea who had fled from there stirred up all the neighbouring cities and states against him, he freed all their slaves. He gave them their masters' wives and daughters in marriage and threatened death to those that would not. By this he made those slaves more loyal to him and made them more hostile to their masters. Many women reckoned these forced marriages to be worse than death itself. Therefore before their wedding, many murdered their husbands to be and then killed themselves. At last the nobles had a battle with Clearchus. He won and took the nobles as prisoners and led them in a triumph through the city in the sight of all the people. Then he put some of them in irons, others on the rack and others he put to death. He left no part of the city free from the sight and sense of his cruelty. [Justin l.16. c.5.]
3642 AM, 4352 JP, 362 BC
- The Lacedemonians became the enemies of Artaxerxes when he claimed to be their friend and yet ordered them to withdraw from Messene and to make it a distinct member in the league of Greece. [Xenoph. in his Agesulaus, and Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 104.] Ariobarzanes, the Governor of Phrygia joined with the Lacedemonians. He, as I said before, after the death of Mithridates had taken over the kingdom of Pontus. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 104.]
- Autophrades, the governor of Lydia besieged Ariobarzanes in Assos, a city of Troas. However, he lifted his seige and fled in fear when Agesilaus, who was now old, came into Asia only to raise money for his country. Cotys, who besieged Sestus and was under Ariobarzanes' command, lifted his seige also. Mausolus who besieged Assus and Sestus with 100 ships was persuaded to withdraw and he returned home with his fleet. Ariobarzanes, [??] a friend of the Lacedemonians, furnished Agesilaus with money for his country and sent him on his away. [Xenoph. in his Agesilaus,] Polyanus [l. 7.] mentions the siege of Ariobarzanes by Autophrates in Adramytium.
- Mausolus, called his friends together and told them that unless Artaxerxes was given an excessive sum of money, he would take away his country which he held by inheritance from his father. His friends thought the country brought him, in an instant, an infinite sum of money. [Polyenus l.7. Stratag.] compared with [Aristot. in his Oeconomics:] However they saw that he was not going to yield to Artaxerxes. Mausolus allied himself with those governors and captains who were rebelling against Artaxerxes. At this time all of Ionia, Lycia, Pisidia, Pamphilia and Cilicia were in rebellion against him. In addition, the Syrians, Phoenicians and almost all that bordered on the Asiatic sea rebelled. Also, Tachos king of Egypt, proclaimed open war against Artaxerxes and was busy everywhere building ships and raising forces for the war. Many of these came from all of Greece and Tachos formed an alliance with the Lacedemonians. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 104.]
- When all these rebellions happened at once against Artaxerxes, he lost half of his revenues. The remainder was not enough for the war considering that he was to support a war against the king of Egypt, all the Greek cities and countries in Asia. Also he had to war against the Lacedemonians and their confederates, namely the governors which held the sea towns and regions in all Asia under their command. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 104.]
- The king of Egypt sent for Agesilaus, promising to make him general of his army. [Xenoph. in his Agesilaus.] He was sent there by his country and used the money from Tachos to hire mercenaries. He loaded his ships with 1000 foot soldiers and took with him 30 Spartan commissioners for his War Council. [Plut. in his Agesilaus: and Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad (104).] When the news of his landing came to the courtiers in Egypt, they strived to be the first to send him presents. When they came to him, they scorned him. They saw no attendants about him but only a decrepit and wearisome old man, lying along on the beach sloven-like and of a small stature. They loathed his sordid and insulant behaviour all the more when they saw that he selected only some grain and veal from all the rich foods they sent him and threw away the dainties, sweet meats and precious ointments to his soldiers. [Plut. and Emil. Prob. in his Agesilaus.] The king of Egypt did not keep his promise and did not make him the general of his army. [Xen. in his Agesilaus.] He derided him for the smallness of his stature and said that whoever spoke the old proverb was correct: "The hills were great with young and delivered a mouse."
