Tired of seeing ads while studying? Now you can enjoy an "Ads Free" version of the site for as little as 10¢ a day.
Click here to get started today!
Click here to get started today!
Ussher's "The Annals of the World"
The Sixth Age: 500 BC - 401 BC
THE FIRST AGE
1a AM, 710 JP, 4004 BC
1a AM, 710 JP, 4004 BC
THE SECOND AGE
1657a AM, 2366 JP, 2348 BC
1657a AM, 2366 JP, 2348 BC
THE THIRD AGE
2083 AM, 2793 JP, 1921 BC
2083 AM, 2793 JP, 1921 BC
THE FOURTH AGE
2513b AM, 3223 JP, 1491 BC
2513b AM, 3223 JP, 1491 BC
THE FIFTH AGE
2992c AM, 3702 JP, 1012 BC
2992c AM, 3702 JP, 1012 BC
THE SIXTH AGE
3416c AM, 4126 JP, 588 BC
3504 AM, 4214 JP, 500 BC
3604b AM, 4314 JP, 400 BC
3654 AM, 4364 JP, 350 BC
3679b AM, 4389 JP, 325 BC
3704 AM, 4414 JP, 300 BC
3804 AM, 4514 JP, 200 BC
3829 AM, 4539 JP, 175 BC
3854 AM, 4564 JP, 150 BC
3904b AM, 4614 JP, 100 BC
3929b AM, 4639 JP, 75 BC
3954b AM, 4664 JP, 50 BC
3979 AM, 4689 JP, 25 BC
3416c AM, 4126 JP, 588 BC
3504 AM, 4214 JP, 500 BC
3604b AM, 4314 JP, 400 BC
3654 AM, 4364 JP, 350 BC
3679b AM, 4389 JP, 325 BC
3704 AM, 4414 JP, 300 BC
3804 AM, 4514 JP, 200 BC
3829 AM, 4539 JP, 175 BC
3854 AM, 4564 JP, 150 BC
3904b AM, 4614 JP, 100 BC
3929b AM, 4639 JP, 75 BC
3954b AM, 4664 JP, 50 BC
3979 AM, 4689 JP, 25 BC
3504 AM, 4214 JP, 500 BC
- The Athenian fleet arrived at Meletus. Five triremes of the Eretrians came with them to help the Athenians. There Aristagoras remained. He sent his own brother Charopinus commander over the Milesians and Helmophantus commander over the rest of the Ionians to fight against Sardis. The Ionians with the Athenians and Eretrians sailed to Ephesus. They left their ships at Coresus, a port of the Ephesians and marched to Sardis. They took and burnt it all except for the citadel which Artaphernes himself kept. They even destroyed the temple of Cybele. When the Lydians and Persians united forces they defended and held the market place through which ran the River Pactolus. The fearful Ionians retired to the hill Timolus next to the market and fled to their ships by night. The Persians who dwelt on that side the river Halys, gathered their forces and pursued them. They overtook them near Ephesus, fought and routed them. Many were killed including Enalcidas captain of the Eretrians. He won many garlands in many of their games and was highly commended in the poetry of Simonides. They who escaped from the battle, scattered into their various cities. The Athenians abandoned the Ionian cause from that time on, although they were earnestly entreated to help the Ionians by Aristagoras. [Herod. l.5. c.99-103.]
- Onesilus disposed of his older brother Gorgus, king of the Salaminians, and forced him to flee over to the Medes for help. Onesilus caused the whole island of Cyprus to defect from the Medes except for the people of Amathusa. When he was besieging that city, Darius received news of the burning of Sardis by the Athenians. He was very angry with the Athenians and ordered one of his attendants that as often as ever he sat eating, he should remind him three times of it by saying, "Sir, Remember the Athenians." Heedlessly, he sent away Histiaeus, the brother of that Aristagoras from Susa to Meletus who later became the ringleader of the Ionian rebellion against him. [Herod. l.5. c.104-106.]
- The Ionians sailed into the Hellespont and took Byantium with other cities in those parts. When they sailed from there, they caused many of the cities of Caria to join with them in this war against the Persians. When the city Caunus heard of the burning of Sardis, they joined them when before this had refused to. [Herod. l.5. c.103.]
- At Clazomenae, which was an island but now joined to the continent of Ionia, by a neck of land, [Strabo. l.1.] Anaxagoras the philosopher, son of Hegesibulus was born [Olym. 70.] according to Diogenes Laertius in his life, from Apollodorus' Chronicle.
- While Onesilus and his army beseiged Amathusa, He received news that Artybius, a captain of the Persians, was heading to Cyprus with a very large army. Onesilus sent to the Ionians for help and they immediately sailed to Cyprus with a large fleet. The Persians left Cilicia and landed in Cyprus. They marched to the city of Salamis and sent the Phoenicians with their ships to take the point of a promontory in the island called, Claves Cyprus, i.e.the keys of Cyprus. A naval and land battle ensued. At sea that day, the Ionians behaved valiantly, especially the Samians and defeated the Phoenicians. On land while the rest were busy fighting, first Stesenor, tyrant of the Curii, betrayed his companions and then presently the men of Salamis who fought in chariots, did likewise. The whole army of the Cypriots were routed and many were killed. Among the dead was Onesilus, the author of this war and Aristocypius, king of the Solians, son of that Philocyphrus. When Solon was at Cyprus, he greatly extolled him in his poetry more than all the other tyrants. When the Ioninas heard that Onesilus was slain, and the rest of the cities of Cyprus were besieged and that Salamis welcomed back Gorgus their old king, they quickly returned to Ionia. Of all the cities of Cyrpus, Soli held out the longest. After four months, the Persians undermined the wall around the city and took it. Hence the Cypriots paid dearly for their one year of liberty and were reduced again to slavery. [Herod. l.5. c.108-116.]
3505 AM, 4215 JP, 499 BC
- The Persian leaders, Daurises, Hymaees and Otanes at Sardis who had married the daughters of Darius pursued the Ionians who had helped in the attack against Sardis. After they had routed them near Ephesus and driven them aboard their ships, they divided the rest of the cities among themselves so they could conquer them. [Herod. l.5. c.116.] Daurises subdued the lands adjoining to the Hellespont and took in five days the five cities, Dardanus, Abydus, Percote, Lampsacus and Paesus. He was on his way from there to the city Parios when he received news that all Caria had revolted from the king and joined with the Ionians. He abandoned his plan to take Parios and marched with all his army to Caria. [Herod. l.5. c.117.] Hymaees subdued the lands about Propontis and took the city of Cios in Mysia. When he heard that Daurises marched from Hellespont to Caria, he left Propontis and marched into Hellespont. [Herod. l.5. c.122.] Artaphernes, the governor of Sardis and Otanes the third commander attacked Ionia and part of Aeolia. In Ionia, they took the city of Clazomenae and in Aeolia, the city Cuma. [Herod. l.5. c.123.] After this, Anaxagoras with his men met together to decide on a place to flee to. In this meeting, Hecataeus the historian advised them to move to the isle of Leros and fortify it. They should stay there until it was safe to return to Miletus. Aristagoras advised them to sail rather to a place called Myrcinus, a city of the Edons. These people dwelt on the bank of the river Strimon which his own brother Histiaeus had formerly built. Aristagoras committed the government of Miletus to Pythagoras and with a group of volunteers he sailed from there into Trace and took control of the area he had planned to. [Herod. l.5 c.124-126.]
- When Histiaeus, the Tyrant of Miletus, was sent away from Susa by Darius, he came to Sardis. Artaphernes charged him with being the author of all the unrest and rebellion in Ionia. He escaped by night to the sea coast and sailed over into Chios. The people thought that he had been sent there by Darius to enlist their support against the Greeks and they put him in irons. When they understood that he came to help the Greeks, they quickly set him free. He immediately sent a message to Sardis, by Herminppus of Atarne, to persuade some Persians to revolt. When Artaphernes got wind of this when he captured the messenger, he killed those Persians. When this plot failed, Histiaens had the Chios escort him back to Miletus. The Milesians were glad to be rid of Aristagoras and did not want another tyrant in his place. When Histiaeus tried to secretly get into the city by night, the Mileasians wounded him in the thigh. When he was expelled from there, he returned again to Chios, [Herod. l.6. c.1-5.]
3506 AM, 4216 JP, 498 BC
- Daurises the Persian led his army against the Carians. They met at a place called Columnae Albae or the White Pillars, near the river Marsyas. Pixodorus the son of Mausolus, a man of Cyndya, who had married the daughter of Sienoses the king of Cilicia, advised then to cross the river Maeander. They should have the river behind them and await the enemy there and fight from this good position. The opposite opinion prevailed that the Persians should fight with the river at their backs. This would cut off all retreat and force the Persians to fight harder. When the Carians and Persians fought near the river Marsyas, the battle was fierce and long. The Persians lost 2,000 men and the Carians 10,000. The Carians fled to Labranda to the temple of Jupiter and there decided what to do. Should they submit to the Persians or abandon Asia? At this time, the Milesians with their allies came to help them. Thus encouraged, they fought again with the Persians who invaded them. After a longer battle than the previous one, they fled again. They and the Milesians lost very many men. After these great losses, the Carians received more help and fought with the Persians a third time. When they heard that the Persians were sacking their cities, they lay in ambush for them as they were marching to Mylasa. This was planned by Heraclides of Mylasa the son of Ibanollis. They attacked the Persians at night and slaughtered them. The Persian commander, Daurisces and Amorges, Sismaces and Myrsus the son of Gyges, were killed. [Herod. l.5. c.118-121.]
- Hymees the Persian who led his army into the country of Hellespont, defeated all the Aeolians, who lived in the region of old Troy. He also subdued the Gergithes, the rest of those ancient Teucrians. After this he became sick and died at Troas. [Herod. l.5. c.122.]
- When Histiaeus the Milesian could not get ships from Chios, he went to Mitilene. Here the Lesbians let him have eight triremes and they sailed with him to Byzantium. Here they intercepted certain ships of the Ionians, who came out of Pontus. These submitted to the leadership of Histiaeus. [Herod. l.6. c.5,26.]
- Aristagoras, Histiaeus' brother, was with his army at the siege of Mircinus, a city of the Edones. He and his men were slain by the Thracians who lied to him about granting him safe passage from the place. [Herod. l.5. c.126.] Thucidides, [l. 4.] reckons from this time that it was 61 years, to the starting of a colony of the Athenians by Agnon the son of Nicias, at Amphipolis. Diod. Sic. in his 12th book, says, was done in the 85th Olympiad. That period of time, we have here followed our relation of the six years [ending the year following] of the rebellion of the Ionians against the Persians.
3507 AM, 4217 JP, 497 BC
- All the Persian commanders united in one huge naval and land force to take the city of Miletus. Among the navy the Phoenicians were the best sailors. They were helped by the Cypriots [who were recently subdued by the Persians,] the Cilicians and the Egyptians. [Herod. l.6. c.6.] This threat seems to be mentioned by Diogenes Laertius in his life, in those letters which are attributed to Anaximines the Melesian, written to Pythagoras who was living at Crotona. He lived there for 20 years and then went to Metapontus and there lived the rest of his days. [Justin from Trogus l.20. c.4.] This was the fourth year of the 78th Olympiad, [as Euseb. has it in his Chron.] which takes up part of this and part of the next year.
- The Ionian fleet had 363 ships and the Persians had 600. Aeaces the son of Solyson, the tyrant of Samos and other tyrants of Ionia, who had been expelled by Aristagoras, were now in the Persian army. They tried to draw as many of the countrymen as they could from the Ionian to the Persian side. The naval battle between the Phoenicians and the Ionians happened at Lada, a little island lying opposite Miletus. Of the 60 ships that came from the isle of Samos, 50 cowardly fled home from the battle. Likewise 70 more of the Lesbian ships and others of the Ionians fled. There were 100 ships of the Isle of Chios which fought valiantly until at length having taken many of the enemy's ships and lost many of their own, they returned home with what they had left. Some were closely pursued by the enemy and ran aground at the promontory of Mycale. They escaped to the shore and after travelling all night on foot, they came safely to Ephesus. Here, the women were celebrating their feast and sacrifices called Thesmophoria, in honour of their goddess Ceres. The men of the city thought that the Chians were thieves who came to spoil them at that time. They attacked them suddenly and slew them. Dionysius, captain of three ships of the Phoenicians, captured three ships of the enemies. He did not sail to Phocaea, which he knew was about to fall to the enemy with the rest of the Ionian territories but sailed directly to Phoenicia. Here he sank a number of cargo ships, and robbed them of their valuable cargo. He then set sail for Sicily. [Herod. l.6. c.7-17.]
- When the Persians had defeated the Ionians at sea, they attacked the beleagued city of Miletus, both by sea and land. They undermined its walls with all kinds of engines of war and they utterly overthrew and razed it to the ground in the 6th year after Aristagoras began his rebellion against the king of Persia. [Herod. l.6. c.18.] Some of the Mileseans who escaped with certain of the Samians, started a colony in Sicily. [Herod. l.6. c.22.] The rest were carried away to Susa. Darius inflicted no more punishment on them and settled them in the city of Ampa on the Persian Gulf near the mouth of the Tigris River. The Persians took the plain and low grounds lying near the city of Miletus and gave the mountainous parts to the Carians of Pedasus to possess. [Herod. l.6. c.20.]
- After the taking of Miletus, the Carians were all quickly captured. Some surrendered willingly and others by compulsion. [Herod. l.6. c.25.] When Histiaeus the Milesian heard what happened to his city Miletus, he sailed with the Lesbians who were with him to Chios. He easily subdued them because they were greatly weakened by their heavy losses at Lada. He went from there with a strong party of Ionians and Eolians to Thasos. While he was besieging Thasos, he heard that the Persians were attacking the rest of Ionia. He lifted his siege from Thasos and he immediately sailed to Lesbos with all his forces. When he saw that his men were short of food, he sailed to the province of Atarnis and intended to forage for food there and in the country lying by the river Caicus in the province of Mysia. Harpagus the Persian was in those parts with a very large army. He attacked Histiaeus as he came from his ships at a place called Malena and took him alive and killed most of his men. After Histiaeus was brought prisoner to Sardis, Artaphernes crucified him and sent his head to Darius at Susa. Darius criticised them for not bringing him alive to him. He ordered that his head should be interred, as a man respected by him and the Persian nation. [Herod. l.6. c.27-29.]
3508 AM, 4218 JP, 496 BC
- The Persian navy wintered near Miletus. They captured the islands bordering on the continent and in less than two years captured Chios, Lesbos, Tenedos, and the rest. [Herod. l.6. c.31.]
- After the islands were taken, the Persian captains captured the cities of Ionia. When they were subdued, they selected the most beautiful boys and girls from among them and sent them to Darius. They burned the cities and their temples. Hence the Ionians were three times brought into bondage, once by the Lydians and now twice by the Persians. [Herod. l.6. c.31,32.]
- Before the Phoenician fleet came, the inhabitants of Byzantium and of Chalcedon, which is opposite it, abandoned their cities and fled to the remotest parts of the Euxin Sea. Here they built a city called Mesembria. [Herod. l.6. c.33.]
3509 AM, 4219 JP, 495 BC
- The Phoenician fleet sailed from Ionia and subdued all that lay on their left hand as you go into the Hellespont. What lay on the right hand in Asia was already subdued by the Persians. The fleet took Chersonesus and its cities except the city Cardia where until then Miltiades the son of Cimon, had been tyrant. [Herod. l.6. c.33,34.] When Miltiades sailed from Cardia with five triremes for Athens, the Phoenicians pursued him and took one of his ships containing his son Metiochus. He was sent prisoner to Darius who honourably received him. Darius gave him both house and lands and a Persian woman for a wife. She bore him many children. [Herod. l.6. c.41.]
- When Artaphernes the governor of Sardis, found the Ionians fighting among themselves, he sent for some of each side to come to him. He made peace with them on certain conditions. He made them to settle their differences by arbitration rather than by killing each other and thus ruining their nation. [Herod. l.6. c.42.]
- When Artaphernes made peace, he surveyed their country by parasangs, as the Persians called every division and it contained 30 furlongs or 3.75 miles. He assigned a tribute on every such division which was paid yearly to the king. The rate was similar to what they paid formerly to Darius. [Herod. l.6. c.42.] That rate was first levied when Darius became king and he imposed it on all his empire [Herod. l.3. c.89,90.] and before he was master of the islands. [Herod. l.6. c.96.] According to Herodotus, we observe that to facilitate taxing, the 127 provinces mentioned in Esther, were now by Darius reduced to 20, yet the bounds of that empire were still the same stretching from India to Ethiopia. One side was conquered by Cambyses and the other by Darius. Concerning the revenue from India, Herodotus states: "Since the Indians were the most populous nation, more than all other men living that we know, they pay far more tribute than any other nation does, that (Isaiah 360) talents of gold dust and this is the twentieth part or a Satrapie."
- Since we find that when Darius was made king, he did not control India, as is evident even by Herodotus himself, [Herod. l.4. c.44.], therefore it is likely that when the tax rate was set by Artaphernes in Ionia, a similar tax was done all over the kingdom by the governors of each of the provinces.
- It would be considered then, whether that which is said in (Esther 10:1-3) "After this the king Ahasuerus imposed a tribute upon the land and isles of the sea;"
- That King Ahasuerus made all the earth and all the islands of the sea pay tribute refers to this very time. For as Thucidides, [l. 1.] tells us, [and Plato in his Menexenus confirms] that Darius, by the means of his Phoenician fleet, subdued all the islands lying in the Aegean Sea. Diodorus Siculus, [l. 12.] states that they were all lost again by his son Xerxes immediately after his defeat in Greece. It was after the 12th year of his reign that the scripture states that Ahasuerus imposed this tribute upon the isles. For in the war of Xerxes against Greece, all the islands which lay between the Cyanean Isles and the two forelands, that of Triopium in Cnidia and that other of Sumium in Attica, sent him ships. Diodorus Siculus [l. 12.] states that his successors held none of them all except for Clazomene, which was at that time a poor small island [Thucidides, l.8.] and Cyprus. This is demonstrated by the tenor of Antalcidas' peace as recorded by Xenophon [l. 5. Hellenic.] This seems to me to be a good argument, that the Ahasuerus mentioned in Esther is none other than this Darius. For this and other such like impositions laid upon the people, the Persians used to call him "a crafty merchant" or "huckster", as Herodotus notes of him. Under Cyrus and Cambyses, his two predecessors, there was no mention of any tribute charged upon the subject but that they only brought the king presents, [Herod. l.3. c.89.] Also, we read in the 15th book of the Epitome of Strabo: "The first that ever brought up paying of tribute, was Darius Lonimanus:"
- [mistaking the surname of Artaxerxes the grandchild and giving it to the grandfather] "for before him, men paid their kings, from what every country yielded, as grain, horses, &c."