- which when Agesilaus heard, he said in a rage, " I will one day seem a lion to him." [Athenae. l.14. with Plutarch]
- Chabrias the Athenian, was not sent by public authority as Alcibiades was. Tachos persuaded him to serve him as a private citizen. [Diod. Sic. and Plutarch.] When Chabrias saw the king was short of money, he advised him to take what money he could from the rich and promise them to be paid from his yearly taxes. By this means, Tachos gathered an enormous sum of money without injuring anyone. [Polya. Strat. l.3.] Aristotle [l. 2. of his Oeconomics.] numbers this as but one of the many schemes he had for raising money at this time.
- They who rebelled in Asia, made Orontes the governor of Mysia, their commander-inchief. When he received enough money to pay for 20,000 mercenaries for one year, he captured those who had contributed the money and sent them as prisoners to Artaxerxes. He than betrayed various other cities, forts and mercenaries to the king's officers that the king had sent into those parts. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 104.] Polyanus mentions this war by Orontes and Autophradates and other officers of the kings. [Polyanus l.7. Stratag.] Diodorus assures us that in the last year of Artaxerxes Mnemon both Autophradates and Orontes and other commanders defected from him. Therefore, we must conclude, that Autophradates stood for his son Artaxerxes Ochus and that it was Orontes which made the war against him.
- Artabazus, who commanded Artaxerxes Mnemon's army, attacked Cappadocia. Datames the governor of that province attacked Artabazus with a strong body of cavalry and 20,000 mercenaries on foot. Then Mithrabarzanes his father-in-law and general of his cavalry stole away from him at night with all his cavalry and fled to Artabazus. Mithrabarzanes and his troops were well paid for this treachery. For it happened that they were attacked and hewed in pieces by both the armies from each side. Diodorus adds, that when Artaxerxes was told that Datames had brought Artaxerxes this noose as a joke. Artaxerxes quickly tried to rid his hands of him and shortly after this, Artaxerxes had him secretly killed. However, it appears from Emil. Prob. that Datames lived long after this. He acknowledges that Datames' affairs were carried out in an obscure way. Hence he says, that he was most careful determining what happened. This he does in such a way as to easily discern that what he did was all in the reign of Artaxerxes Ochus.
- Rheomithres was sent by the alliance of Persian governors to Egypt. He received 500 talents and 50 ships and returned with them to Leucas in Asia. When he sent for many of the governors and leaders to come to him there, he siezed them and sent them all away as prisoners to Artaxerxes. By this act, he re-ingratiated himself with the king who was previously displeased with him. [Diod. Sic. year 3Olympiad 104.]
3643 AM, 4352 JP, 362 BC
- When Tachos was fully prepared for war, he put Agesilaus in command of the 10,000 Greek mercenaries. His fleet of 200 ships was under Chabrias who was very skilful in naval affairs. [Polya l.7. Stratag.] His 80,000 Egyptian foot soldiers where under Nectanabus, his brother or sister's son. [The Greek word is ambiguous.] Tachos was commander over all these forces. Although Agesilaus tried to persuade him to prosecute the war by his officers and to stay in Egypt, yet he refused. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 104.] Nevertheless, Agesilaus, against his better judgment went with him by sea to Phoenicia. [Plutarch in his Agesilaus.]
- While the Egyptian fleet lay in Phoenicia, Nectanabus was sent to capture some principal cities of Syria. Nectanabus made an agreement with the one whom Tachos had left for governor of Egypt and Nectanabus proclaimed himself king of Egypt. He bribed the army commanders with expensive gifts and promised the soldiers many things so they would side with him against his father. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 104.]
- Tachos was now utterly deserted by his own subjects and also by Agesilaus whom he had formerly offended by that base jest he made of him. Fearing the worst, Tachos fled from there to Sidon in Phoenicia and from there to the king of Persia. [Xenophon and Plutarch affirm and Theopompus and Lysias of Naucratis, in his affairs of Egypt, both cited by Athensus in l.14 c. 4.] Diodorus and Elian say further that he was very graciously entertained by Artaxerxes. Although I cannot believe Diodorus that Artaxerxes presently made him general of all the forces which he had then raised to make a war upon Egypt and that he returned with them to Egypt and was there reinstated as king by Agesilaus. Neither can we believe [Elian, l.5. Var. Histor. c.1.] where he tells us that Tachos had formerly lived frugally at home and now he died by gorging himself with food after the Persian manner. Lynceus or Lyceas, whom I mentioned before, teaches us, that his Egyptian diet was far more sumptuous than that of the Persian one. [cited by Athenaus, l.4. c.10 Deip.]
- After this another man made himself king in Mendes with an army of 100,000. [Plut. in his Agesilaus.] Now there were 2 kings in Egypt. Agesilaus followed Nectanabus whom he thought most favoured the Lacedemonians. [Xen. in Agesilaus.] He was with him in a long siege in a citadel. Nectanebus grew impatient of being confined and wanted to risk a battle. Agesilaus left him and stayed behind in the citadel until the whole citadel was quite surrounded with siege works and the enemy all around them except for a little place where there was yet a passage through. Then Agesilaus sallied out into that narrow passage and made his way through with a great slaughter of the enemy. He had their siege works at his back so that they could not surround him. [Plut. in Agesil. Polya. Stratag. l.2. with Diod. year 3. Olymp. 104.] Diodorus writes "Tachos", instead of the king of "Mendes."
- Agesilaus defeated the other king who hated the Greeks and took him prisoner. He restored Nectanabus to his kingdom and made him a loyal friend of the Lacedemonians. [Xenophon in Agesilaus.] However, Emil. Prob. attributes this restitution of the king to Chabrias. The reason for this was that it was done jointly by the Lacedemonians and Athenians. Now from this time until Nectanabus was put out of the kingdom was 12 years according to Diodorus. Hence the length of his reign was 12 years not 18, as Africanus and Eusebius have it.
- Nectanabus entreated Agesilaus very earnestly to spend that winter with him. However he hasten home for Sparta was engaged in a war and he knew they needed money and maintained a foreign army. Therefore Nectanabus dismissed Agesilaus very honourably and gave him besides all the other gifts, 230,000 or, as Emil Probus has it, 220,000 talents. [Plut. in Ages.]
- When Agesilaus got this money, he hurried home in the dead of winter. He feared lest the Lacedemonians would spend the next summer idle and do nothing against their enemies. [Xen. in Agesil.] A storm cast him on a deserted shore called "Menelai Portus", that is "Port of Menelaus" lying between Cyrene and Egypt. There he fell sick and died. His friends lacked wax and preserved him with honey and carried him to Sparta. [Plutarch and Emilius Probus, in Agesilaus,] Diodorus says that his body was buried there in a most royal manner. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 104.]
- Ochus, the lawful son of Artaxerxes, had his brother Arsames murdered who was born from a concubine and dearly loved by his father. He had Harpates the son of Titibazus murder him. When Artaxerxes heard what had happened to his much beloved son, took it to heart and died from grief. [Plut. in Artaxerxes.]
- Ochus knew that his father was highly respected by his people when he was alive. If the news of his death got out, Ochus would not be respected at all. Therefore, he had all the princes and nobles and others that were around him keep the death of his father secret for 10 months. In the meantime he sent letters into all the provinces in the king's name with his seal on them, requiring that every man accept Ochus for their king. [Polya. l.7. Stratag.]
- Heraclea the wife of Clearchus the tyrant of Pontus bore him a son whom he called Dionysus. The son lived 55 years. [Athenaus, l.12 and Mnemonin in the collections of Photius, c.5.]