- And Polyuenus, [Stratagem. l.7.] states that "Darius, was the first that ever imposed a tribute upon the people. Nevertheless, to make it more palatable to them, he had his officers set the rate first. When they imposed a very heavy tax, he took off one half of it which they willingly paid and took it for a great favour too from the king's hand"
- This story is mentioned also, by Plutarch in his Apothegmes of Kings and Emperors.
3510 AM, 4220 JP, 494 BC
- In the beginning of this spring, the king relieved all the commanders and sent away the young gentleman Mardonius, the son of Gobryas and who recently married to the king's daughter Arotozostra. He came to the seaside in Cilicia with a vast well equipped army and navy. He sent his army overland to Hellespont while he took the navy into the parts of Ionia. He put down the Tyrants in each of the cities restored their elected governments. Shortly after this, he subdued the Thasy by his fleet and the Macedonians by his army. His navy sailing from Thasus to Acanthus. While they tried to round the cape of the mount Athos, a mighty tempest destroyed 300 of his ships and over 20,000 men. While Mardonius with his army stayed in Macedonia, the Thracians, called the Brygi, attacked his camp at night. They killed many of his men and wounded Mardonius. When he had subdued Macedonia, he left and returned into Asia.
3511 AM, 4221 JP, 493 BC
- The next year, Darius ordered the inhabitants of Thasus, who had been accused of intending a rebel against him, to demolish the walls of their city and to send away all their shipping to Abdera. He then determined to see whether the Greeks would fight or submit to him. He sent ambassadors into Greece with the order to demand earth and water from them. He ordered his towns on the sea coast, to send fighting ships and others to send horses to him. Therefore, many in Greece and in the adjacent isles gave him earth and water. The inhabitants of the Island of Egina were the first to do this. [Herod. l.6. c.46. 48. 49.]
3512 AM, 4222 JP, 492 BC
- The Eginetae who were traitors to Greece, were presently attacked by Cleomenes, king of the Spartans. Demaratus, the other Spartan king, was expelled when a disagreement arose between him and Cloemenes. He fled to into Asia to Darius who entertained him magnificently and gave him cities and lands to rule. [Herod. l.6. c.49,50. 61,67, 70.]
3513 AM, 4223 JP, 491 BC
- There was an eclipse of the moon at Babylon in the 31st year of Darius, 257th of Nobonasar, the 3rd day of the month Tybi [April 25th] half an hour before midnight [Ptol. mag. Syntas, l.4. c.9.] Darius removed Mardonius from his command because of the poor handling of the navy. He sent others to take charge of the war against the Eretrians and Athenians. These were Datys, a Median and Artaphernes, [whom the Scholiast of Aristophanes calls Artabaxus] commander of the horses, the son of his brother Artaphernes. As they were encamped in a plain of Cilicia near the sea, they repaired all the naval forces and prepared their ships to transport the horses which the tributary cities had provided. With the army and horse on board, they sailed for Ionia [Herod. l.6. c.94,95.] with a fleet of 600 ships. Yet Plato in his Menexenus, counts only 300 ships and 500,000 soldiers. Lysias also confirms this number. in the Epitaph which he made, upon the Corinthian Auxiliaries. However, Emilius Probus, in the life of Miltiades, says, there were in that fleet, 500 ships; 200,000 soldiers and 10,000 horses.
3514 AM, 4224 JP, 490 BC
- The Persians sailed from Samos to Naxos and burned all its houses and temples. They spared Delos and went to other the islands. From there they took captive both men to serve them and their children for hostages. When the Casrystii refused to do this, they were besieged until at last they also were forced to surrender their city and themselves to the enemy. [Herod. l.6. c.95,96, 99.]
- The Persians took Eretria after seven days siege. After spending a few days in settling things there, they sailed to the land of Attica and destroyed a great part of it. At last by the guidance of Hippias the son of Pisistratus they came to the plain of Marathon. They were defeated by the men of Athens and of Platea, under the command of Miltiades. He had taken command of the Chersonesus in Thracia. The Greeks lost 192 men, the Persians, 6400. [Herod. l.6. c.101,102. 112. 117.]
- The Persians fled to their ships many of which were sunk or captured. In both the fights, the Persians lost 200,000 men. Hippias, a former the Tyrant of Athens, died there, who had been the author of this war. [Justin out of Trogus, l.2. c.9.] The whole army of the Persians at this battle consisted of 300,000. [Valer. Mas. l.5. c.3.] Plutarch thinks it was less as he states in the beginning of his Parallels. Justin and Orosius following him and say, they were in all 600,000 men: Aemilius Probus in his Militiades, states there were 100,000 solders and 20,000 calvary. On the Athenian side there were 10,000 and of their auxiliaries out of Platea; 1,000, states Justin with Orosus. Probus assures us, that the Athenians, with the men of Platea totalled but 10,000. This significant victory happened on the 6th day of Boedromion, the 3rd month in the Attio calendar after the summer solstice according to Plutarch in the life of Camillus. When Phanippus was in charge of Athens. Plutarch has it in the Life of Aristides that in the 3rd year of the 72nd Olympiad, 4 years before the death of Darius. Likewise Severns Sulpitius, in his 2nd book of his Sacra Hisoria states the same thing. This was in the 10th year before Xerxes entered into Greece, [as Thuscidides in his 1st book of his history states and Lysias in his Epitaph of the Corinthian Auxiliaries confirms] and 10 full years before the sea fight at Salamis in the same month of Boedromion. [Plato l.3. de Legibus.]
- Datis and Artiphernes returned into Asia taking with them their captives of Eretria to Susa. [Herod. l.6. c.119.] According to Ctesias, Datis was slain in the fight at Marathon and the Athenians refused to give the Persians his body.
3515 AM, 4225 JP, 489 BC
- When the Eretrian captives were brought to Darius, he had them settled in a part of the Cissian country called Anderica, 210 furlongs [26 miles] from Susa. [Herod. l.6. c.119.] This is described in more detail in Philostratus, in the life of Apollonius, [l. 1. c.17.]
3517 AM, 4227 JP, 487 BC
- After Darius had spent 3 years in making greater preparations against Greece than before, in the fourth year the Egyptians revolted. [Herod. l.7. c.1.]
3519 AM, 4229 JP, 485 BC
- When Darius was now ready to begin his war against the Egyptians, and Athenians, he was required by the laws of the Persians to name his successor in the kingdom.
- Artobazanes, whom others call Artemenes, or Ariamenes was his son by Gobryas his daughter. He was born to him before he came to be king and claimed the succession by right of Primogeniture or as the firstborn. Xerxes, who was born after Darius became king by Atossa the daughter of Cyrus who founded the Persian Monarchy, was named to be the next king. [Herod. l.7. c.2,3.] There was friendly rivalry between the two brothers. For more on this, see Justin, from Trogus, [l. 2. c.10.] and in Plutarch, in the Life of Artaxerxes and in his Apothigmes and in his treatise on brotherly love.
- When Darius had declared Xerxes to be the next king, when he was now ready to take his journey. According to Diod. Sic. [l. 11] he was on his way into Greece in the year after the revolt of the Egyptians. Toward the later end of that year he died after he had reigned for a full 36 years. [Herod. l.7. c.4.]
- After him came Xerxes, the 4th king of Persia after Cyrus. He trusted in his riches, [as they were indeed exceeding great] and stirred up his own subjects together with all his allies and friends to make war on the Greeks according to the prophecy of (Daniel 11:2). In was not his original intention but was put up to it by Mardonius, his first cousin from Alevada, the kings of Thessaly of the family of Pisistratus and by Onomacritus, a Sorcerer of Athens. [Herod. l.7. c.5,6.]
3520 AM, 4230 JP, 484 BC
- At the beginning of the second year of his reign after the death of Darius, Xerxes made an expedition against the rebellious Egyptians. After he had subdued them, he brought them into a harder state of bondage than they had ever felt under his predecessors. He made his brother Achaemenes, the son of Darius, ruler over them. [Herod. l.7. c.7.]
- In this year Herodotus, the historian, the son of Lyxus and Eryone was born at Halicarnassius in the province of Caria. He was 53 years old when the Peloponesian war began. [A. Gellius l.15. c.23.] affirms from Pamphyla. At that time, Artemelia, the daughter of Lygdamis of Halycarnassus, after the death of her husband, obtained the tyranny which her husband held. This occurred during the schooling of her young son, whose name was Psindelis, as may be gathered from Suidas, in Herodotus. She ruled over the Halicarnassians, the Coi, the Nisirians and Calydonians. After a while she came into Greece with five good fighting ships to help Xerxes in his war. [Herod. l.7. c.99.]
3523 AM, 4233 JP, 481 BC
- Xerxes gathered together from all of his empire, Egypt, Phoenicia, Cyprus, Cilicia, Pamphylia, Pisidia, Lycia, Caria, Mysia, Troas, Hellespont, Bithynia and Pontus, 1200 ships to meet him at Cuma and Phocaea in Ionia. He set out from Susa with all the troops and cavalry he could muster in the beginning of the 4th year of the 74th Olympiad. However [Diod. Sic. in the beginning of his 11th book,] merges the events of these 2 years into one and states this was done in the first year of the Olympiad. Herodotus, [Herod. l.7. c.21.] affirms that this preparation took place 3 whole years before this year but with a note on the previous chapter which cannot be consistent with the exact passing of the time. He says: "from the subduing of Egypt, he took 4 years in gathering an army and in making his preparations. In the beginning of the 5th year, he began to march with a huge army:"
- He left Susa in the beginning of his 5th year, not from the subduing of Egypt but from his becoming king. Hence both Justin from Trogas, [l. 2. c.10.] and Orosius follow Herodotus incorrectly and assign these five years. Julianus in his first Oration of the praises of Constantius, incorrectly says, that Xeres spent ten years preparing. More ingenuous than all these, [though he is not overly exquisite in his account] is Labianus. He says that between Darius and Xerxes there was ten years spent in the preparation against Greece. Since we have formerly showed from Plato that from the fight at Marathon to the fight at Salamis which was fought in the first year of the 75th Olympiad, [almost a full year after Xerxes left Susa], only ten years elapsed.
- At Critalis in Cappadocia, all Xerxes' forces met. From there he passed over the river Halys and came to Celaena, a city in Phrygia. Here Pythius, a Lydian, [Pliny l.33. c.10. says he was a Bithynian] the son of Atyis entertained him and his whole army in a most magnificent and sumptuous manner. From here, they passed by Anava, a city of Phrygia and Lough where salt was made and he came to Colossae in Phrygia. Here the river Lycus disappears underground. From there he came to a town called Cyndra in Phrygia, then to Lydia and then passed by the river Maeander. He passed the city called Callatebus and he finally arrived at Sardis. From here he dispatched his messengers into Greece to demand of them earth and water. That is he required them to surrender to him. [Herod. l.7. c.26-32.]
- In the mean time, the navy was at Eleus in Chersonesus. From here part of the army dug through the neck of the mount Athos for 12 furlongs [1.5 miles]. They and the Bastinadoes were compelled to do this work. The neighbouring inhabitants were compelled to help. Bubares the son of Megabysus and Artachaeus the son of Artaeus, both Persians were appointed to oversee the work. When that neck of land was cut through and the sea let in, the channel was wide enough so that two large ships with their oars extended might pass each other without touching. [Herod. l.7. c.22-24.] Another part of the army built a bridge of ships over the Hellespont, where the sea from Abydus to the shore, on the other side, (Isaiah 7) furlongs [a mile] wide. When the bridge was completed, there arose a fierce storm and destroyed it. Xerxes in a rage caused 300 stripes to be given to the Hellespont and a pair of shackles to be thrown into the sea to bind and fetter it with. He decapitated those who made the bridge and then employed others to work to make the bridge stronger. [Herod. l.7. c.33-36.]
3524 AM, 4234 JP, 480 BC
- In the beginning of the spring, Xerxes with his whole army left Sardis where they spent the winter and marched toward Abydus. As he was starting his journey, the sun stopped shining. There were no clouds and the air was clear. The day was turned into night. At this incredible sign, Pythius the Lyidan was terrified, [for it was no natural eclipse as the astronomical tables easily show] and besought the king that of his five sons who were in his army, he would leave his oldest out to be a comfort to him in his old age. In a rage, Xerxes had his oldest son cut in two and his whole army marched between the parts of his body. [Herod. l.7. c.37-39]
- Hermotimus, who was an Halicarnaslaean, was the most influential of all the other eunuchs with Xerxes. When he came into the country of Atarne, in the province of Mysia, he sent for Panionius of the Isle of Chios. He was a slave trader and a eunuch also. His wife and children came with him. He made the father castrate his sons and then had them do the same to their father. Thus Hermotimus was avenged of the wrong done to him. [Herod. l.8. c.105,106.]
- Xerxes and his army went from Lydia to the River Caiicus and the country of Mysia. From there they came into the country where old Hium or Troy stood. As he slept that night at the foot of the hill Ida, there arose a terrible thunder storm which killed many in his army. After this they came to the River Scamander which they drained dry. It was not able to satisfy the men and animals with water. When Xerxes was there, he went up to see the old habitation of king Priame. There he sacrificed to Minerva of Troy, 1000 oxen. The Magi that attended him offered cakes to the nobles. After this a panic fell on his army at night and he left there in the morning as soon as it was light and came to Abydus. [Heriod. l.7. c.42,43.]
- Here Xerxes took a fancy to see all his army at once. Therefore he had a luxurious hall built of fair white stone and he sat in the hall. From there he could see his navy at sea and all his army. He wanted to see a sea battle too. After that battle was done, the Phoenicians won the prize. The king took great pleasure in the battle and in the number of his men. He looked at all the sea of Hellespont covered with his ships and all the shores and plains about Abydus with his soldiers. When he considered the shortness of man's life and that none of all these men would be alive after 100 years, he wept. [Herod. l.7. c.44,45.] [Valer. Max. l.9. c.13.]
- Xerxes sent his Uncle Arcabanus to be viceroy at Susa and there to take care of his house and the kingdom. He prepared to enter Europe. As soon as the sun was up, he held a golden vial in his hand over the sea. He prayed to the sun that nothing might hinder him in the conquest of Europe, till he had gone to its utmost bounds. When he had said this, he flung both the vial and a golden goblet and a Persian cimitre into the sea. When this was done, he sent his cavalry and foot soldiers to pass over the bridge on the right hand which was toward Pontus. On the left hand which was toward the Aegean Sea, he made all the bag and baggage, servants and carriages to pass over. It took a whole week to cross over. When all this was done, the navy sailed from the Hellspont west to a place called Sarpedon's cape. His army passed through Chersonesus to Agora and turned aside to a place called the Black Bay the mouth of the Black River. It was not able to supply enough water for all his army to drink. When they passed this river, the army marched west to Doriscus. This is the name of a sea coast and of a spacious field in the country of Thracia through which the large river Hebrus flows. Here they camped. [Herod. l.7. c.52-59]
- When the Navy came to this place, they were haled ashore. Xerxes wanted to count all his navy and army. According to Herodotus, his foot soldiers numbered 170 myriads, or 1,700,000 men. [Herod. l.7. c.60] His horses, besides camels and chariots, 8 myriads, or 800,000 horses. [Herod. l.7. c.87.] Among the commanders of his army, he mentions two of Darius' sons born by his queen Artistone. [I conceive to have been Esther.] The one he calls Arsames was commander of the Ethiopians from the south of Egypt. [Herod. l.7. c.69.] The other he calls Gobryas who was leader of the Maryandent and Ligyes and Syrians. [Herod. l.7. c.72.] Diodorus Siculus tallies his foot soldiers at 80 myriads or 800,000 men, less than half of what Herodotus says. Yet the number which Diodorus attributes to the foot soldiers, Cresias assigns to the whole army of all types. viz. 80 myriads besides the chariots. Isocrates in his Paenathenaica says that in his army of foot soldiers was 70 myriads or 700,000 men. Elian [l. (13). c.3.] of his Various History assigns this to the whole army. Pliny counts them at 788,000 men [l. 33. c.10] and calls Xerxes, Darius. Justin, from Trogus and Orosius, follow him, [l. 1. c. 10.] and state that Xerxes had of his own subjects, 700,000 men and 300,000 auxiliaries from his friends. Emilius Probus, in the life of Themistocles, says, that his foot soldiers were 700,000 men and his cavalry 400,000.
- His naval force had 1207 ships of which the Phoenicians supplied him with 300 including the ones sent by the Syrians in Palestine. [Herod. l.7. c.89.] By Palestine he meant all the sea coast of Syria as far as Egypt. [Herod. l.3. c.91.] In another place he states it had in old times been Syria Palestine [Herod. l.3. c.91.] and that its inhabitants were all circumcised. [Herod. l. 2. c.104.] The Jews were also part of the Persian Empire. Josephus states that some of his countrymen were in this army against the Greeks. To prove this, he cites those verses of the poet, [Choerilus, l.1. cont. Apion.] His camp a nation strange to see, did follow, Who spoke the language of Phoenicia; And did the hills of Solymi inhabit, Near to a broad lake which on them doth border: Whose heads were rounded and on their bald crowns, Of a horse head the dried skin did wear.
- By this, the learned Salmasius also thinks that the Jews were meant in his Linguae Hellenistacae Ossilegio. Although Scaliger, [In notes suis ad fragmenta] and Cunaeus, [l. 2. De Rep. Hebra. c.18.] and that most learned Bochartus [in Geogra. Sacra Par. 2. l.1. c.6.] takes them to be the Soylmi in Pisidia.
- Besides these fighting ships, Herodotus tells us that he had 1207 cargo ships, some of 30 oars, others of 50 oars a piece, besides smaller vessels and ships to carry horses for a total of (3000). [Herod. l.7. c.97.] Diodor. Sic. says, there were more than 1207 fighting ships, for carrying horses, 850,3000 cargo ships of 30 oars a piece. The Poet Eschyius in Persia brings in a messenger reporting the number of those ships in this manner. I know that Xerxes ships a thousand were; But full two hundred and seven ships he had, Exceeding swift ones. So the fame doth go.
- Whether he means that the total sum of them was a 1000 and so the 207 swift ships was part of the total or whether both sums added together to give 1207. If so this agrees best with the particular catalogue of the ships which every nation contributed to this expedition as mentioned by Herodotus. It is not clear from the poetry what the exact total should be. Ctesias seems to favour the former opinion and so does Tully in the first of his Orations against Verres. Iscocrates in his Panegyric and Panathenaic Orations, agrees with the latter. Lysius in his Epitaph, says there were about 1200 ships, plus 3000 cargo ships. Justin must be wrong when he says there were 1,000,000 ships. Herodotus determines that about 241,000 troops were in the 1207 ships which came from Asia in this way. He has 200 men in every hold plus 30 passengers from the Persians, Medes and Sacaeans for a total of 36,210 passengers. In the 3000 cargo ships he places 240,000 men and average of about 80 per ship. So the whole navy consisted of 517,610 men. The number of the army was 1,700,000 foot soldiers and 800,000 cavalry. The Arabians who had charge of the camels and the Libyans who tended the wagons totalled about 20,000. The total number in Xerxes' forces would be 2,317,610 plus horses, boys and other servants and besides those who supplied the camp with food. [Herod. l.7. c.184.]
- Xerxes marched from Doriscus into Greece. As he came to any country, he conscripted all who were fit for fighting. [Herod. l.7. c.118.] He added 120 ships to his navy and added 200 more troops per ship for a total increase of the naval forces by 24,000 men. Herodotus thinks that his army increased 30 myriads, or 300,000. Diod. Sic. thinks the increase was less than 200,000. So the total of Xerxes' army in European and Asiatic soldiers amounted to 2,641,610 men. He thinks that the number of boys keeping the horses, servants and sailors in the cargo ships and others, was greater than the number of soldiers. So that if that former sum should be but doubled, the number of those which Xerxes carried by sea to Sepias and by land to Thermopylae would come to 5,283,220 men. This does not include the women cooks and eunuchs for no man can tell the exact number of them. Neither could he exactly number the horses and other beasts of burden and the Indian dogs with their keepers that followed the nobles in the camp for their pleasure. Hence it is no wonder that so many rivers were exhausted from the thirst of so many people. [Herod. l.7. c.185-187.] Juneval states in Statyr. 10. We now believe that many rivers deep, Did fail the Persian army, at a dinner.
- Therefore the less of a wonder that both Isocrates in his Panothenaic oration and Plutarch in his Parallels report that Xerxes took over 5,000,000 men into Greece.
- Yet in this huge host, there was not a man as handsome as Xerxes or one that might seem more worthy of that great empire than he. [Herod. l.7. c.187.] Like Saul among the children of Israel, (1 Samuel 10:23,24) so Xerxes might well seem to have been worthy of a crown. Yet, if you speak as a king, says Justin from Trogus, you will find cause to commend his wealth, mentioned before in (Daniel 11:2) rather than by his character, of which he states: "there was such infinite abundance in his kingdom, that when whole rivers failed the multitude of his army, yet his wealth could never be exhausted. As for himself, he was always seen last in the fight and first in the flight. He was fearful when any danger was but puffed up with pride when there was none."
- Leonidus king of Sparta with an army of 4000 Greeks, interposed himself against him and his whole army of 300,000 troops at the pass of Thermopylae in Theslaly. It was called that from the hot springs which were there. In this epitaph by Herodotus we read: [Herod. l.7. c. 228.] Here against three hundred thousand Persians, Four thousand Spartans fought it out and died.
- For thirty myriads (Isaiah 300,000) which are the number stated by Theodoret [l. 10.] was the size the whole army [Diod. Sic. l.11.] in this very epitaph, p. 26. in the Greek and Latin edition. For, the 30 myriads have 20 myriads, which make 200,000. Yet [p. 5.] he says, that the whole army consisted of a little less, than 100 myriads or 1,000,000 troops. When referring to this fight at Thermopylae, [p. 9.] he says that 500 men held off 100 myriads or 1,000,000 troops. Justin relating the same story from Trogus, [l. 2. c.11.] states that 600 men, broke into the camp of 500,000, or as in Orosius, 600,000 men. Isocrates in his Archidamus says, that 1000 of them went against 700,000 Persians. Instead of the 1000 mentioned by Isocrates, Justin and Orosius say it was 600 and Diodorus, 500. These are those who were left when the rest of the Greeks were sent away. They held out against the Persians to the last man including their Spartan king Leonidas. Of this number, 300 were Spartans, the rest, Thespians and Thebans. [Herod. l.7. c.222,224.] They slew 20,000 of the enemy. [Herod. l.8. c.24.]
- While these things happened at Thermopylae, various naval battles occurred about Artemisium, a cape of Eubaea. [Herod. l.8. c.15.] Eurybiades, a Lacedemonian, was admiral of the fleet of 271 ships, besides 9 others of 50 oars a piece. 127 were sent by the Athenians and Plataeans. [Herod. l.8. c.1.] Yet, Isocrates, in his Areopagitical Oration, says that the Athenians supplied only 60 ships. Emelius Probus states that the whole Greek fleet had 300 ships and that 200 of them were from the Athenians. Themistocles, Herodotus, Diodorus and Probus all say this battle was a draw, neither side winning. Isocrates in his Panegyrical Oration and Elian, [l. 2. c.25. Varia Histor.] say the Persians were decisively defeated. The day when this battle was fought, is said by Elian, to have been upon the 6th of Thargelion, which was the second month of the spring with the Athenians. This does not agree with Herodotus, who [Herod. l.8. c.12.] says, that this was done in the middle of summer after the end of the spring when the Olympiad games were held in spite of all the trouble in Greece. [Herod. l.8. c.26.] This was the 75th Olympiad. Others like Dionysius, Halicarnaslaeus, in his Roman Antiquities, [l. 9.] states that it was at that time that Xerxes made war upon the Greeks.
- Four months after crossing the Hellespont with his army, Xerxes came to Athens. He found it abandoned by all its inhabitants. Callias was the ruler of Athens at this time. [Herod. l. 8. c.51.] In this year, Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, a scholar of Anaximenes the Milesian, at the age of 20 was made public reader of philosophy in Athens according to Laertius from Demerrius Phalercus in his Catalogue of the 50 Rulers of Athens. At this time philosophy was first brought from Ionia to Athens, according to Clemens Alexan. [l. 1. strom.] who states: "when Xerxes had taken Athens, he took also a multitude of books, which Pisistratus and the Athenians had there stored. He sent them to Persia. The the rest of the city, except the Acropolis, he burned according to A. Gellius." [l. 17. Noct. Attica]
- I do not agree with him for Herodotus states plainly that all the Acropolis was burn. [Herod. l.8. c.53.] Likewise states Ctesias. Diod. Sic. further affirms that the temple of Minerva which was undoubtedly in the Acropolis, was destroyed.
- The further Xerxes marched into Greece the more nations joined him. The Meleinses, the Dorienses, the Locri, the Baeothians, Caristians, Andrians, Teniaus and various others sent troops. Hence his army and navy were no less at Salamis and Athens than when he first landed at Sepias and came to Thermopylae. [Herod. l.8. c.66.] The verses of Eschilus mentioned earlier seem also to imply this where he tells us that at the fight at Salamis there were 1000 or 1207 ships of his. Ctesias says that in that fight the Persians had 1000 ships. Plutarch in his discourse, De glor. Athen. i.e.of the glory of the Athenians, where he says that the victory of Themistocles at Salamis, was gotten with the loss of a 1000 enemy ships. At the naval battle before Salamis, the Greek fleet was far greater than when they fought at Artemisium. They had 380 tall ships of war, of which Sparta sent 16. The Athenians had there 180 [Herod. l.8. c.42-44,48,62.] Plutarch agrees with Herodotus about the number of the Athenian ships. [Plutarch, in the Life of Themistocles] [Herod. l.8. c.61.] Diod. Sic. [l. 15.] says of the Athenians that they had 200 ships in the battle. Ischylus says, that the whole number of the Greek ships in the fight before Salamis was but 300 besides ten others of an extraordinary size. However Ctesias writes that there were 700 in the Greek fleet. There they lost 40 ships and the Persian's lost 200 besides those which were taken with the men in them. [Diodor, Sic. l.11.] Ctesias reports that the Persians lots 500 ships during that battle. Artemisia, the queen of Halicarnassus, who came to aid Xerxes, was praised by him for her heroic courage. [Justin. l.2. c.12.] Xerxes on this occasion was heard to say: "That his men had played the women and the women the men, in that service". [Herod. l.8. c. 88.]
- Under the leadership of Eurybiades, the Lacedemonian and the sage and prudent counsel and great prowess of Themistocles the Athenian, the Greeks won as big a victory at Salamis as they did at Marathon. Plutarch contradicts himself as to the time when the battle at Salamis was fought. For in the Life of Lysander and in his discourse on the glory of the Athenians, he says it was the 16th day of the month Munichon, [which is the first of the months of spring with the Athenians]. However, in the Life of Camylus, he says it was on the 20th day of Boedromian, which was their third month in summer. It is true that in the Bay of Saron, also called the Bay of Salamis [Strabo l.8.] between the two islands of Salamis and Igina, there was a night battle at sea between 10 Lacedemonian ships commanded by Gorgopas and 13Athenian ships commanded by Eunomus. This was near Zoster a cape of the isthmus of Attica. In the days of Artarxerxes' Memoir, king of Persia, of which Xenophon, in his fifth book of his history of the Greeks, mentions this: "In a sea battle made by moon light, Gorgopas took 4 tall ships of war and drawing them after him carried them away to Egina. The rest of the Athenian fleet fled home to their port of Piraum,"
- It was the 16th day of that lunar month among the Athenians, when Gorgopas attacked that small fleet of the Athenians. It happened to be a full moon, which helped the Athenian fleet sail to safety with the loss only of 4 ships. Therefore the Athenians consecrated that day to Diana and kept it as a holy day to her honour. Hence Plutarch confounded this later sea battle fought at Salamis with that other one fought in the same place against Xerxes in his discourse, "Of the Glory of the Athenians". Through error he wrote of it in this manner: "They consecrated the 16th day of the month Muichlon to Diana, because upon that day after the victory won by the Greeks, the Goddess appeared full that night."
- For that the victory of the Greeks against Xerxes happened about the 20th day of Boedromion, Plutarch says in a treatise of his, "Of days..", quoted by himself in the life of Camillus. It plainly appears in Herodotus that [Herod. l.8. c.65.] the main day of that holy day was the 20th of the month Boedromion. On this day the mysterious Pomp of Jacchus was openly shown to the people, according to Plutarch in the Life of Camillus. Themistocles prevented his countrymen from pursuing the enemies after their defeat at Salamis when they fled. He said this: "Now, let us stay in Greece and take care of ourselves and our families and look to the tillage and sowing of our land, since the enemy is expelled from it. When the spring comes, then will we take time to sail into Hellespont and Ionia."
- Hence concludes the argument that the Persians were vanquished at Salamis not in the beginning of the spring but in the latter end of summer.
- After the sea battle Xerxes executed certain Phoenicians who were the first that fled and threatened the rest with punishments answerable to their conduct. For fear of this, the Phoenicians returned that day to Atrica. The night after, they sailed to Asia, [Diod. Sic. l.11. in the 1st year of the 75th Olympiad.] Many other ships, fearing more the rage of the king than the fury of the enemy, slunk away to their homes. [Justin l.2.c. 12.] Xerxes was terrified by this disaster at sea and committed his sons to Artemesia the queen. She transported them to Ephesus to be with Hermotimus their governor. [Herod. l.8. c.103,107.]
- Cleombrotus of Sparta, the brother of Leonidas who died at Thermopylae, built a wall across the neck of land which is called Isthmus Corinthiacus. This was to stop Xerxes from coming by land into Peloponsus. [Herod. l.8. c.71.] While he was offering a sacrifice against the Persians, the sun was eclipsed. When this happened, he withdrew his army which was building this fortification and he died shortly after this. He was succeeded by his son Pausanias, as first cousin and tutor of Plistarchus, a child, the son of the dead Leonidas. [Herod. l.9. c.10.] The Prutenian account tells us of an eclipse of the sun of 8 digits [2/3 of total] at 1:39 pm that lasted 32 minutes on the 2nd day of October.
- To speed Xerxes on his way out of Greece, Themistocles sent a phoney message to him from Salamis that the Greeks planned to send a fleet of ships to Hellespont to destroy his bridge. When he heard this, he made all speed to get out of Europe into Asia. [Herod. l.8. c.110. Diod. Sic. l.11. in the 1st year of the 75th Olympiad and Plut. in the Life of Themistosles.]
- Xerxes resolved to leave. He sent his fleet from Phalerus to Hellespont to guard the bridge. He and Mardomius and his army marched speedily towards Thessalie. [Herod. l.8. c.107,113,115.]
- When Mardonius came with Xerxes into Thessalie, he chose from all his army, 300,000 men. These he kept with him to continue the conquest of Greece. Because the year was far spent, he wintered in Thessalia. [Herod. l.8. c.113,114.] Justin from Trogus, [l. 2. c.13.] and Plutarch in the Life of Aristides agree with Herododus. However, Diod. Sic. states that there remained with him at least 400,000 troops.
- In the meantime, the Lacedemonians by the command of the Oracle at Delphi, sent a herald to Xerxes to require reparation from him for the death of their king Leonidas. He answered that Mardonius should pay them their due. After this, he left Mardonius in Thessalie and hurried to the Hellespont. He took a large number of troops for his guard. The rest he left to be brought after him by Hydarnes. [Herod. l.8. c.114,115,118.]
- The army which he left behind with Mardonius was first hit by famine then a pestilence. So many died that the highways lay strewn with the dead carcases of them. Both birds and beasts of prey followed the army by the smell whereever they went. [Herod. l.8. c.115. Justin l. 2. c.13.]
- In Asia, the Archaeanactidae held the kingdom of Bosphorus Cimmerius for 40 years [Diod. Sic. l.12.] in the 3rd year of the 85th Olympiad. These had their beginning from Archaeanacres of Mitylene whom are said to have built Sigaeum with the stones dug from the ruins of Troy. [Strabo. l.13.]
3525 AM, 4234 JP, 480 BC
- After 45 days, Xerxes came to the Hellespont. [Herod. l.8. c.115.] Emil. Probus states it was less time than that in his "Life of Themistocles". He says: "that upon the way that he took six months in going into Europe, on the same way out, he spent less than 30 days returning to Asia."
- When Xerxes found his bridge smashed by the winter storms, out of fear he crossed in a small fishing boat. "And truly it was a thing worth the sight and a rare example of human frailty and change of things in this world to see him lie sulking in a small boat. A little before the whole sea seemed too little to contain him. He was destitute of a page to wait upon him whose army the very earth seemed to groan for the burden of it." [Justin l.2. c.13.]
- When the army which followed him under the command of Hydarves found the bridge smashed, they crossed over in boats to Abydus. On the other side they found much more food than they had on their way. They gorged themselves with food and with change of water, they died by the score. The rest accompanied Xerxes to Sardis. [Herod. l.8. c.117.]
- While Xerxes was on the way to Sardis, he sent Megabyzus to destroy the temple of Delphi. When he desired to be excused, Mattacus an eunuch did the task and returned to Xerxes. [Ctesius.]
- When the news came to Susa by the couriers who were sent that Xerxes had taken Athens, the Persians were so happy that they strewed all the streets with myrtle boughs and burnt frankincense in them. They set themselves wholly to sacrificing and feasting. When the news of his defeat at Salamis came, their attitude changed so that every man rent his garments and filled all places with howlings and lamentations. [Herod. l.8. c.99.] Ischylus described this turn of affairs in his "Life in Persia."
- When the remaining fleet and sailors had ferried the army from Chersonesus to Abydus, they wintered at Cuma in Eolia, [Herod. l.8. c.130.]
- Artabazus the son of Pharnabazus accompanied Xerxes with 60,000 soldiers to Hellespont. When he saw that he was safely landed in Asia, he returned and stayed near Pallene after Mardonius had wintered in Macedonia and Thessalia and had not looked after the rest of the army. While Artabazus stayed there, he found that the city of Pntidea with Pallene revolted from Persia and Olynthus was planning to. He besieged Potidea and Olynthus. When he captured Olynthus and killed all its Pottiean inhabitants, he put Critobulus of Torona, a Chalcedonian, in charge of the place. [Herod. l.8. c.126,127.]
- When the Persians besieged Potidea for 3 months, a huge tide of the sea broke in upon them over their trenches forcing them to lift the seige. Many perished in that flood. When others fought to swim to safety, the Potideans went in boats and knocked them on the head. Those that escaped, Artabazus took with him into Thessalia to Mardonius. [Herod. l.8. c.129.]
- In the beginning of spring, the rest of the Persian fleet which had wintered at Cuma, sailed to the Isle of Samos where others of their navy had wintered. The largest part of this navy were Persian and Median sailors. They were joined shortly after by certain commanders, Mardoutes Fitz Bargeus and Attanites Fitz Artacheus. They staying there with 300 ships to keep all of Ionia from revolting. This number includes the Ionians that were with them under their command. [Herod. l.8. c.130.] However, Diodorus says that there were no less than 400 ships at Samos which awaited any Ionian revolt in this a year of the 75th Olympiad.
- The Greek fleet consisted of 110 ships under two commanders, Leotychides king of the Spartans and Xanthippus an Athenian. They sailed to Egina where messengers came to them from Ionia begging them to immediately come and relieve them in Ionia. After a while they sailed as far as to Delos. [Herod. l.8. c.131,132.] However, Diodorus tells us, that after thay stayed some days at Egina, they sailed to Delos with 250 ships.
- Xerxes is said to have built both a palace and a citadel at Celene in Phrygia. [Xen, in his Expedition of Cyrus, l.1.]
- Mardonius with his army came to Athens which was not yet reinhabited ten months after it was first taken by Xerxes. Whatever Xerxes left standing, he destroyed and burnt down. From there he marched into the country of Megare, which was the farthest place west that the Persians went in Greece. [Herod. l.9. c.3,13,14.]
- While the Greek fleet stayed at Delos, messengers came to them from Samos, asking their help for themselves and the rest of the Greeks who lived in Asia, against the Persians. At a council of war, Leotychides the king of Sparta resolved to liberate all the Greek cities from the Persians. They entered into a league with the Samians who came with their whole fleet to Samos and stayed near the Temple of Juno. They prepared for a naval battle against the Persians. [Herod. l.8. c.89,91,95. Diod. Sic. l.11.]
- When the commanders of the Persian navy stayed at Samos, they heard that the Greeks were coming against them. Knowing they were no match for them in a naval battle, they allowed the Phoenician ships to sail off. The rest sailed to Micale, which is a cape in Ionia where the army was. It was left there by Xerxes to keep Ionia under submission. 60000 men were under the command of Tigranes who was the tallest and most handsome man of all the Persians. Near to the temple of Ceres of Eleusis, they drew up their ships and enclosed them with a rampart which they fortified with stones and stakes and anything else they could find there. [Herod. l.9. c.95,96.] They sent to Sardis and the other neighbouring places for more soldiers. With these reinforcements, they had 100,000 troops. They prepared for a battle. [Diod. l.11.]
- In an engagement of cavalry between the Greeks and Persians near Erythrae in Beotia, the Persian commander Masistius was killed by the Greeks. The Greeks called him Macisias. Great lamentations were made by the Persians when he died. [Herod. l.9. c.20,22,24. and Plutarch, in the Life of Aristide.]