3644 AM, 4354 JP, 360 BC
- When all men had acknowledged Ochus for king, he announced the death of his father and commanded a public mourning to be made for him according to the Persian manner. [Polia. l.7.] He assumed the name of his father, "Artaxerxes." [Diodor. Valerius Max.] Then he filled his court with the blood of his kindred and nobles without respect to kin, sex or age. [Justin. l. 10. c.3.] He caused his own sister, whose daughter he had married, to be buried alive with her heels upward. An uncle of his with more than 100 children and grandchildren was brought into a court and there shot to death with arrows. [Valer. Max. l.9. c.2.] If seems this uncle was the father of Sisygambis who was the mother of Darius the last king of the Persians. She was the queen that Curtius states [Curtius, l.10. c.8.] had her father and 80 brothers executed by Ochus in one day.
3646 AM, 4356 JP, 358 BC
- The states of Chios, Rhodes, Byzantium and Chos, revolted from Athens at the same time. This was called "Bellum Sociale", i.e.the confederates war. When the Athenians besieged Chios, the Athenians received help from their own confederates and Mausolus the petty king of Caria. [Demosthenes in his Oration of Peace and of the Rhodians liberty, Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad, 105.]
3648 AM, 4358 JP, 356 BC
- In the first year of the 106th Olympiad, [as it is rightly read in Eusebius' Chron. from Fuxius' copy, corrected by Arnaldus Pontacus] Alexander was born to King Philip at Pella in Macedonia. Alexander was called "the Great" because he conquered all Asia. He lived 32 years and 8 months according to Arianus' report from Aristobulus and died in the end of year 1Olympiad 114. in the month before the month of Thargelion according to the Attic calendar as we shall see when we come to that year. It follows that he must have been born in this year and that in the third month called Boedromion in the Attic calendar. Hence those who [as in Elian Variar Histor. l.2. c.25.] have said that he was born and died in the sixth day of the month Thargelion are incorrect. Plutarch [in the life of Alexander] says, that he was born on the 6th day of the month Hecatombeon, called Lous by the Macedonians. There was a good reason why they who lived at that time recorded that he was born on the 6th day of the month Lous. At that time the month Lous with the Macedonians was the same time as Meton's Boedromian. This appears in King Philip's Epistle to the Peloponesians, as we have already showed in our discourse in the first chapter of the Macedonian and Asiatic years. The historians and other writers of later times did not note this and found the Syro-Macedonian month Lous in Calippus to coincide with the month Boedromion among the Athenians. Hence they thought that Alexander had been born upon the 6th day of the month Boedromion.
- This is the source of the error of Plutarch, which he corrects later by making a more grievous mistake. He says: "The same day that Philip took Pitidaea, there came to him three reports: one from Pharmenion that he defeated the Illyrians, the second, that he had won the race with his horses at Olympius and the third that his son Alexander was born."
- For we learn from Demosthenes, in his oration against Leptines, and Diodorus, year of 3Olympiad 105. that Polydaea was not taken this year, but two years earlier. If it had been so that Alexander had been born in the 105th Olymp. and upon the 6th day of Hecatombaeon, it is incredible that he should not have heard of the birth of his son a great deal sooner than he could possibly have done of winning the race of Olympus. For that race was to be run on the day of the full moon and the decision made on the race on the 16th day of the same month. This we are taught by the old Scoliast of Pindarus, upon his 5th Ode or Hymn of his Olympics. Justin from Trogus tells us more clearly: [l. 12. c.16.] "The same day on which Alexander was born, news came to him of two victories he had, the one about the battle in Illyrium and the other in a race at Olympus where he sent his chariot with four horses to run."
- These reports appear to agree with each other. Although I grant that it may be not improbable that Alexander's birth was in the summer season of that year wherein the Olympic games were held at Olympus in Elis. However the testimony of Aristobulus, to whom Alexander was so well known in person, is so firm and strong an argument to me of the day on which he was born. Hence I have no doubt that Philip his father was informed of the race won by him at Olympus before his son was born.
- The same day that Alexander was born, the temple of Diana at Ephesus burned. Hence came the joke either from Timaeus, as Cicero has it, or from Hegesias the Magnesian according to Plutarh says that: "Diana being away from home that night to do work at Olympius could not save her own temple, [Cit. l.1. de Natura deorum and l.1. de Divina and Plut. in his Alexander.]"
- When the one who started the fire was put on the rack, he confessed that he did it on purpose. He wanted to be world famous for destroying so famous and excellent a work. Hence by the common council of all Asia, it was decreed that no man should ever after mention him. [Valer. Max. l.8. c.14. Aul. Gell, l.2. c.6.] However, Theopompus in his History mentions him. It was either Erostratus, as we read [in Strabo. l.14. and Solinus c.4.] or Lygdamis, as Hesychius, "In the word Lygdam."
- The priests in Ephesus at that time thought that the burning of this temple was but the harbinger of some greater evil to follow. They ran up and down as if they had been mad and cut their faces, saying, that some great calamity was that day born against all Asia. [Plut. in Alexan.]
- Artabazus rebelled against Ochus. He joined his forces with those of Chares the Athenian and defeated an army of 70,000 Persians. Chares gathered enough spoil to pay for all his army. The king took up this matter with the Athenians. They heard a rumour that the king was about to send 300 ships to help their enemies against whom Chares at that time was fighting. They quickly agreed to a peace with their enemies so that war between them and their confederates, called "Bellum sociale", was ended. [Diod. Sic. year 1. and 4. of the 106 Olymp.]
3650 AM, 4360 JP, 354 BC
- Leuco, the king of Bosphorus Cimmerius, died. He was succeeded by his son Spartacus who reigned 5 years. [Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 106.]
3651 AM, 4361 JP, 353 BC
- When Artabazus was abandoned by Chares and the Athenians, he resorted to the Thebians. They sent him 5000 men under Pammenes. Pammenes with this army went over into Asia and joined with Artabazus' forces. Together they overthrew the king's army in two great battles. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 106.]
- When Clearchus the tyrant of Heraclea in Pontus was celebrating the feast of their god Bacchus, he was murdered in the 12th year of his reign. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 106.] The man behind the murder was Chion of Heraclea, the son of Matris, a scholar of Plato's and a cousin of Clearchus. Also in on the plot were Leonides and Antitheus both scholars in philosophy, as was Euxenon. Also in on this were some 50 others of Clearchus' allies and relatives. They waited for the time when the tyrant was busy and attentive with the sacrifice with the rest of the people. Then Chion ran him through with his sword. He fell grievously tormented with pains and haunted with the apparitions and ghosts of those whom he had most barbarously murdered and died the next day. Most of the conspirators, if not all, were either shortly cut in pieces by his guard although they stoutly defended themselves. Those that escaped were captured shortly after and died after horrible torture which they endured with incredible constancy and patience. [Memnon in Excerpt. c.2. Justin. l.6. c.ult. and Suidas in Clearchus.] See also the Epistles attributed to this Chion, as written by him to his mother Matis.
- Satyrus, brother to Clearchus, succeeded him in that government and reigned 7 years. He was not content with the death of the conspirators but executed all their children although they were innocent of their father's deeds. He was left as guardian and protector of Timotheus and Dionysius' brother's children. He was very respectful of them. Although he had a wife whom he loved very dearly yet would he have no children by her, least they might in time prove dangerous to his brother's children. [Memnon in Excerpt. c.3.]
3652 AM, 4362 JP, 352 BC
- In the 4th year of 106 Olymp. not in the 2nd year of the 100th Olympiad, as is incorrectly reported by [Pliny lib. 36. c.5. and 6.] Mausolus the Dynasta or petty king of Caria, died. Artemisia, his sister and wife, succeeded him and reigned for 2 years since her husband had no children. [Diod. and Strabol. 14.] From the fervent love she had of the memory of him, she took his bones after they were burnt and beat them to a powder. This was mingled with a most precious perfume and put into her drinking water. She was zealous to be the living and breathing tomb of her deceased husband. [A. Gill. l.10. c.18. Valer. Max. l.4. c.6.]