- The Greeks under the command of Pausanias the son of Cleombrotus, routed the Persian army of 120,000 at Platea according to Ctesias. Emil. Probus, in his Pausanias, says there were 200,000 soldiers and 20,000 cavalry. Plutarch in the life of Aristides affirms, that there were no fewer than 300,000 men. To this 300,000 Herodotus adds also, about 50,000 Greek mercenaries hired by Mardonius. [Herod. l.9. c.31.] Diodorus Siculus, "to the 75th Olympiad", says, that Mardonius had besides the troops left by Xerxes, also from Thracia and Macedonia and other allies over 200,000 soldiers. In total he had over 500,000 in his army. Herodotus and Plutarch affirm that the Athenians had at least 8000 men. The entire Greek army numbered 100,000 men according to Diodorus Siculus, Trogus, Pompelus and Orosius or 110,000 according to Herodotus. [Herod. l.9. c.29.] Plutarch says the Greeks lost 1360 men in the battle. [Plutarch, in the Life of Aristides] Diod. Sic. says they lost 10,000 men.
- The Persian general of the entire army, Mardonius the son-in-law, [not of Xerxes, as Imil. Probus, in the life of Pausanias] of Darius who was father to Xerxes, [as I showed before in the note on 3510 AM] was slain in this battle. He was hit by a stone flung at him by Aimnestus or Arimnestus, a man of Sparta. [Herod. l.1. c.63.] [Plutarch in the life of Aristides] [Pausanias, l. 1.] Ctesias was incorrect when he said that he was only hurt and so escaped for a time. Later he was killed in a hail storm when he was destroying the temple of Apollo. However, Justin from Trogus and from Justin Orosius states that Mardonius, accompanied with a very small company escaped from there as from a shipwreck.
- When the Persian army lost their general, they fled to a fortress of theirs made of wood. The Greeks overcame it and killed over 100,000 of them. [Diodorus Siculus,] So that of the 300,000 of them, there were not left 3000 men in addition to the 40000 who fled with Artabazus. [Herod. l.9. c.69.]
- Leotychides, who commanded the Greek navy came to Mycale to liberate the Ionians from the Persians. With his own army and their help, he obtained there a most memorable victory. He slew over 30,000 Persians besides Mardontes the Persian naval commander and Tigranes the general of the army. The two other commanders of their fleet, Artayntes and Ithramitres fled. The rest that escaped fled to the tops of the cape of Mycale. [Herod. l.9. c.97-104.] [Diod. Sic. l.11.]
- Both these fights happened near to the two temples of Ceres of Elensis on the same day of the same month. The one battle was at Platea in Europe, early in the morning and the other at Mycale in Asia later in the afternoon. The news spread swiftly far and wide that in a few hours the news of the victory at Platea came to Mycale the same day before the battle. [Herod. l.9. c.99,130.] [Justin l.2. c.14.] However, Diod. Sic. thinks [and that more probably] that Leotychides heard nothing at all of what was done at Platea but cunningly spread such a rumour among his soldiers to encourage them. The day of these two battles [Elim. Var. Hist. l.2. c.25.] says, was the 6th of the month Thargeleon, the 2nd month in the spring with the Athenians. Plutarch with more wisdom says it was in the month Boedromion which was the 3rd month in summer. It was either on the 3rd day of it [in the life of Camillius and in his discourse of the glory of the Athenians,] or on the 4th. [the Life of Aristides] This battle at Micale happened in the second year after Xerxes' first entering into Greece. [Herod. l.7. c80]
- At this time all Ionia revolted from the Persians, [Herod. l.9. c.103.] together with the Eolians and their bordering Islands. [Diod. Sic. l11]
- The Greeks completely burned the Persian ships and camps. They returned to the Isle of Samos and consulted together on how to move the Ionian nation out of Asia. Diod. says they planned to move the Eolians to Greece too since they were exposed to the danger of the Persian cruelty. The Athenians feared that the Ionians, who were now an independent colony would intermix with the rest of Greece. They opposed this plan since the Ionians were also Greeks, they could count on Greece for help against the Persians. They desired that the Ionians remain in Asia. [Herod. l.9. c.105. Diod. l.11. in 2nd year of 75th Olympiad.]
- They of Greece entered into a league with those of Samos, Chios, Lesobs and the other islands who had joined in this war against the Persians. They confirmed this with a solemn oath to last for ever. They sailed in a group towards Hellespont and on their way came to anchor first at a cape called Lectium. When an opposing wind changed to a favourable one, they passed on to Abydus. When they found the bridges there already broken down which they intended to destroy, Leotychides with his men of Peloponesus returned home. The Athenians under Xanthippus and [as Thucidides says] with their allies from Ionia and Hellespont who had revolted against the Persians, journeyed from Abydus to Chersonesus and there besieged Sestos. Artayctes, a Persian, was a wicked man whom Xerxes had made governor of that province. The town was surrounded by the strongest wall of any other towns in the area. Ocbasus a Persian, who had stored the cables used in the construction of the bridges at Cardia, left that place and came to Sestos also. [Herod. l.9. c.105,113-115.]
- Artabuzus the son of Pharnaces, with 40000 men who fled from the battle at Plataea, travelled quickly through the countries of Phocis, Thessalie, and Macedonia, to Thracia. They took the shortest overland route to Byzantium. Many men were left behind in his march. Some were killed by the Thracians, some of hunger and some from the journey. When he arrived at Byzantium, he crossed over to Asia by ship. [Herod. l.9. c.65. 69,76, 88.]
- Those who had saved thmselves in the top of the rock at the cape of Micale, retreated to Sardis where Xerxes still was. On that journey Masystes, one of the sons of Darius Hystaspes, had charged Artayntes one of the chief commanders of the fleet at Mycale with cowardess. When Artayntes attacked him with his sword, Xenagoras of Halicarnassus stepped in and stopped the fight and saved Masystes from that attack. For so saving Xerxes' brother's life, he was made governor of Cilicia. [Herod. l.9. c.107.]
- While Xerxes spent his time at Sardis, he there fell in love with his brother Masystes' wife. When he could not seduce her, he married her daughter Artaynta to his own son Darius hoping to get his will of her the more easily by this act. When the wedding was over, he returned to Susa, [Herod. l.9. c.108.] leaving part of his army at Sardis to continue the war against the Greeks. [Diod. Sic. In 2nd year of 75th Olympiad.]
3526 AM, 4236 JP, 478 BC
- In his flight, Xerxes burnt the Oracle of Apollo Didymeus, in Branchis, as he did all the other temples in Asia except at Ephesus. After those of Branchis handed over the treasury of their god, they all went along with him, fearing that if they stayed behind, they would have been punished for sacrilege and treason. [Strabo. l.14. with Solinus c.40.] Herodotus says that Xerxes left Sardis and went to Susa but Diodorus says he went to Ecbatane. Ctesias writes that he went from Babylon to Persia. Arrian in his book of Alexanders' Acts, affirms that after he came to Babylon, he demolished the temple of Belus and all other consecrated places including the Sepulchre of Belus. Strabo [l. 16.] says that he took away the statue of Belus made of solid gold twelve cubits high. When the priests opposed it and would not allow it to be removed, he slew them. [Herod. l.1. c.183.]
- While the Athenians besieged Sestos, the autumn was approaching and they had still not taken it and planned to abandon the seige. However, the people within were so driven with famine that they were boiling their bedcords for food. Artayctes and Oebasus with many of the Persians climbed over the walls by night and fled. When the inhabitants knew this early the next morning, they surrendered to the Athenians. [Herod. l.9. c.116,117.]
- A great number of prisoners were taken at Sestos and Byzantium by the Athenians and their confederates in the army. The confederates of their own accord, offered to refer the division of the prey to Cimon, a young Athenian gentleman. He set all the persons on the one hand and all the clothes and ornaments which they wore on the other. He gave them first choice saying the Athenians would take what was left. Herophytus of Samos persuded them to take the clothes and ornaments instead of the people. Later, the friends and kinsmen of the prisoners, came from Phrygia and Lydia and redeemed those prisoners at a high price. With the money, Cimon maintained the fleet four whole months and brought much silver and gold into the treasury at Athens. This act gave him a reputation of wisdom with the Athenians. They received so much money by the bargain, they laughed at their fellows who had formerly laughed at them. [Plutarch in the Life of Cimon and Polyanus, l.1. Straug.]
- When Oebasus had escaped into Thracia, the Thracians, called Absynthii, captured him and sacrificed him to their god Plestorus. His companions were killed by various ways. Artayntes and his followers were captured at Egos Potamus and carried prisoner to Sestos. By the sea side, where Xerxes had made his bridge, or as others say, on a hill near the city Madytus, there they set up gibbets and hung them there after they stoned his own son to death before his eyes. When this was done, the Athenians returned into Greece. In addition to the money, they took the cables and ornaments of the bridges, which were made over the Hellespont. They planned to hang them as trophies in their temples. [Herod. l.9. c.118-120.] Xanthippus left a garrison in Sestos and dismissed all strangers. He with his own companies returned to Athens. So the war of the Medes, as they call it, came to an end after it had lasted a full two years. [Diod. Sic. l.11. in the 75th Olympiad.]
- Bagapates the eunuch died after he had sat by the tomb of Darius for 7 years. [Ctesias]
- Megabysus accused his wife Amyris, Xerxes' daughter, of adultery. She very sharply blamed his daughter for it. [Ctesias] All the while, he committed both adultery and incest. Xerxes turned his lewd affection from his brother Masystes' wife, to their daughter Artaynta, whom he had now made his own daughter-in-law. He lay with her continually at Susa. [Herod. l. 9. c.107,108.]
3527 AM, 4237 JP, 477 BC
- Pausanias the son of Cleombrotus was sent as general of the Greeks from Lacedemonia to free the Greek cities that were still held by the the Persians. He had 20 ships from Peloponesus and 30 more from Athens [Diodor. says 50 ships] commanded by Aristides. They sailed to Cyprus and liberated many cities held by Persians. [Thucid. l.1. Diodor, Sic. in the 4th year of the 75th Olympiad.]
- When Xerxes was celebrating his coronation day, he gave his queen Ametris any wish she wanted. She asked for Masystes' wife, Xerxes brother. She had her breasts, nose, ears, lips and tongue cut off and so sent her home again. Masystes conspired with his own children to steal away to the province of Bactria. He wanted to make himself governor and incite Bactria and the Saca to rebel against the king. He was intercepted on the way by Xerxes' soldiers and he, his children and all that were in his company were killed. [Herod. l.9. c.108-112.] The governmant of Bactria was given to Hystaspes, the son of Xerxes. [Diod. Sic. in the 4th year of the 78th Olympiad.]
3528 AM, 4238 JP, 476 BC
- When Pausanias returned from Cyprus, he captured Byzantium. On his own authority, he sent the Persians whom he had captured [some were close friends and kinsmen of Xerxes] home safely to Xerxes. He let on that they had escaped. All this business was negotiated by Gongylus an Eretrian. He also used him to carry letters to Xerxes that expressed his desire to marry Xerxes' daughter. In return he promised to bring Sparta and all Greece, under his subjection. Xerxes was glad for this news. He replied to him by Artabazus the son of Pharnaces. He said it would be easier to communicate his counsels with Pausanias when they were closer. Therefore he gave him the government of the province of Daseylis and recalled Magabates who was governor there before. With these hopes, Pausanias grew more insolent than before and began to live like a Persian and behaved imperiosly towards those who were in league with that state. Most of them, especially the Ionians and others who had been recenty liberated from their slavery under the Persians, defected to the Athenians and desired to serve under them. [Thucid. l.1.]
3529 AM, 4239 JP, 475 BC
- When Pausanias was accused by the Spartans, he was recalled from Byzantium. He was found guilty and condemned for some small misdemeanours but acquitted of treason against the state. Nevertheless, he was removed from the government of Hellespont. On his own without asking permission he hired a ship under the pretence of aiding in the war effort for the Greeks in those parts. He wanted to advance his own interests with Xerxes. When the Athenians would not allow him to stay in Byzantium, he returned not to Sparta but stayed at Colonae in Troas. He was again accused at Sparta that he consorted with the Persians and that he was up to no good while he was in those parts. When he was accused at Sparta, he was sent for again by the Ephori. When he arrived, they threw him into prison but after a hearing he was acquitted again. [Thucid. l.1.]
3530 AM, 4240 JP, 474 BC
- In Greece because of the hatred to Pausanias, the common dislike of the Lacedemonians was transferred to the Athenians. Under a pretence of revenging the wrong done to the various countries by the common enemy, the Athenians made a tax of money and ships that each city should contribute against the Persians. The cities in Greece and the Greek cites in Asia readily agreed to this for the common safety of all. The first tax amounted to 460 [not as Diodorus has it, 560] talents. It was stored in the Isle of Delos which was the common treasury of all Greece. [Thucid, l.1. Diod. l.11. Justin l.16. c.3. Plutarch and Emil. Probus, in the life of Aristides.]
- When Pausanias was exposed by Argilius, his homosexual lover, to whom he had committed his last letters to be sent to Artabazus, the Ephori starved him to death. [Thusic. l.1. Diod. l.11. Emil. Prob. in the Life of Pausanias.]
3531 AM, 4241 JP, 473 BC
- Artabazus, an Hyrcanian, was captain of the guard and was most trusted and had more authority with Xerxes, as his father Artasyras had previously with Darius. He conspired with Mithridares an eunuch, chamberlain to the king, [Cresias calls him Spamitres of Aspamiters] who was his close friend and kinsman. He was let into the bedchamber with his seven young robust sons at night and they slew Xerxes as he lay in his bed. In the middle of the night they went speedily to Artaxerxes and told him that Darius, [who was the eldest of the three sons of Xerxes] had killed his father so he would be king sooner. [Elian. l.13. c.3. relates this as if it were indeed the truth] By this lie, he persuaded Artaxerxes to have the king's guard kill his brother Darius. [Ctesias, Diod. Justin l.3. c.1.]
- By Artabanus' plot, Artaxerxes was the next king. [Ctesias] He was a man of a mild disposition and full of magnanimity to all. He was surnamed Longimanus because his right hand was longer than his left. [Plutarch in the beginning of the life of Artaxerxes.] The 7 first months of his reign are attributed to Artabanus. [Euseb. in his Chron.] It seems for that period of time, he ruled all things in Artaxerxes' name. Diodorus intimates that Artabanus was presently executed for his murder of Xerxes and Darius. Yet there was some time elapsed before this happened as appears by the more complete accounts of this by Ctesias and Justin.
- Themistocles of Athens was suspected of the conspiracy with Pausanias for the betraying of Greece into the hands of the Persians. They searched for him and had they found him they would have killed him. Therefore he fled from Greece and came to Pydna, a town beside the Thermaic Bay of Macedonia. There he found a merchant ship going into Ionia and went aboard. A tempest carried the ship into the middle of the Athenian forces which besieged Naxos. The captain of the ship who was well paid by Themistocles, lay a whole night and a day at anchor beyond the Athenian fleet. When the tempest was over, he came safely to Ephesus. [Thucid. l.1. Emil. Prob. in the life of Themistocles. Polyan. l.1. Stratag.] Plutarch reports that he came to Cuma and found many sea captains wanting to capture him, especially Ergoteles and Theodorus. Xerxes had promised 200 talents to whoever would bring him his head. Therefore, he quietly left the area and came to a little town called Etas in Eolia. He hid for a few days in the house of one Nicogenes, a very wealthy man in those parts who was very familiar with several of the king's most trusted attendants. Diodorus calls him Lysitheis and says further, that he was a man of so very great wealth that when Xerxes passed that way he feasted both him and all his army in a very magnificent manner. By this good host's means, he was put into a covered wagon, such as the kings and other great men's harlots used among the Persians. He came safely into Persia according to both Plutarch and Thucidides. However, Thucidides only says, that he went the way from the sea side into Persia in the company of a certain Persian. Herodotus tells us that from Ephesus to Sardis is a 3 day's journey and from there to Susa, 3 months. [Herod. l.5. c.50,53,54.]
- Artabanus planned to kill Artaxerxes, as he had done to his father and brother. He told his plan to Megabyzus, whom he knew to be unhappy for the jealousy of his wife's supposed unfaithfulness. She was Amytis the sister to Artaxerxes. They swore secrecy to each other, but Megabysus presently went and disclosed the matter to the king who put Artabanus to death. Then also came to light, his hand in the death of Xerxes and his son Darius. Aspamitres, or Spamitres the eunuch, who was involved with him in this, was cruelly executed by certain racks and other engines in a boat. [This is described more fully by Plutarch, in the life of Artaxerxes] [Ctesias.] For Megabysus, Justin puts Becabasus, as consort with Artabanus in this plot and sets out the manner of Artabanus' death thusly: "Artaxerxes, fearing the number of Artabanus' children, commanded all the army to be ready in the field the next day. He planned to review his troops, the number of them and also how every man could stand to his arms. When Artbanus was there present in his armour, Artaxerxes said, that his own armour was a little short for him and that he would change with Artabanus. When Artabanus at the command of the king, had taken off his armour, Artaxerxes ran his naked body through with his sword,"
- From the size of his armour, we may learn that Artaxerxes, was not at this time a child as Justin claims, but that he was a man and old enough that the Scripture tells us, that in the 7th year of his kingdom, he was a father of several sons. (Ezra 7:23)
- After Artabanus' death, there was a battle fought between his friends and the other Persians in which three of his sons were slain. Megabysus on the Persian side was seriously wounded. This grieved Artaxerxes, his sisters, Amytis the wife of Megabysus' wife and Rhodogyne and his mother Amestris. Megabyzus recovered due to the great skill of Apollonis, a doctor from the Isle of Coos. After this Bactria revolted from Artaxerxes and a different Artabanus was made governor there. Between Artabanus and them a field was selected where they parted on even terms. [Ctesias] Yet those words in the Greek are ambiguous. For either it may be meant, as I have here expressed it, according to the interpretation of it made by Hen. Stephanus. He says that there was another Artabanus made governor of Bactria instead of the former, or that there was at this time another Artabanus who was governor of that province not the same person whom the king killed. If we take the latter sense, then this revolt of the Bactrians must refer to a later time but if the first, then to the present time. For at this time, Hystaspes, Xerxes' son, was governor of Bactria according to Diodor. Sic. He was the middle brother between Darius and Artaxerxes according to Ctesias. It seems reasonable that when Hystaspes saw his younger brother Artaxerxes preferred before him in the kingdom, he would incite not only the Bactrians whom he governed but also all his other friends, to recover his right of the kingdom.
- Eusebius in his Chron. notes, that in the 4th year of this 76th Olympiad, [upon which we now are] Themistocles fled to the Persians. This agrees with the account of Thucidides. He places the coming of Themistocles to Artaxerxes, between the siege of Naxos and that famous victory over the Persians at the mouth of the river Eurymedon by Cimon the Athenian. He makes the beginning of the reign of Artaxerxes to happen at the same time for he says that Themistocles sent letters to Artaxerxes when he was recently crowned king. He desired his favour and offered him his service against the Greeks. From this we may fully discern that the true beginning of Artaxerxes' reign was almost a full nine years earlier than it is commonly said to have been. [Since this was written in 1650 new evidence has been found confirming Ussher's date. "The date commonly given for this is B.C. 445; but Ussher gave 454, and Hengstenberg and others contend that this is the true date. Hengstenberg shows in his "Christiology" how the mistake arose. Vitringa rectified the date, and Kr
- Plutarch from Phanias reports that Themistocles was brought into Artaxerxes favour by Artabanus, a colonel. According to Eratosthenes, he obtained this favour from the colonel by the means of his harlot who was from Eretria. He does not explain which Artabanus this was, whether he was the one slain by Artaxerxes or that Artabanus that Xerxes entrusted government of his kingdom 7 years earlier when he went to Greece. For if he meant the first, then Themistocles must have come to Artaxerxes within the first 7 months of being crowned king according to Euseb. If someone else then the time he came to the king might have happened in any other month of that year. This would agree well with Thucidides, where he says: "he was brought to Artaxerxes, when he was newly crowned king."
- If was the right of the office of the colonel or chiliarch, being the second officer in the kingdom, to bring those who were to be admitted into the presence of the king. [Emilius Probus, in the life of Conon] [Elian, l.1.] [Vartius Histor. c.21.]
- When Themistocles was thus graciously received by the king, a new danger presented itself. Mandane a daughter of Darius Hystaspes, lost all her children in the naval battle before Salamis. She sought revenge upon Themistocles for this. When she could not prevail with the king, or her friends and great men in the court, she stirred up the common people. When they all rushed into the court, Artaxerxes told them fairly, that he would refer the whole matter to the judgment of his lords. So by appointing a time for a hearing, he saved Themistocles from the people's hands. [Diod. Sic. l.11.]
3532 AM, 4242 JP, 472 BC
- In the second battle, a strong wind in their favour helped the Persians defeat and again subject the Bactrians to Artaxerxes. [Ctesias.]
- Themistocles spent a whole year in learning the Persian language, laws and customs of the country. When he came to trial, he cleared himself of all the charges and endeared himself to the king as no other Greek had done before him. Artaxerxes took him on hunting trips and had him attend his private delights and recreations at home. He was admitted to the presence of Amestris the king's mother and conversed familiarly with her. He bestowed on him also, a Persian wife of noble parentage, excellent for beauty, and goodness of disposition. He had servants to wait on him and cupboards of dishes of all sorts and all other things. These were for his needs and entertainment. [Thucidides, l.1. Diodorus Siculus, l.11. Plutarch in the Life of Themistocles.]
- When Demaratus the Lacedemonian, who returned from Greece with Xerxes, displeased the king greatly when he rode into Sardis in his chariot wearing his turban upright on his head in a way reserved only for kings. Themistocles interceded for him and Artaxerxes wrath was pacified so that they became friends again. [Plutarch in Them. with Seneca l.6. de Benesi c.31.]
- When Themistocles was made governor of the province of Magnesia, he returned into Asia. [Thucid. l.1.]
- On his return, he escaped an ambush planned by Epyxius, a Persian governor of the Upper Phrygia and the Pisidians. He was warned in a dream of it by Dinaymena, the mother of the gods when he was resting at noon. As a memorial, he built her a temple at Magnesia and made his own daughter Muesiptolema to be a consecrated priestess to her. [Plutarch in Themistocles] Some say it was his wife. [Strabo, l.14.]
- So that Themistocles might appear in Asia with the greater honour, the king gave him besides the government of the province of Magnesia, the very city of Magnesia on the Meander River. This city paid the king yearly fifty talents. This paid the food for his table. Lampsacus in Hellespont supplied him with money to buy him wine for his meal. Myus, at the mouth of Meander paid for his second course. Neanthes Cyzioenus and Phanias and Atheneus, [l. 1. c. 27.] listed two more cities in the country of Troas, that is Percotes and Palescepsis to supply him with clothes and carpets. [Thucid. 1. Diod. l.11. Plut. and Emil. Prob. in the life of Themistocles.]
3533 AM, 4243 JP, 471 BC
- Cimon the son of Miltiades, who was general in the battle at Marathon, was now made general by the Athenians against the Persians. He set out from the Pyreum at Athens with 200 fighting ships bound for Caria. Ships from Ionia and other parts joined him to increase the size of the fleet to 300 ships. The coastal towns which were founded by the Greeks revolted from the Persians to him. The rest which were inhabited by the natives of the country and held by the Persian garrisons, he attacked and conquered. When he finished his work in Caria, he sailed into Lycia and did in like manner there. When they submitted to the Athenian government, he demanded ships of them and greatly increased his navy. [Diod. l.11.]
- The Persians conscripted into the army what men they could from the other dominions of the kings. For naval forces, they sent to the Phoenicians, Cyprians and Cilians. The chief commander of all the Persian fleet was Tithraustes, a bastard son of Xerxes. [Diod. l.11] Ephorus says that he was admiral of the fleet and Pherendates commander by land. Callisthenes says that Ariomandes the son of Gobryas commanded the army. [Plut. in Cimone.]
3534 AM, 4244 JP, 470 BC
- After the Athenians had subdued Naxos, [Thucidides, l.1.] they and their confederates under the conduct of their general Cimon, in only one day, defeated the Persians both in a naval battle sea-fight not far from the Isle of Cyprus and also in a battle on land at the mouth of the river Eurymedon in Pamphylia. This was in the 3rd year of the 77th Olympiad. [Diod. Sic. l. 11.] He was of the opinion, [and so was Justin, l.2. in sine,] that Xerxes was yet living contrary to what Thucidides states, who of these lived closest to that time. Therefore Eusebius is right when he says this great victory was in the 4th year of Artaxerxes. He also notes: "Cimon obtained this victory by sea and land against the Persians, near the River Eurymedon and so the war with the Medes ended."
- For from the beginning of Artaxerxes' reign [as we have put it according to Thucidedes' account] his 4th year was the same as the 3rd year of the 77th Olympiad mentioned here by Diodorus. Eusebius puts the first year of his reign with the first year of the 79th Olympiad. Hence he must of necessity have placed his 4th year with the 4th year of the same Olympiad. The best way is to set down this whole matter in the same order as we find it in Diodor and Plutarch, thusly.
- When Cimon had heard that the king's captains had taken up their station with a great army by land and a fleet by sea in the coast of Pamphylia, he stayed at sea so that they might not come within the Chelidonian Islands. He went with 200 ships from Cnidus and Triopium to the Greek city of Phaselites. When they would not allow his navy into their port nor defect from the Persians, he burned their country and assaulted their city. Nevertheless, at the intercession of those of Chios, who were in the fleet, peace was made on the condition that they should pay ten talents and follow Cimon in the war against the Persians. [Plut. in the life of Cimon.]
- When Cimon understood that the Persian fleet sailed about the coast of Cyprus, he presently set sail towards them with 250 ships against 340 of theirs. [Diod. Sic.] Though Ephorus says that the Persians were 350 and Phanodemus 600 strong. Yet these did nothing worthy of so great a navy. They that were next to the land abandoned their ships and fled to land to the army that was arranged in battle array there. The rest were attacked by Cimon, taken and killed. [Plutarch] Thucidides says that they took all 200 of the Phoenician ships and sank them. Emil. Probus [in the life of Cimon] says that he overcame and took all the fleet of the Cyprians and Phoenicians to the number of 200 ships. Diodorus states that the Athenians sank many of their ships and took 100 ships with their crew as prisoners. When the soldiers were fled from the ships into Cyprus, they took those ships without any prisoners. These verses recall this victory which the Athenians made and offered to their god. They are found both in Diodorus and also in Aristides' Platonic Oration. For these when soldiers all were killed at land, An hundred ships of the Phoenicians took, All full of men.
- Plutarch in his little discourse of the Athenian glory, says that Cimon brought from Eurymedon about 100 Phoenician ships of war. Diodorus affirms that he took not only more than 100 but also 340 ships, that is, the whole Persian navy and 20,000 men.
- Cimon was not satisfied with this victory at sea. He attacked the land army of the Persians in Asia which he saw ranged on the shore near the mouth of the river Eurymedon. To better achieve victory, he dressed all his soldiers in the Persian clothes which he had taken. The Persians thought these were their navy and welcomed them. Therefore, Cimon, as soon as it was night, [and it was very dark without the moon shining] landed his men. They attacked the enemies camp and killed all they met. Pherendates, one of the two chief commanders and the king's brother's son was killed as he lay in his pavilion. The enemy was soon put to flight. [Diodorus] Commenting on this stratagem, Polyenus, [l. 1.] mentions but mistakenly says that Cimon landed his men in Cyprus and not in Pamphilia. Likewise does Julius Frontinus, in the end of his 4th book, where Conon is found written instead of Cimon.
- Cimon captured 80 Phoenician ships near Hydus which were not in the battle nor had even heard of it.
3535 AM, 4245 JP, 469 BC
- Cimon sailed from Athens with 4 ships and captured 13Persian ships in the Chersonese of Thracia. He expelled the Persians and Thracians and took possession of the place for the Athenians. In all Asia from Ionia to Pamphylia, the Persian army was driven out. [Plut. in the Life of Cimon.] Pericles assumed the leadership of Athens. He set out with 50 ships and Ephialtes with 30 more. They sailed beyond the Chelidonian Islands in the sea of Pamphylia, never saw a Persian ship all the way, according to Plutarch from Calisthenes. Isocrates, in his Panathenaic, says, that neither a Persian war ship went closer to Greece than the port Phaselis nor any company of them by land crossed over the river Halys. However, Diod. writes that when the Persians saw the increase of the Athenian power, they started building ships faster than ever.
3537 AM, 4247 JP, 467 BC
- Ezra the priest, a scribe or a lawyer skilled in the law of Moses, obtained permission from Artaxerxes the king and his seven counsellors to resettle the Jewish state and to reform the religion at Jerusalem. By this grant, it was again made lawful for all the willing Jews to return. They could send or carry with them any gold or silver that either the king and his nobles or the Jews would offer to their God. There were also thereby given all sorts of furnishings for the Lord's house. The treasurers beyond the river were ordered to supply them with all other needs from the king's treasury. All who worked in the temple would be free from tribute. All the people were allowed to live according to their own laws. (Ezra 7:11-26)
- In the 7th year of Artaxerxes, the first day of the first month, Ezra, with a great number of Jews, left Babylon for Israel. (Ezra 7:6,7,9; Ezra 8:1-14,30)
- On the 12th day of the 1st month, they left from the river Ahava and on the 10th day of the 5th month, in the 7th year of Artaxerxes' reign, they arrived at Jerusalem. They rested there for 3 days. (Ezra 7:8,9; Ezra 8:30,32)
- On the 4th day of the 5th month, the gold and silver which they had brought was weighed and with the other furnishings, were put in the house of the Lord. Those who returned offered their sacrifices to God. When this was done, the king's edicts were given to the governors and rulers beyond the river who showed much favour to the people and the house of the Lord. (Ezra 8:33-36)
3538 AM, 4247 JP, 467 BC
- When Ezra knew that the Israelites had intermarried with the heathen he mourned and fasted. He publicly made intersession to God, to avert his wrath on them. (Ezra 9:1-15) When many of the people sorrowed for this, Shecaniah advised Ezra to direct the people that they would vow to God to put away their heathen wives and the children whom they had by them. This was done. (Ezra 10:1-17)
- Those who returned from captivity, were ordered to appear at Jerusalem within 3 days. Those that did not would be punished. Therefore all the men of Judah and Benjamin gathered in the court of the temple, on the 20th day of the 9th month. They trembled over the seriousness of the matter and because of the inclement weather. Ezra commanded every male to separate himself from his heathen wife. This they agreed to and desired that judges might be appointed to see that the orders were followed. Two priests and two Levites were appointed to help carry this out. (Ezra 10:7-15)
- This examination was held from the 1st day of the 10th month to the 1st of the 1st month. In two months the matter of the heathen wives was settled. (Ezra 10:16,17)
- Themistocles died a natural death at Magnesia. Others say he poisoned himself voluntarily when he saw that he could not subdue Greece as he had promised the king. [Thuc. l.1.] Cicero says in his Laelius, that he killed himself 20 years after the death of Coriolan. According to Dionysius Halicarnassaeus, that would be in the 3rd year of the 78th Olympiad. That year has this note by Eusebius in his Chron. "Themistocles, whom his own worth had made the conqueror, his own country's wrong made him the general of the Persians. However, so that he might keep himself from attacking it, he appointed a sacrifice at which he drank a bowl full of the bull's blood. Hence he fell as a noble sacrifice of piety, dead before the altar. So memorable was his departure from this life that it had this effect that Greece would never need another Themistocles after him."
- Concerning his death, Tully in his Burtus, makes Pompo Atticus to state it this way: "For as you now tell us a tale of Coriolan, so Clitarchus and Stratocles do the same of Themistocles. Thucidides, who was an Athenian of noble rank and an excellent man, lived not long after him. He says only that he died and that he was buried privately in some place in Attica and that there was some suspicion that he poisoned himself. Concerning him these men write that when he had sacrificed a bull, he drank the blood of it in a basin and died in that place:"
- Though indeed before the writing of this History by Thucidides, the Athenians themselves had heard it from Aristophanes, in Equitibus. He wrote this in Athens the 7th year of the Peloponesian war, when Stratocles was ruler of Athens. He states that Themistocles died from the drinking of bull's blood.
3540 AM, 4249 JP, 465 BC
- The 20th Jubilee.
3544 AM, 4254 JP, 460 BC
- Inaros, the son of Psammericus king of Libya [not a Lydian as Ctesias has it] journeyed from Marca a city bordering on Pharus caused much of Egypt to defect from Artaxerxes. He was proclaimed king by them and sent for the Athenians at Cyprus. These were engaged in a war with 200 ships, some of their own and the rest from their allies. [Thusid. l.1.]
- When Artaxerxes heard of the Egyptian revolt, he gathered an army and a navy from all his dominions. He spared no pains nor cost in doing this. [Diodorus Siculus, 2nd year, 79th Olympiad] This (Isaiah 2) years earlier than the more precise account given by Thucidides.
- Artaxerxes planned to head this army into Egypt but his friends persuaded him otherwise. He sent his brother Achemenes to head that expedition with 400,000 soldiers and 80 ships. [Ctesius] Diodorus agrees with him that he sent Achemenes as general in this Egyptian war but he says that he was the son of Darius and Artxerxes was his great uncle and he had only 300,000 troops. He means by this that it was Achemenes the son of Darius Hystaspis and Atossa, to whom Xerxes had given the government of Egypt after Xerxes had conquered it. [Herod. l.7. c.7,97.]
3545 AM, 4255 JP, 459 BC
- When Achemenes [also called Achemenides] came into Egypt, he refreshed his army at the Nile River after the long march and prepared for battle. Those on the other side gathered what forces they could from Egypt and Libya and waited for the Athenians to arrive. [Diod. Sic.]
- The Athenians came from sea and entering the mouth of the Nile. They quickly made themselves masters of the river. [Thucid.] Inaros, together with Charamitis, who was admiral of a fleet of 40 Athenian ships defeated the Persians. Of the 50 Persian ships, they took 20 with all their men and sank the other 30. [Ctesias] But Diodorus Siculus tells us, that the entire Athenian fleet of 200 ships at Cyprus came to Egypt, not 40 ships only, as Ctesias said.
- Inaros with his own Egyptian troops and Athenian reinforcements, fought a battle with the Persians on land. By their sheer numbers, the Persians were winning. When the Athenians came and forced their one wing of troops to retire, many Persians were killed. The rest of the Persian army fled and many were slaughtered. [Diodor.] Of the 400,000 men who Achemenes brought into the battle, he and 100,000 of his troops were killed. He died of a wound which he received from Inaros' own hand and his body was sent to Artaxerxes. [Ctesias] Herodotus mentions [Herod. l.3. c.12. l.7. c.7.] that Achamenes a son of Darius and of other Persians were slain by Inaros a Libyan, son of Psammitichus at Papremes.
- The Athenians routed the Persians and took two thirds of Memphis. They attacked the other part called the White Wall, where the Persians and Medes had fled. [Thucid. and Diod.]
3546 AM, 4256 JP, 458 BC
- When Artaxerxes heard of this great defeat, he sent Megabasus a Persian to Sparta with money to pay the Peloponesians to attack the Athenians. He thought that this would draw the Athenians from Egypt. The Lacedemonians would not take his money nor yield to any of his plans. When the king realised this, he called Megabazus home again with the money that was left. He commanded Megabyzus, the son of Zopyrus to make provisions to go to Egypt. [Thucid. and Diod.] Megabysus was formerly a general in Xerxes' army. [Herod. l.7. c.82.] He married Xerxes' daughter, Amytis. [Ctesias] He was the son of Zopyrus who recovered Babylon for Darius, the son of Hystaspes, according to Herodotus at the very end of his third book.
3547 AM, 4257 JP, 457 BC
- Artabazus and Megabyzus were made commanders for the war in Egypt. They had an army of 300,000 troops. [Diod.] Ctesias says they only had 200,000.
- When they came into Cilicia and Phoenicia, the commanders stayed for a time to allow the army a rest after so long a march. Meanwhile, they ordered the Cilicians, Cyprians and Phoenicians to provide the navy. They of Thrice provided 300 ships, fully manned and equipped for war. [Diod.] Oriscus was the admiral of the fleet. [Ctesias.]
- They spent almost a whole year in training the troops for war. The Athenians continued to besiege the fort of the White Wall in Memphis. The Persians manfully defended it and the Athenians saw no possibility of taking it by a direct attack. However, they besieged it for all this year. [Diod.]
3548 AM, 4258 JP, 456 BC
- When the Persian commanders in Asia had trained their troops, they marched from there through Syria and Phoenicia. Their navy of 300 ships sailed along the coast as they went. When they came to Memphis, [Diod.] their army of 200,000 was joined by 300,000 troops left by Achemenes in Egypt. They fought a fierce battle with the Egyptians and many died on each side. More Egyptians were killed than Persians. Megabyzus wounded Inaros in the thigh who fled into the stronghold, called Byblus, on the Isle of Prosopitis in the river of Nile. He was joined by the surviving Greeks but the Greek general Charamites was killed in this battle. All Egypt except that fort of Byblus defected to Megabysus.[Ctesias.]