- In the 107th Olympiad [not in the 103, as Suidas in Thoidectes has it] Artemisia proclaimed a contest for all to come and show their wit and art in praise and honour to her dead husband. Various illustrious men came to this contest: Theopompus from Chios, the best man of all the scholars of Isocrates, [Diony. Halicarnasseus in his Epistle to Pompeius] Theodectes a poet of tragedies from the city of Phaselis in Lycia and also a scholar of Isocrates and Naucrates Erythtaeus from Naucratis in Cyrenia. These were all mentioned by Photius [in Biblioth. c.176, (260).] Plutarch [in his life of Isocrates] and other writers say that Isocrates entered the contest too. However this was not the Isocrates from Athens, but another by the same name. He was his scholar and successor in his office according to Suidas, from Callisthenes the Orator. In that contest of wits, Theopompus, as some say, and as others, Theodectes the Tragedian, who left a tragedy entitled "Mausolus", won the prize. [A. Gell. l.10. c.18. Suidas, in Theodecters and Isocrates.] Although it seems that everything did not happen as Theopompus expected because when he was later writing a history, he states in it that: "Mausolus never spared for any villany if he might get money by it."
- In all likelihood, he would never have written this if things had happened there according to his expectation. [Snidas in Mausolus.]
- Theopompus [of whom I have spoken before] who was an historian and Theodoctes a Tragedian, I must mention what is reported by Demetrius Phalereus in Aristeas [and from him by Josephus, [l. 12. anti. c.2. and by Euseb. de Prapar. Evengel. l.8. c.3. and 5. and in his discourse of the Septuagint Interpretation.]]. Theopompus wanted to insert some things from the books of Moses into his history but lost his mind for 30 days. During this time when his sanity returned, he earnestly sought God to reveal to him the reason why this great judgment was upon him. In a dream it was told him that it was because he was about to mix those divine oracles with his human studies and publish them to the world. When he abandoned that idea, he was restored to his right mind again. When Theodectes planned to use some things from the Holy Writ into his tragedy he was writing, he suddenly lost his sight. When he realised the reason for this, he asked God's mercy and he was restored to his perfect sight again.
3653 AM, 4363 JP, 351 BC
- Artimisia wanted to perpetuate the memory of her husband. She had built a stupendous tomb for him at Halicarnassus that was considered one of the seven wonders of the world. However she pined away at last and died of grief. [Cicero. Tuseul. Quest. l.3. Strabo. l.14. A. Gell. l.10. c.18.] To make this tomb most grand, she had the most famous and skilful workmen in the world order the construction: Scopas, from the east, Bryaxis, from the north, Timotheus from the south and Leochares from the west. Although she died before the work was finished, yet they did not stop the work until it was completed. They knew that by so doing they would also immortalise their own names and glory in it. [Pliny l.36. c.5. with Vitruvins in the Proeme of his 7th book;] Therefore ever after this even in Rome, every sumptuous and magnificent building was called a "mausoleum". [Pausan, in his Arcadica.]
- After her death her brother Idrieus or Hidrieus headed the government of Caria for 7 years. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 107.] He was the second son of Hecatomnus and married Hecatomnus' second daughter Ada, his own sister, according to the law of Caria, [Strabo. l.14. Ariannus, of the Gests of Alexander, l.1.]
- When Thebes was running out of money to carry on their war against the Phoenicians, they sent ambassadors to Ochus and received 300 talents from him. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. (107).]
- The Phoenicians and especially the inhabitants of Sidon had been badly abused by Ochus and revolted from him. They sent to Nectabenus king of Egypt and formed an alliance with him in a war against the Persians. They prepared a large fleet of ships and had many foot soldiers. They cut down the king's garden and orchard and burnt the hay that was provided for the king's stable. They killed those Persians that had wronged them. Therefore the governors of Syria and Cilicia made war on them. Tennes the king of Sidon, received from the king of Egypt, 4000 Greek soldiers under the command of Mentor of Rhodes. These combined with his forces and routed the Persians and drove them from all Phoenicia. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 107.]