- When Megabysus had driven both Egyptians and Greeks from the field of battle and out of Memphis, he besieged them in the little Isle of Prosopitis for 18 months. [Thucid. l.1.]
3550 AM, 4259 JP, 455 BC
- In the 20th year of the reign of Artaxerxes, in the 9th month called Chisleu, Nehemiah was at Susa, the winter quarters of the Persian kings. [Athenaus, Despnosoph. 12.] When he received news how the wall of Jerusalem was still broken down and the gates burnt with fire, he mourned, fasted and prayed to God. He asked that God would forgive the people's sins and give him grace in the eyes of the king. (Nehemiah 1:1-11)
- In the same 20th year of the king, in the month Nisan, Nehemiah's turn came to serve as cupbearer to the king. Both the king and queen, [whom I suppose to be her whom Ctesias calls Damaspia] noticed his sorrowful appearance. He presented his request to them and obtained permission from the king to be the governor of Judah and to rebuild Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 2:1-6) This event marks the start of Daniel's 70 weeks. (Daniel 9:24,25) [For starting date of Artaxeres reign, see note on 3531 AM <<1190>>. Editor.]
- Nehemiah with a commission and supplies from the king came to Jerusalem in spite of the opposition from the governors Sanballat the Horonite of Moab and of Tobiah the Ammonite. He began the work and replied to them who laughed at him for undertaking so foolish an undertaking. (Nehemiah 2:7-20)
- The Persian commanders in Egypt made the river dry which flowed around the Isle of Prosopitis by diverting the water into another course. This left the Athenian ships aground and joined the Isle of Prosopitis to the mainland. As soon as the Egyptians saw the Athenian ships aground, they surrendered and made peace with the Persians. When the Athenians were deserted by the Egyptians, they burned their ships so they would not fall into the hands of the enemy. The Persians crossed the dry channel and took the island. When they saw the valour of the Athenians and remembering the losses they had received by them previously, they allowed the 6000 of them to return home with their possessions. [Thucid. Diod. Ctesias.]
- The fortunes of the Athenians in Egypt, where they had spent 6 years in war came to naught. Egypt returned under the control of Artaxerxes except for Amyrtaeus, who was king of those who lived in the low countries of Egypt. They could not take him because of the vastness of the low country and its inhabitants were most warlike. [Thucid. l.1.]
- Eliashib, the son of Joiakim, the son of Jehu [or Jehoshua] the high priest and the rest of the Jews, started to build the wall of Jerusalem, (Nehemiah 3:1-32) on the 4th day of the 5th month Ab. (Nehemiah 6:15)
- Sanballat and Tobiah with the Samaritans and other enemies of the Jews, first laughed at this new work. When they saw the wall half up, they stopped mocking and consulted how to destroy the builders. When Nehemiah knew this, he first prayed to God and then ordered his men to be ready for a battle. Thus he thwarted the plans of their enemies.(Nehemiah 4:1-23)
- When Nehemiah heard the outcries of the people, he ordered them to be freed, the slaves from their bondage and the debtor from their debt. Those who had mortgaged their lands or goods were to be freed from their debt. He set a good example by releasing his debts and all engagements of lands or goods made to him and freed the poor of public taxes. He gave liberally to those in need. (Nehemiah 5:1-19)
- Nehemiah was not only in danger from Sanballat and other enemies abroad but also from false prophets and false brethren at home. They tried to hinder the work as much as the others did. In spite of these difficulties, the wall was finished in 52 days, on the 25th day of the 6th month called Elul. (Nehemiah 6:1-19)
- The dedication of the wall was performed with much celebration and great joy. (Nehemiah 12:27-43)
- Nehemiah took care of the various offices belonging to the house of the Lord. He appointed governors over the city and ordered its guards. He called the congregation together and numbered those who had returned from the captivity. He selected a number of people to live in the city with the rest of its inhabitants. Everyone according to his ability, made their various offerings to God, (Nehemiah 7:1-73)
- When 50 Greek ships were sent to Egypt to relieve those who were there for so long, they knew nothing of what had happened to their country men. They anchored at Mendesium which is a mouth of Nile. They were attacked by the Persians from the land and the Phoenicians by sea. Most of them were killed. A few escaped to carry news to Greece. Of that great army which was there before, only a few returned into Greece again. Most were lost as they passed through the deserts of Libya to get to Cyrene. This was the sad end which came to that great expedition of the Athenians in Egypt. [Thucid. l.1.]
3551 AM, 4260 JP, 454 BC
- In the feast of trumpets, in the 1st day of the 7th month, all the Jews came together at Jerusalem. The law of God was read by Ezra and expounded to them. When they heard it, they were all greatly grieved and wept. They were encouraged by Nehemiah, Ezra and the Levites to keep that feast with joy. (Nehemiah 8:1-12)
- On the 2nd day of the same month, the elders of the families, the priests and Levites consulted with Ezra concerning questions arising from the reading of the law. They were encouraged to keep the feast of tabernacles (Nehemiah 8:13-15) outside in the fields in booths made of boughs as stated in the law. (Leviticus 23:40)
- On the 15th to the 21st day, the feast of Tabernacles was celebrated with great care and devotion. For 7 days together, the law of God was read and the 8th day also was kept very solemnly according to the law. (Leviticus 23:36) "Neither was there the like feast of Tabernacles kept from the days of Joshua, the son of Nun, to that time and there was great joy made." (Nehemiah 8:17,18)
- Of this the Jews in their Greater Chronicle, [c. 30] speak in this manner: "It may be said that he compares this the return of the children of Israel into the land in the days of Joshua. For as in the days of Joshua they were bound to tithes, to the year of Shemite, or Remission and to Jubilees and to the hallowing of their walled towns. So now in their return in the time of Ezra, they were in like manner obliged to keep the law of tithes of the years of Shemite or Releasings, of Jubilees and to the hallowing of their walled cities. They rejoiced greatly before the Lord."
- On the 24th of this month, the Israelites who returned, separated themselves from all strangers, made public profession of their repentance. (Nehemiah 9:1-38) They renewed their covenant with God and bound themselves to observe the law of God, his worship, (Nehemiah 10:1-39) and the law, (Leviticus 25:4; Deuteronomy 15:1) of the sabbath and the sabbatical year. (Nehemiah 10:31)
- The chief heads of the people feasted at Jerusalem. The rest cast lots, according to which every tenth man would live in Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 11:1-36; 1 Chronicles 9:1-44)
- Megabyzus left Sartamah as governor of Egypt and returned to Artaxerxes with Inaros and some other Greeks. He gave them his word that they would not be harmed. Artaxerxes carefully observed this though he was incensed against Inaros for having slain his brother Achemenes. When his mother Amestris [called Amytis by Ctesias] desired vengeance on Inaros, the Greeks and Megabyzus, the king refused her request. [Ctesias]
3554 AM, 4264 JP, 450 BC
- The Athenians sent Cimon their general with a fleet of 200 ships of their own and their confederates into Cyprus. 60 went to Egypt to Amyrtaeus who was still in Egypt. The rest besieged Citium, a city in Cyprus. [Thucid. l.1.] At this time Artabazus and Megabyzus commanded the Persian forces. Artabazus had his fleet of 300 ships around Cyprus. Megabyzus with the army of 300,000 troops stayed in Cilicia. [Diod. Sic. l.12. in the 3rd year of 82nd Olympiad]
- Cimon sent messengers to the oracle at the temple of Ammon to ask about some secret matter. [Plutarch in the Life of Cimon]
3555 AM, 4265 JP, 449 BC
- In the siege of Citium in Cyprus, [as Thucidides says] Cimon died either of a natural disease, [as Emil. Probus has it] or, as others say, of a wound which he received in battle. When he was about to die, he advised those that were about him to conceal his death and to return home as fast as they could. It happened that this secret was well kept and all the Greek army returned home safely under the conduct [as Phanedemus speaks] of Cimon who had been dead a whole month. Those who were sent to consult the oracle, received the answer that Cimon was already with him. When they returned to Egypt and they understood that Cimon died at that very time when the oracle answered them. [Plutarch in the Life of Cimon.]
- When the Greek army returned from Egypt, they who besieged Citium in Cyprus, were short of supplies. They lifted their siege and sailed to Salamis in the same island. Here they fought with the Phoenicians, Cyprians and Cilicians, by sea and land. In the naval battle, they sunk many enemy ships and captured a 100 with all the soldiers and sailors still in them. The rest they pursued as far as Phoenicia. The Persians with the remaining ships, fled into Cilicia where Megabyzus was with the army. The Athenians sailed there as fast as possible and landed their men on the open shore and attacked the enemy. In this fight, Anaxicrates who commanded the fleet, behaved himself most courageously and died a most noble and heroic death. They defeated the Persians and slew many of the enemy. They returned to their ships and sailed home with those returning from Egypt. [Diod. Sic. in the 3rd and 4th year of the 82nd Olympiad,] as he stands corrected from Thucidides. Elian writes that the Athenians lost in Egypt 200 ships and in Cyprus 150 with all their equipment. [Elian. Variar. Histor. l.5. c.10.]
- When Artaxerxes heard of the loss of his men in Cyprus, he sought advice from his council concerning this war. It was resolved that it was for the good of the kingdom that peace should be made with the Greeks. Therefore the king wrote letters to the captains and commanders in Cyprus that they make peace with the Greeks on any terms. Hereupon Artabazus and Megabyzus sent messengers to Athens to seek peace. When the Athenians had consented to their conditions, they sent commissioners to represent them having full power and authority. The leader of the group was Callias, the son of Hipponicus. [Diod. in the 4th year of the 82nd Olympiad.] At this time, the men of Argos sent their messengers to Susa to know if Artaxerxes would honour the league they had made with his father Xerxes, or if he considered them enemies. Artaxerxes answered that the league continued and that he considered no city more friendly to him than Argos. [Herodotus, l.7. c.152.]
- The peace between the Athenians and their confederates on the one side and the Persians on the other was concluded with these conditions: "That no Persian governor would at any time come within three days journey of the sea and that there would be no warship from either side be found between Phaselis and the Cyantan Isles:"
- Or as Plutarch expresses it, "That the king would not have any warships in all the sea between the Cyancan and the Cheldonian Islands."
- When the king and his council of war had subscribed to these articles, then the Athenians took an oath that they would not invade any of the king's provinces. [Diod. in the 4th year of the 82nd Olympiad]
- Plutarch [in the life of Cimon] says that they built an altar in memory of this peace and that they gave many honours on Callias who had been the architect of it.
3556 AM, 4266 JP, 448 BC
- Artaxerxes wearied for 5 years with his mother's nagging, gave Inaros the Egyptian king and the Greeks that came with him into her hand. The queen had the body of Inaros to be so racked and stretched out and wrenched several ways. He hung on three different crosses at one time. She had the 50 Greeks [for she could catch no more] decapitated. [Ctesius] Thucidides says that Inaros king of Libya was taken by treachery and crucified. Herodotus tells us, that his son Thammyras by the favour of the Persians, held the government of Egypt which his father had held before him. [Herod. l.3. c.5.]
- Megabyzus was greatly grieved by the death of Inaros and those Greeks. He asked permission to go to his own government in Syria. He had secretly sent the rest of the Greeks there. He following them there and as soon as he came to Syria he revolted from the king and gathered an army of 150,000 men. [Ctesias]
3557 AM, 4267 JP, 447 BC
- Osiris was sent against Megabyzus with an army of 200,000 men. In the battle, Osiris wounded Megabyzus with a dart in the thigh two inches deep. Likewise, he wounded Osiris with a dart first in the thigh and then in the shoulder. As Osiris fell from his horse, Megabyzus caught him about by the middle and saved him. Many of the Persians fell and the two sons of Megabyzus, Zopyrus and Artipsyus fought valiantly that day. Megabyzus won and carefully returned Osiris to Artaxerxes who demanded his return. [Ctesias.]
3558 AM, 4268 JP, 446 BC
- Another army was sent against Megabyzus. The general was Menostanes, or Menostates, son to Artarius, governor of Babylon and brother to king Artaxerxes. In the battle, Megabyzus wounded Menostanes in the shoulder and in the head. Neither of those wounds were mortal, but when it happened, he and all his army fled and Megabyzus had a most glorious victory. [Ctesias]
- Artarius, Artoxares the eunuch, a Paphlagonian and Amestris, the queen mother, persuaded Megabyzus to come to terms with the king. After much effort, Artarius, Amytis' wife and Artoxares, who was now 20 years of age and Petisas, the son of Osiris, prevailed with him to come to the king. When he came, the king sent him word that he freely pardoned him all his past offences. A little later when the king was hunting, a lion set upon him. When Megabyzus saw the lion raised upon his hind feet, slew him with his spear. The king was angry with him because he had done it before the king could. He commanded that Megabyzus be decapitated. The intercession of Amestris, Amyris and others, spared his life and he was sent away and confined to the island of Cirta in the Read Sea [sic]. Artoxares the eunuch for having spoken too freely with the king on the behalf of Megabyzus, was banished into Armenia. [Ctesias.]
3559 AM, 4269 JP, 445 BC
- When Herodotus read his books at Athens before the council there, he was much honoured for them, according to Euseb. in his Chron. There Scaliger notes that Herodotus wrote his books before his going into Great Greece [Southern Italy] not in Great Greece itself as some think following Pliny on this. We shall see more in the next year. But I observe that in these books mention is made often of the Peloponesian war, both in [the 7th book c.137. and in the 9th book c.72.] In the former reference, a thing is related that was done in the 2nd year of that war. In the later, a thing that happened in the 19th year of it at Decelaea. This (Isaiah 22) years after the time consigned by Euseb. to the reading of his book at Athens. See more on this in the year 3596,3597.
3560 AM, 4270 JP, 444 BC
- In the first year of the 84th Olympiad, when Praxiteles was the governor of Athens, 12 years before the Peloponesian war began, the Athenians sent a colony into Great Greece [Southern Italy] to rebuild the decayed city of Thurii. Lysias, a youth of 15 years of age was one of the leaders in this group [Plutarch and Dionysus Halicarnassaeus in the life of Lysians the Orator] along with Herodotus who was 41 years old. Although he was born at Halicarnassus in Caria, he obtained the surname of Thurius after this because of his part in reestablishing Thurii. [Strabo, l.14] The 84th Olympiad happened on the 310th year from the founding of Rome, according to Varro's account. In this year Pliny says that Herodotus compiled his History in Thurii in Italy, [Pliny l.12. c.4.] as mentioned in the previous year.
3562 AM, 4272 JP, 442 BC
- In this year all wars ceased throughout Asia, Greece, Sicily, Italy, Gaul, Spain and almost the entire world. [Diod. Sic. 3rd year of the 84th Olympiad.]
- After Nehemiah had governed Judah for 12 years, that is from the 20th year of the reign of Artaxerxes to the 32nd of the same, he returned to the king. [(Nehemiah 5:14),; (Nehemiah 13:6)]
- In his absence Eliashib the priest, who was over the chamber of the house of God and had made an alliance with Tobiah, prepared a room for him in the court of the temple. In this place the gifts and tithes were formerly kept. The son of Joiada, the son of Eliashib the high priest, [who was a different man from Eliashib of whom I just mentioned] became son-in-law to Sanballat the Horonite after he married his daughter. When Nehemiah returned to Jerusalem with a new commission, he quickly redressed and severely punished these and other wrong doings. [(Nehemiah 13:1-31)]
3563 AM, 4273 JP, 441 BC
- After Megabyzus had lived 5 years in exile, he fled from the Island where he was confined and feigning himself to be a "pisagas", [i.e. leper in the Persian language and one to whom no man might approach] he came home to his wife Amytis. By her and Amestris, the king's mother, he was at last reconciled to the king. He sat at the king's table as before and died at age 76. The king grieved very much for him. [Ctesias.]
3564 AM, 4274 JP, 440 BC
- In this year, the Samians and Milesians went to war over the ownership of the city of Priene. This was the beginning of the 6th year, [according to Thucidides] of the 30 years of peace and the league between the Athenians and Lacedemonians. It was in the middle of the 4th year of the 84th Olympiad according to Diodorus. Priene was a city in Caria, which the Samians and Milesians each claimed. The Milesians were too weak to defeat the Samians. They drew to their side some Samians who were unhappy with things in their country. They went to Athens and complained of the behaviour of the citizens of Samos. The Athenians sent for them to lay down their arms and negotiate the matter at Athens. When the Samians refused to do this, Pericles prevailed to have war declared against them. He did this as a favour to his prostitute Aspasia, that famous courtesan whom he doted on not so much for her beauty as for her wit. She was the daughter of Axiochus of Milesia. The Athenians sent a fleet of 40 ships under the command of Pericles and easily took the city of Samos. He changed the government from an aristocracy to a democratic one.
- After Pericles returned from Samos, there arose in Samos a terrible sedition. Some wanted a democratic government and others wanted the old aristocracy. Those who disliked the democratic form, conspired with the chief men of the city and sent to Asia to Pissuthnes, the son of Hystalpes the governor of Sardis. When they had made a league with him, he gave them a band of 700 soldiers. They returned in the still of the night to the Samos and were joined by others of their consorts. They surprised and captured the town. They declared themselves enemies to the Athenians and took the whole garrison of them with the captain and officers. They sent them to Pissuthnes as a gift. They immediately marched against Miletus. The inhabitants of Byzantium were also allies with them against the Athenians.
- When the Athenians heard of the revolt of Samos, they sent 60 ships. 16 went towards Caria to attack the Phoenician fleet in those parts and into Chios and Lesbos to take on allies from there. The other 44 vessels continued with Pericles as the admiral and his 9 colleagues. The Samians recalled their 20 ships which they had sent full of soldiers to assault Miletus. They were joined by 50 more ships. They fought with the 44 ships of the Athenians near an island called Tragia and were defeated. From there the Athenians with 40 more ships from home and 25 more from Chios and Lesbos, went and landed with their forces on the Isle of Samos. They captured the island and made a triple ditch about the city by land. They besieged the city with their ships.
- A few days later Pericles learned by letters from Caria and Caunus, that the Phoenician fleet was coming towards him to relieve Samos. He left part of his army to maintain the siege and took 60 ships from the navy. He went as fast as he could to meet the Phoenician navy. Stesagoras went with him with 5 ships from Samos.
- The Samians took advantage of the absence of Pericles. Under the command of Melislus, the son of Ithogenes an outstanding philosopher, they attacked the Athenian camp which was neither fenced nor manned as it ought to have been. When they sunk the ships which kept the island and defeated and routed the army, they freely traded and brought in supplies for 14 days.