- The petty kings of the 9 cities of Cyprus who were subject to the king of Persia followed the example of the Phoenicians and agreed with each other to defect from the king. Each of these kings prepared for war and made himself absolute sovereign each in his own city. Artaxerxes Ochus ordered these kings to be subdued by Idricus. He recently became king of Caria and by long tradition of his ancestors was loyal to the kings of Persia and helped in their wars. He sent into Cyprus 40 ships containing 8000 mercenaries under the command of Phocyon the Athenian and of Euagoras who formerly had been a king there. These began by attacking the strongest city first and besieged Salamis. Many came to the battle from Syria and Cilicia which lay opposite Cyprus. They hoped to get much spoil from the battle. The army of Phocyon and Euagoras was twice as big as before. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 107.]
- Artaxerxes Ochus mustered an army of 300,000 foot soldiers and 30,000 cavalry with 300 ships and 500 cargo ships to carry provisions. He left Babylon and went toward Phoenicia and the seaside. Mentor, whom the Sidonians had made commander over the Greek mercenaries, was frightened by his coming. He sent a man called Thessalion to Artaxerxes, offering first to betray all the Sidonians into his hands and later to help him conquer Egypt. When Thessalion had delivered his message and received the king's promise, he kissed his hand to seal the agreement. He returned to Mentor and told him of the king's promise. The Sidonians knew nothing of this. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 107.]
- Meanwhile, Ochus sent his ambassadors into Greece their help against the Egyptians. The Athenians and Lacedemonians answered him, that they would keep the peace made with him, but were unable to help him at this time. However, Thebes sent him 1000 foot soldiers under the command of Lachetes. Argos also sent him 3000 men with no Greek appointed to be over them because the king wanted to have Nicostratus to command them. He was a high spirited man and he imitated Hercules by fighting with a lion's skin wrapped about him and carried a club in his hand. The Greeks who dwelt on the seacoast of Asia, sent him 6000 men. The total Greek forces were 10,000 men. Before they arrived, the king had advanced past Syria to Phoenicia and had pitched his camp not far from Sidon. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 107.]
- Tennes the king of Sidon, joined with Mentor in his treason and assigned him to the guard of a certain quarter in the town and left him to manage the betrayal on that side. Tennes with 500 men went out of the city and pretended that he would go to the common meeting of Phoenicia. He had in his company 100 of the principal councillors of the city. He gave these to be butchered by Artaxerxes who were the authors of that defection from him. Shortly after 500 more of the chief of the Sidonians came to Artaxerxes to beg for mercy with olive branches in their hands. Artaxerxes had them all shot with arrows as he had done to the former group. He understood that according to Tennes the king that the city would be unconditionally surrendered to him. The Greeks which he bribed, opened the gates to let the king into the city and so betrayed the city to Artaxerxes. Once he was in, he saw that Tennes was of no further service to him and had his throat cut. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 107.]
- The Sidonians had burned all their ships before the king came so that no one could escape by ship. When the city was taken, each man shut himself up in his own house with his wife and children and then set his house on fire. Over 40,000 perished in the fire. Mixed with cinders of the place was molten silver and gold. The king sold this for many talents. The rest of the cities in the area were terrified and surrendered to the king. [Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 107.]
- From there the king went and captured Jericho. [Solinus c.35.] He took many along with him from Judah to serve him in his war against Egypt. This we gather from Aristeas' book of the Septuagint Interpreters and also in the Epistle of Ptolemy Philadelphus to Eleasarus, it is said: "that many of the Jews were carried away into Egypt by the Persians, while they bare the sway there."
- This saying of his is to be referred to this time of Artaxerxes Ochus. Also that place in Justin, where he says, [l. 36. c.3.] if there is any truth in either of them: "that Xerxes was the first of the Persians that subdued the Jews"
Wednesday, May 12th, 2021
Eve of Ascension
Eve of Ascension