- When Pericles heard what had happened to his men at Samos, he hurried back as fast as he could with a larger fleet. Thucidides, Agnon and Phormio joined him with 40 ships. Tlepolemus and Anticles brought 20 more ships from Athens. Chios and Mitylene sent him 30 ships. With these great forces, he attacked and defeated Melislus. He besieged the town by land and sea as before and harassed them with frequent assaults on every side. Some say that those engines of battery, as Rams and Vines and Galleries were first invented here by one Artemon of Clazomena. Ephorus the historian confuses him with Artemon Periphresus of whom Anacreon the poet in his poetry mentions. [recited by Athenaeus l.12.] [Thucid. l.1.] [Diod. Sic. in the 4th year of 84th Olympiad] [Plutarch in the life of Pericles,]
- After a 9 month siege, the Samians surrendered. The town was immediately destroyed and they gave hostages for their fidelity in time to come. They gave up all their ships. They paid for the expense of the war and made an instalment payment then. Those of Byzantium submitted to the Athenian government as before. [Thucid. l.1.]
3566 AM, 4276 JP, 438 BC
- Spartacus succeeded Archaeanactides in the kingdom of Bosphorus Cimmerius. [Diod. the 3rd year of the 85th Olympiad.]
3571 AM, 4281 JP, 433 BC
- Spartacus died after reigning 17 years. [Diod. Sic. in the 4th year of the 86th Olympiad] In the 3rd year of the 85th Olympiad, he states that he reigned 17 years. The interval between these two Olympic years assigned by him the one to the beginning, the other to the end of his reign only make up 5 or at most both parts being included only 6 years of his reign. After him came Seleucus.
3572 AM, 4282 JP, 432 BC
- At Athens in the year when Apseudes was over the government and in the last year almost ended in the 86th Olympiad, Metone observed the summer solstice to be upon the 21st day of the Egyptian month, Phamenoth [or the 27th day of June, according to the Julian calendar] in the morning. [Ptolemy, in his Mag. Syntax l.3. c.2.] From this he formulated the Cyclus Punaris, or the circle of the moon which we call the Golden Number of 19 years. [Diod. Sic. the 4th year of the 85th Olympiad] He deduced the beginning of this cycle from the next new moon following that solstice on the 15th day of July, according to the Julian calendar.
3573 AM, 4283 JP, 431 BC
- Arcesilaus was killed by his subjects the Cyrenians. He was the 8th king in that state and the man who in the 3rd year of the 73rd Olympiad, won the 31Pythian race with his chariot. He was made famous for that by Pindarus, in his 4th and 5th Ode. When his son would have succeeded, he was disallowed by the Cyrenians. Thereupon he sailed into the Hesperides or western islands and there died. So that kingdom of Cyrenia which had stood for 200 years came to an end. It had four kings of the name of Battus and four of the name of Archelaus. These interchangeably succeeded each other in the kingdom according to the oracle at Delphi as reported by Herod. [Herod. l.4. c.163.] [Scholiast. Pind. in Od. 4. Pythion.]
- Toward the end of the 1st year of the 87th Olympiad, when there were only two months remaining in the rule of Pythodorus of Athens in the beginning of the spring, the Peloponesian war started between the Lacedemonians and the Athenians. The nations living along the coast of Asia, sided with the Athenians, All the Carians, the Dores, the Ionians, those of Hellespont, and all the adjoining islanders supported Athens except for the two islands of Melos and Thera. Both sides sent their embassies to Artaxerxes asking for help. [Thucid. l.2.]
- At the beginning of this war lived 3 famous historians, Hellanicus of the age of 65, Herodotus at 53 and Thucidides at 40. [A. Gellius, in his 15th book. c.23. states this from Pamphylia, l.11.] Thucidides wrote the entire history of this war to its 21st year. He carefully wrote what happened by the winters and summers. He began every summer from the first of the spring and every winter from the first of autumn.
- In the first summer of this war, there was a total eclipse of the sun that was so dark, the stars appeared in the sky. [Thucid. l.2.] This caused great fear among all men as a sad and great omen in the world. When Pericles saw the captain of the ship he was on, troubled by the eclipse, he put his cloak over his eyes. He asked him whether he was afraid at that or whether he thought it portended any great event or not. When he said no, then Pericles replied what was the difference between this covering of the sun and that except that the eclipsed area was much larger than my cloak? [Plutarch in the life of Pericles] He discussed with him the causes of the eclipses of the sun and moon and their motions by which they moved, according as he had learned from his teacher Anaxagoras. He persuaded his fellow citizens not to trouble themselves with a vain and needless fear. [Valer. Max. l.8. c.11.] This eclipse happened on August 3rd at 5 o'clock in the afternoon at Athens. About 80% or 10 digits of the sun was covered.
3574 AM, 4284 JP, 430 BC
- A dreadful plague started first in Ethiopia and spread from there into Libya and Egypt and especially into the regions of the Persian dominion. It raged unchecked in the city of Athens in the 2nd year of this war. [Thucid. l.2.] From a historical perspective, he documents the nature of this plague. He was sick with it and often in company with those who were sick. Hippocrates as a physician who lived in Athens and was used in the curing of various persons afflicted with the plague. He describes the plague from a medical view point. [l. 3. Epidem. Sect. 3.] Lucretius, who lived many years after, describes this in his poetry.
- A sedition happened in a town of the Colophonians, called Notium. When Itamenes and his Median soldiers were called in by one of the sides, they came and possessed the strongest part of the town. [Thucid. l.3.]
- In the later end of this summer, Aristeas, the son of Adimantus a Corinthian and the ambassadors of the Lacedemonians, Aneristus and Nicolaus, and Patrodemus and Timagoras of Tegrea and Polis of Argos, journeyed into Asia toward Artaxerxes to ask of him aid of men and money for the war. They went by Thrace and came to its king, Sitalces, the son of Tereas. They planned to pass over the Hellespont and to go to Pharnaces, the son of Pharnatacus, hoping to have him convoy them to safely to Artaxerxes. They were betrayed by Saducus, the son of Sitalces the king and Nymphodorus of Abdera, the son of Pytheus. They were all taken to Athens. The Athenians without any hearing killed them the same day they arrived and threw their bodies into a ditch. [Thucid. l.2. with Herod. l.7, c.137.]
3575 AM, 4284 JP, 430 BC
- The following winter the Athenians sent 6 ships to Caria under the command of Melesandrus. They intended to gather money from those parts and to rid the seas of pirates. These were from Peloponesus and preyed on poor merchants ships with their cargo which they traded along the coast of Phaselis, Phenice and other ports of the continent. Melesandrus with his Athenians and other confederates did not stay at sea. They went ashore in Licia and were defeated by the enemy. He and most of his army were killed. [Thucid. l.2.]
- Seleucus, the king of Bosphorus Cimmerius, died after ruling for 4 years. [Diod. 4th of the 86th Olympiad.] After him Spartacus the 2nd reigned for 22 years.
3576 AM, 4286 JP, 428 BC
- Pericles died in the 4th year of 87th Olympiad, [Diod. l.12.] 2 years and 6 months after the beginning of the Peloponesian war which he was the main cause of. [Thucid. l.2.] He was senior statesman had continued as a prince of the Athenian state for 40 years. [Cic. l.3. de oratore and Plutarch in the life of Pericles.]
- In the year Anaxagoras of Clazomenae died. He was Pericles' teacher and was born in the 70th Olympiad and died in the 1st year of the 88th Olympiad, according to Laetius in his life from Apollodorus' Chron. However, there it is incorrectly stated as Olympiad 78. He adds that the men of Lampsacus bestowed on him an honourable burial with this epitaph, as recorded also by Elian, [l. 8. Var. Histor. c.ult.] on his tomb. Great Anaxagoras lies here in mould, Who did all secrets of the heavens unfold.
3577 AM, 4287 JP, 427 BC
- In the winter season of the 4th year of the Peloponesian war, the Athenians sent 12 ships commanded by Lysicles with four commissioners to collect their tribute from their confederate cities. Lysicles went from place to place to gather money. When he was leaving Myus through Caria, the Carians and Anaeitae ambushed and killed him and most of his army. [Thucid. l.3.]
- When Alcides, the commander of the Lacedemonian fleet, came to the cape of Myonesus in the country of the Teii, he killed most of the Greeks whom he had taken prisoners from Asia. When he came to Ephesus, some messengers from the Samians who were of the Anaeitae, rebuked him. They said he was wrong to deliver the Greek nation from servitude if he purposed to destroy people who never bare arms against him nor were his enemies. Their only crime was being forced to pay tribute to the Athenians. He then spared the rest and let them go.
- A new broil arose between the old citizens which dwelt in the lower town of Notium and those which had recently fled there. When these saw the power of the Arcadians and other barbarians as Pissuthnes which the governor of Lydia had sent. They made a wall around the upper town for a fortification against the lower town. They made a league with the Colophonians who lived in the upper town and sided with the Medes making one accord with them. The other side sent for Pachetes, a captain of the Athenians to come and help them. When he came, he defeated Hippias. Pissuthnes the captain of the Arcadians in the fort was asked to leave the fort for a talk. They promised him that if they could not agree, he could return safely to the fort again. When he came, Pachetes took and committed him to safe custody without manacles or fetters. He attacked and captured the fort. Everyone in the fort was killed, both Arcadians and Barbarians. Lastly, to keep his word with Hippias he let him return safely to the fort. As soon as he came to the fort, they laid hold on him again and shot him to death with arrows. So Pachetes restored Botium to the Colophonians, except to those who had sided with the Medes. Afterward the Athenians sent a colony there and governed the place according to their own laws. They gathered as many of the Colophonians from all parts as they could find to live there. [Thucid. l.3. Polya. Stratag. l.3.]
3579 AM, 4289 JP, 425 BC
- Artaxerxes sent Artaphernes, a Persian ambassador, with a letter written in the Assyrian language to Lacedemon. Among other things he said that he did not know what they wanted from him for they had sent so many ambassadors to him. None of them agreed with each other. Therefore if they would have him understand what they wanted, they should send some men of their own to him. [Thucid. l.4.]
- In the interim, Artaxerxes died and his son Xerxes succeeded him for only one year. [Diod. Sic. the 4th year of the 88th Olympiad] His mother Damaspia died the same day that her husband Artaxerxes [as the sequel shows] did. Bagorazus the eunuch carried the bodies of both the father and mother into Persia. [Ctesias.]
3580 AM, 4289 JP, 425 BC
- In the winter of the 7th year of the Peloponesian war, Aristides, the son of Archippus, one of the captains who were sent from Athens to gather the tribute of their confederates captured Artaphernes the Persian ambassador as he was going to Lacedemon. This was at a place called Etone on the river Strimon. He brought him as a prisoner to Athens whom the Athenians presently sent back to Ephesus accompanied with an ambassador. When they came there and heard that Artaxerxes had recently died, they returned home again. [Thucid. l.4.]
- In the beginning of the next summer [the beginning of spring], Thucidedes says there was a partial eclipse of the sun, beginning on the first day of spring, on the 21st day of March, according to the Julian Calendar. This was toward the end of the 4th year of the 88th Olympiad, in the morning. The sun was more than half eclipsed, according to the Prutenian account.
- The exiles from Mitylene after their city was taken by the Athenians joined with the exiles from Lesbos. They hired some others from Peloponesus and went and took Rhaetium. After they received money from them, they spared the city. From there they went to Antandrus and it was betrayed into their hands. Their initial purpose was to liberate Mitylenian cities in Actea now controlled by Athens and in particular, Antandrus. They fortified it. Using timber from the hill Ida, they planned to build ships. They hoped to take over the city of Lesbos and other cities in Eolia. [Thucid. l.4.]
- At the same time, Aristides and Demodocus also called Symmachus, the captains of the Athenian Navy were in the Hellespont gathering their tribute. Lamachus, their third captain, was gone with 10 ships into Pontus. When they heard that the Mitylenians purposed to fortify Antandrus, they gathered an army of their confederates and set sail for Mitylene. When the enemy sallied out from there, they defeated them in the field and captured the town. When Lamachus who was gone into Pontus, came to the mouth of the river Caleces, [Diodorus calls it Cachetes] in Heracleotis, he left his ships at anchor and spoiled all the country about Heraclea. These cities favoured Persia and had refused to pay tribute to Athens. After a heavy rain, the swollen river current drove their ships on the rocky shore. He lost his whole fleet and a large part of his army besides. He could not return home by sea and dared not return by land with so small a company through so many fierce and warlike nations. The Heraclea, used this occasion to befriend these nations rather than to be revenged of them. They used the tribute for Athens to influence friends and buy provisions for their return trip home. Lamachus, with the company which he had left went overland through the country of the Thracians, who dwelt on the Asian side and came safely to Chalcedon. [Thucid. l.4. Diodor. l.12. Justin l.16. c.3.]
- When Xerxes was roaring drunk on a festival day, he was killed in his chamber when he was sleeping. His brother Secundianus, born of Aloguna, a Babylonish woman and Pharnacyas an eunuch, murdered him. [Ctesias.]
- Secundianus had for a long time borne a grudge to Bagoras the eunuch. He picked a quarrel with him for burying his father's body without his advise and ordered that he be stoned to death. His army took offence at this even though he gave them much money. From that time on the army hated him for murdering his brother. [Ctesias.]
3581 AM, 4290 JP, 424 BC
- Secundianus sent for his brother Ochus whom his father Artaxerxes had made governor of Hyrcania. He refused to come. He sent word he would come but he did not. This he did often. Finally he gathered a mighty army and intended to take over the kingdom. Arbarius who was general of the cavalry to Secundianus, defected to Ochus. Arxanes, the governor of Egypt, also defected. Artoxares came in person from Armenia and asked if he planned to make himself king. [Ctesias.]
- Ochus was made king and called himself after that time Darius. By the advice of both Parysatis, his wife and his sister, he first tried to win over his brother Secundianus. Menosthanes, who was the greatest man with him among all his eunuchs, urged Secundianus not to believe his words nor have any treaty with faithless men. However, Secundianus came to a treaty and was captured there and died when thrown into a heap of ashes. [Ctesias] Concerning this type of punishment, see note on 3485b AM and /APC (2 Maccabees 13:5,6).
- When Secundianus, or Sogdianus, was dead, then Ochus reigned alone and was known by the name of Darius Nothus. This happened toward the end of the first year of the 89th Olympiad. [Thucid. l.8.] [Diod. Sic. 3rd year 89th Olympiad]
3582 AM, 4292 JP, 422 BC
- When the men of Delos were driven out of their country by the Athenians, Pharnaces gave them Adramyttium in Asia to live in. [Thucid. l.5. Diod. Sic. 3rd year 89th Olympiad.]
3583 AM, 4293 JP, 421 BC
- The Athenians, by command of the oracle at Delphi, restored those of Delos to their island again. [Thucid. l.5.]
3588 AM, 4298 JP, 416 BC
- Those of Byzantium and Chalcedon were joined by the Thracians and passed with a great army into Bithynia. When they had wasted the country and forced many of the smaller towns, they used unmeasurable cruelties toward them. When they had gathered an huge multitude of men, women and children, they butchered everyone of them. [Diod. 1st year of 91st. Olympiad.]
3589 AM, 4298 JP, 416 BC
- Jubilee 21 was the last one seen by the prophets of the Old Testament. For in (Nehemiah 12:22) is not to be understood of Darius but of this Darius Nothus in whose time (Nehemiah 12:22) signifies, that Johananes, called also Johannes and Jonathan, obtained the high priesthood after his father Joiada, [whom Josephus calls Judas]. Jadduas' son, who succeeded his father in the priesthood, was born then also. These things Nehemiah mentions only in passing. His book ends with the time of Artaxerxes Longimanus, the father of this Darius, of whom Josephus [l. 1. cont. Aplons] says: "From the death of Moses to Artaxerxes, king of Persia who succeeded Xerxes, the prophets wrote 13 books. From Artaxerxes to our time, all things indeed have been likewise committed to writing but not held in the same esteem as the former because the succession of the prophets one after another has been uncertain."
- Euseb. in Chron. in the 32nd year of Artaxerxes, with whom the continued history of Nehemiah ended, states: "Hitherto, the divine Scriptures of the Hebrews contain the annals of the times. Those things which were done among them after this time, we must derive from the books of the Maccabees and from the writings of Josephus and Africanus. He wrote a general history of things done among them down to the Roman times."
- Malachi, the last of the prophets, was contemporary with Nehemiah. This we gather from the following. He nowhere exhorts the people to build the temple as Haggai and Zechariah did. Since the Temple was now built, he reproved those disorders among the Jews which Nehemiah at his second return with a new commission did also. These are, the marriage with foreign women, (Malachi 2:11) withholding of tithes, (Malachi 3:8) and abuses in the worship of God. (Malachi 1:13; Malachi 2:8) Now they were no longer to expect a continual succession of prophets as before. Therefore Malachi in the last words of his prophecy exhorts them that they should hold fast to the law of Moses until Christ that great prophet of the church should appear whose with his forerunner John the Baptist. "in the spirit and power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to their children and the rebels to the wisdom of the just,(Malachi 4:5; Luke 1:17; Matthew 11:14; Matthew 17:12) to which has reference to Jerome [l. (13). of his comment upon Isaiah chapter 49.] After Haggai and Zechariah and Malachi, I see no other prophet till John the Baptist. See /APC (1 Maccabees 4:46; 1 Maccabees 9:27) and [August. de Cicit. Dei l.17. c. 24.]
- We read in the book of Pirke Abbeth, that the men of the Great Synagogue succeeded the prophets. However, the Jews in later times count even Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, among them and make Ezra the president of this Great Synagogue.
3590 AM, 4300 JP, 414 BC
- Pissuthnes the governor of Lydia, revolted from Darius. Therefore Tissaphernes, Spitladares and Pharmises were sent against him. Pissuthnes went to meet them. He had with him Lycon an Athenian with the Greeks under his command. The king's commanders bribed Lycon and his Greeks to abandon Pissuthnes. Then they drew in Pissuthnes with the promise of safely an brought him to the king, which they did. The king ordered, "Away with him to the ash heap" and gave his government to Tislaphernes. Lycon had cities and countries given to him for a reward for his treachery. [Ctesias.]
- Eusebius in his Chron. notes that Egypt rebelled from the Persians and that Amyrtaius Saites reigned there for 6 years. This seems to be the same Amirtaeus who Herodotus writes of, [Herod. l.1. c.140. l.3. c.15.] where he shows that he did the Persians much damage.
3591 AM, 4301 JP, 413 BC
- In the 19th summer of the Peloponesian war, when Nicias would have withdrawn his army at night from before the walls of Syracuse in Sicily, there appeared an eclipse of the Moon about ten o'clock at night in the month Metagiton. This was on the 27th of August, according to the Julian Calender. At the sight of this, he was so terrified that he did not withdraw at that time. By delaying he and his whole army perished. [Thucid. l.7. Polyb. l.9. Diod. Sic. year 4. of 91. Olympiad, Plin. l.2. c.12. Plutarch in the life of Nicias and in his book, De Superstition.]
- The next winter, Tissaphernes of Lydia and Pharnabazus of Hellespont, two governors of Darius whose countries bordered the sea coast in the lesser Asia, sought to recover the old tribute from the Greek cities lying within their control. Recently the Athenians had forbidden them to pay tribute to the king. They dealt with them underhandedly to make them defect from the Athenians. They solicited the Peloponesians in general to make a new war on Athens and had the Lacedemonians in particular become allies of the Persian king. When the Athenians power was thus weakened in Asia on whom Pissuthnes had founded all his hopes, Tissaphernes sought by all means how to capture Amorges a bastard son of Pissuthnes who had taken up arms in Casia. He was commanded to send him alive or dead to the king. When he found that the citizens of Chios and Erythrae were ready to revolt from the Athenians, he sent his messenger with theirs to Lacedemon to negotiate the matter by the common agreement. [Thucid. l.9.]
- At the same time Calligetus of Megara and Timagoras of Cyzicum who were both banished from their country, came to Lacedemon. They were sent by Pharnabazus who had entertained them during the time of their exile. They went in the name of the inhabitants of Cyzicum, to got ships to carry them into the Hellespont. When the messengers of Pharnabazus and Tislaphernes each made their request separately, the Lacedemonians were divided as to what to do. Some advised that Ionia and Chios should be helped first, others the Hellespont. Alcibiades helped decide the matter. He was a condemned man at Athens who lived in Sparta, in a house with Endius, one of the Ephore who was a friend of his father. Therefore they made an agreement with the Chii and Erythraeans and ordered 40 ships to be sent to help them. Calligetus and Timagoras, who were there on the behalf of Pharnabazus and the men of Cyzicum, contributed nothing toward this fleet for Chios. They withheld the 25 talents which they had brought with them to hire ships for themselves because they planned to prepare a fleet of their own. [Thucid. l.8.]
3592 AM, 4302 JP, 412 BC
- In the 20th summer of the Peloponesian war, Alcibiades an Athenian, and Chalcideus a Lacedemonian were sent by Endius and the rest of the Ephori with 5 ships into Ionia. They planned to try to make the Greek cities defect from the Athenian side. The Clazomenae went to the mainland and built a strong fort there so they would have a safe place to go if their island was attacked. Similarly, did the other islands that revolted from the Athenians. They built forts and prepared for war. [Thucid. l.8.]
- Strombichides, the commander of the Athenians came with 8 ships to Samos. Another ship joined him here and they sailed to Teus. They persuaded them not to defect from the Athenians. Chalcidcus came there also with 23 ships and some foot soldiers from the Clazomenians and Erythreans. The Teians at first refused to receive the soldiers but when they saw the Athenians had fled, they took them in. These waited for the return of the Chalcideus from pursuing the Athenians. When they did not return, they threw down the wall which the Athenians had made on the land side with the help of those who were under the command of Tages Tissaphernes. When Chalcideus and Alcibiades had pursued Strombichides as far as Samos, more ships from Chios joined them and they sailed to Miletus. By the means of Alcibiades, who had an important acquaintance with the noble men there, they persuaded them also to defect from the Athenians. When the Athenians followed them there, they were kept out by the Milesians. They retreated to an island called Lada opposite Miletus. [Thucid. l.8.]
- Therefore, the Chii sailed with 10 ships to the city, Anaea in Caria to learn the status of Miletus and to induce other cities to defect from the Athenians. They were called back by Chalcideus because Amorges the son of Pissuthnes was approaching with his army. They came to a small town Diosbierou in Ionia. When they saw a fleet of 16 Athenian ships that were sent from there under the command of Diomedon to join with Thrasicles, they dispersed themselves. One ship went to Ephesus, the rest to Teus. Four were captured by the Athenians but all the men on them had escaped to shore. The rest of the ships came safely to Teus. After this when the Athenians were gone to Samos, the Chii pursued their purpose with the remainder of their fleet and forces and drew over to their side cities of Lebedus and Eras in Ionia. [Thucid. l.8.]
- After the foot soldiers of the Chii departed from Teus, Tissaphernes came there with his army and pulled down what was left of the walls of Teus and went away. No sooner was he gone then Diomedon, with 10 Athenian ships came there and was received by the Teians also. He went to Eras and when he was unable to capture it, he went his way. [Thucid. l.8.]
- When the Athenians had taken the fort which the Clazomenians had built on the continent, they forced them to return to their island. The leaders of the revolt were sent to Daphnus. The Clazomenians again submitted to the Athenians. [Thucid. l.8.]
- That same summer, the Athenians with 20 ships, which were at Lada opposite Miletus, landed at Panormus. They attacked Chalcideus, the Lacedemonian and killed him and all that were with him. They returned from there 3 days later and erected a monument in memory of what they had done. Because this was done by those who did not control the country, the Milesians demolished it. [Thucid. l.8.]
- In the end of the summer, the Athenians with 1500 soldiers and 1000 men from Argos and many of their other confederates sailed to Samos with 48 ships commanded by Phrynichus and Onomacles and Saronidas. From there they sailed for Miletus and positioned their army before the city. 800 Milesian soldiers attacked them, Alcibiades, with those whom Chalcideus had brought from Peloponesus and certain soldiers. These came from a foreign nation which followed Tissaphernes and were commanded by Tissaphernes. The Argivi which led the van in the wing where they were, trusting too much in their valour and were routed by the Milesians. The Ionians were held in contempt by the Argivi. They lost 300 men but eventually the Athenians won the battle. They set up a monument in the field and besieged the city on that peninsula. When news came that a fleet from Sicily and Peloponesus was heading that way, they followed the advice of Phrynicus and withdrew to Samos. [Thucid. l.8.]
- When the fleet came with the ships of Chios which had formerly been beaten by Chalcideus, they were asked by Tissaphernes to attack Jasos. Here lived Amorges the bastard son of Pisluthnes, [who had revolted form the king]. The Peloponesians under the command of Astyochus the admiral to whom Theramenes a Lacedemonian had brought that fleet and the Syracusans [who were very courageous under their general Hermocrates] suddenly attacked the Jasians and took the city. The Jasians incorrectly thought that these were friends. The Peloponesians took Amorges alive and gave him to Tissaphernes to be sent to Darius, if he pleased. They sacked the city of Jasos, which through a long peace was quite prosperous and took much spoil. The mercenaries hired by Amorges were spared because most of them were Peloponesians. They enlisted them for their own service. The town was handed over to Tissaphernes with all its people. Everyone was redeemed by paying half a crown. They returned to Miletus and they accompanied overland Paedaritus, who was sent by the Lacedemonians as governor for Chios and the mercenaries of Amorges. They went as far as Erythrae and left Philippus, governor of Miletus. [Thucid. l.8.]
- The next winter after Tissaphernes had put a garrison in Jasos, he came to Miletus and there according to a promise made at Lacedemon paid them and their mercenaries their wages. This was an Athenian drachma for each one. He bargained with them for the same wage for future service.
- Astyochus the admiral of the Lacedemonian fleet with 10 ships of Lacedemon and as many of Chios sailed to Clazomenae when the seige of the city Pteleum failed. There he ordered all who favoured the Athenians to leave and live at Daphnus. Tamos the governor of Ionia gave similar orders. When they refused, he attacked the unwalled town. He was unsuccessful and left. He encountered a violent storm at sea. He came safely to Phocaea and Cuma but the rest of his ships were driven ashore on the isles lying opposite Clazomenae, Marathusa, Pela and Drymissa. They stayed here for 8 days because of the storm. They spoiled the goods which the Clazomenians had transported there for fear of the war. The rest of the goods they put on board their ships and carried them to Astyochus at Phocaea and Cuma. [Thucid. l.8.]
- The same winter Hippocrates of Lacedemon set sail for Cnidus from Peloponesus with 10 Thurian ships under the command of Dorieus and two others commissioned with him, one of Laconica and another of Syracuse. Cnidus had revolted from Tissaphernes. When the Milesians heard this, they sent to Hippocrates and asked him to leave one half of his ships at a garrison at Cnidus and to go with the rest and raid ships laden with cargo from Egypt. These ships lay at Priopium which is a cape of Cnidea. When the Athenians heard of this, they went from Samos and surprised the six ships which lay at Trippium to guard those places. However, the sailors escaped, and the Athenians found only empty ships. They came to Cnidus and almost took it by surprise when they attacked it. It was an unwalled town. They decided to wait and attack again the next day. The Cnidians cast up some earth works about the town that night. Also they were joined by those who were forced ashore at Triopium. When they saw it would be harder than ever to take the town, they plundered the country and returned to Samos. [Thucid. l.8.]
3593 AM, 4302 JP, 412 BC
- When the Spartans evaluated the league between Chalcideus and Tissaphernes, they thought it a bit unfair to them. They drew up another one between the Lacedemonians and their confederates on the one side and Darius, his sons and Tissaphernes on the other. This was in clearer terms than the former one and was subscribed in the presence of Theramenes of Lacedemon. When Theramenes gave the command of the navy to Astyoctus, be boarded a little boat and left. [Thucid. l.8.]
- Pharnabasus, the governor for the king in Hellespont, had previously sent Calligetus of Megara and Timagoras of Cyzicum to Sparta asking for ships. This was granted. 27 ships were sent under the command of Antisthenes, a Lacedemonian, in the middle of winter from Peloponesus into Ionia. The Lacedemonians also sent 11 commissioners of theirs [one was Lycas, the son of Arcesilaus] to advise Astyochus in the management of this war. After they came to Miletus, they were ordered to send some or all of these 27 ships to Pharnabazus in the Hellespont. Clearchus would be made commander of this fleet. If they saw cause, they could put Antishenes in charge of the navy instead of Astyochus. He was under suspicion by Pedaritus who had letters against him. These commissioners sailed from Malea, a port in Peloponesus and first came to the island of Melus. They sailed widely around it to avoid the enemy and landed at Caunus in Asia. [Thucid. l.8.]
- When Astyochus came to Cnidus, he quickly left it to meet the Athenian fleet which waited for the Peloponesian ships coming from Caunius. The Athenians won the first battle here but when they lost the second one they retired and came to Halicarnassus. The victorious Peloponesians returned to Cnidus. After this the Athenians sailed to an island called Sima where they were soundly defeated. They dared not attack the Lacedemonian navy which lay at Cnidus but took only some tackle and baggage from Sima. When they attacked Lorymae on the continent, they returned again to Samos. [Thucid. l.8.]
- When all the Peloponesian navy of 94 ships met at Cnidus, the 11 commissioners discussed with Tissaphernes matters already transacted. They looked for any fault in it and planned how the war for the future might be carried on for the best advantage on both sides. Lichas said that in view of what had happened, that neither of the two leagues which were made with Theramenes were as they should be. They could not tolerate that the king should hold onto all those countries which he or his ancestors had held previously. He said for this reason that all the islands, all Thessaly, Locri and all Baeothia must again be under the king's authority. The Lacedemonians, instead of freeing the Greek cities would enslave them to the power of the Persians more than ever. Therefore, they should form of a new league between them or abandon this one and never ask nor receive stipend more of the king of Persia according to the previous leagues. Tissaphernes grew angry, tore up the treaty and went his way. [Thucid. l.8.]
- Letters came from the Peloponesians to Astiochus that he should remove Alcibiades as admiral. He was under suspicion and he was a professed enemy of Agis the king of Lacedemon. When Alcibiades heard about this, he fled secretly to Tissaphernes, he persuaded him not to pay so much for the Peloponesian navy but rather hold matters in a balance. This way neither the Athenians or the Spartans would win the war. When each side had been exhausted by warfare, they would more easily be brought under the king's control. Pisander with ten ambassadors from Athens entreated Tissaphernes and Alcibiades for terms that would benefit both states. However, Alcibiades in the name of Tissaphernes made such demands, they thought to abandon all discussion and do nothing even though they yielded to many of them. He demanded that they should surrender into the king's hands all Ionia and its adjacent islands. When they agreed, he then demanded that the king could make as many ships as he pleased and sail them where he pleased whenever he wanted to. When the Athenians knew that these demands were intolerable and they were being abused by Alcibiades, they broke off the talks in a rage and returned to Samos. [Thucid. l.8]
- Toward the end of this winter, Tissaphernes went to Caunus and planned to recall the Lacedemonian commissioners back to Miletus and pay them lest the Spartans become his enemies too. When they came he paid them all their arrears and made a third league with them. It stated: "In the 13th year of the reign of Darius, when Alexipidas was Ephorus, i.e.agreements were made, in the field of Maander, between the Lacedemonians and their confederates on the one side and Tissaphernes and Hieramenes and the sons of Pharnacus on the other, concerning the affairs of the king and of the Lacedemonians and their confederates. It stated that whatever country in Asia is the king's that let him hold it still and of his own countries let him dispose as he will, &c."
- But concerning the payment of their yearly stipend it was thus agreed: "That Tissaphernes should pay the fleet that was there, till the king's ships came. After they were come then the Lacedemonians and their confederates would maintain their navy if they wished. If they would rather have a stipend for it, then Tissaphernes should furnish it, but on the condition that at the end of the war they should refund all the money which they had received," [Thucid. l.8.]
- From this we may gather the full meaning of what Justin, [l. 5. 1.] more concisely stated: "Darius the king of Persians, making a league with the Lacedemonians by Tissaphernes, his governor of Lydia, promised to bear all the charge of the war."
- In the very beginning of the next summer which began the 21st year of the Poloponesian war, Decylidas, a Lacedemonian was sent from Miletus overland with a small company into Hellespont. He was to stir up the city of Abydus which was a colony of the Milesians to rebel against the Athenians. First this city, then two days later Lampsacus defected from Athens to Decylides and Pharnabazus.
- When Strombychides heard this news, he sailed from Chios to Lesbos with 24Athenian ships. When the Lesbians attacked him, he routed them and took the unwalled town on the first assault. When he settled matters there, he went to Abydus. When they repulsed his attack, he sailed to Sestos and placed a strong garrison there to defend all of the Hellespont. [Thucid. l.8.]
- The whole navy of the Athenians came together at Samos, they entered a covenant with the Samians to join in restoring the democratic state in Athens and to abolish the newly appointed junta of 400. They bound themselves with a solemn oath to do this and appointed Thrasibulus and Thraiyllus as captains for this purpose. They consulted about calling home Alcibiades hoping by his means to make Tissaphernes stop supporting the Lacedemonian party and to gain the king's favour for their side. [Thucid. l.8.]
- Among the seamen of the Peloponesians who were at Miletus, there was a general dislike for Tissaphernes and Astyachus. When the Spartans were a strong naval force and the Athenians weak, he would never fight with the Athenians nor to this day would. Although he knew of the divisions among the Athenians, he would not help the Lacedemonian navy. Tissaphernes was disliked for he did not send for the navy of the Phoenicians as he promised. Nor did he pay them their wages except when he pleased and then only a portion and not the full amount. Therefore they wanted the matter decided in battle. Astyochus and his confederates commanded the Milesians to march overland to the cape of Micale while they went by sea with the whole fleet of 112 ships to the same place. When the Athenians whose 82 ships were anchored at Glauca near Micale saw the fleet coming, they weighed anchor and sailed as fast as they could to Samos. When Strombichides with his fleet heard of this, he hastened to come from Hellespont to help the Athenians. The Peloponesians withdrew and returned to Miletus. The Athenians now had 108 ships, all strong and well equipped. They followed them home to Miletus. They landed and arranged their army in the open field. When the Peloponesians would not come, they sailed back to Samos without attacking anything. After this the Peloponesians saw they were no match for the Athenian navy. Neither could they pay so many seamen, especially when Tissaphernes, was so churlish in sending in their payment according to agreement. They sent Clearchus away with 40 of their ships into Hellespont to Pharnabasus who earnestly desired their coming and promised to pay them very liberally [Thucid. l.8.]
- When Thrasybulus left Tissaphernes, he brought back Alcibiades with him to Samos. The army made him one of their chief commanders and committed everything under his direction. When he was made commander of the Athenian army, he sailed back to Tissaphernes so that he might tell him everything. He handled matters so cunningly to his own advantage so that he could make the Athenians afraid of Tissaphernes and Tissaphernes of them at his pleasure. [Thucid. l.8.]
- This had a disastrous effect on the morale of the Peloponesians who were anchored at Miletus. They hated Tissaphernes more than ever so that they began to mutiny again against him and Astyochus. They now charged him with collusion with Tissaphernes for his own personal advantage. The sailors from Syracuse and Thurii demanded in a very saucy and mutinous manner that Astyochus pay them. When he replied roughly and threatened to imprison Doricus the commander of the Thurian squadron for supporting his sailors, they rioted and rushed upon him. [The Greek scholiast of Thucidides, understand that Hermocrates, commander of the Syracuse squadron is meant, not Doricus.] He would have been killed had he not fled to a nearby altar. The Milesians got secretly into the fort which Tissaphernes had built and expelled the garrison of soldiers and took over the fort. This action was well received by the rest except for Lychas the Lacedemonian. He said that the Milesians and the rest under the king's authority ought to obey Tissaphernes so long as he governed so moderately as he did and until the war would be over. [Thucid. l.8.]
- While they were busy in this altercation, Pindarus arrived who was sent from Lacedemon to succeed Astyochus in the command of the navy. After Astyochus had given him command, he sailed home to Lacedemon. Tissaphernes sent Gauletes, his messenger along with him. Although he was born in Caria he spoke both the Greek and Persian language. He was to charge the Milesians for the surprise attack on his citadel and to clear him from those false accusations which the Milesians and Hermocrates of Syracuse had made. Tissaphernes knew that the Milesians would accuse him for conspiring with Alcibiades against the Lacedemonians.
- Tissaphernes saw that the Peloponesians were against him. Among other things they did not like when he allowed Alcibiades to return to his own people again since he now openly favoured the Athenians. Tissaphernes went to Aspendus where the Phoenician fleet of 147 ships had come. To clear himself, he took Lichas the Lacedemonian along with him, leaving his agent Tamos with them to ensure the wages were paid to the Peloponesian navy. Moreover the Peloponesians at the request of Tissaphernes, sent Philippus a Lacedemonian, with two ships to Aspendus to see the Phoenician fleet. When Alcibiades learned that Tissaphernes was at Aspendus, he came with 13 ships to Caunus first and then to Phaselis. Everywhere he promised his friends many supplies and all kinds of help. When he returned to Samos, he informed them that he had so arranged matters so that the Phoenician fleet would not assist the Peloponesians and Tissaphernes had now become more friendly to the Athenians than ever. It was true that Tissaphernes met with the Phoenicians at Aspendus, but would not let any ship go to the Peloponesians. He put them off with this weak excuse that not as many ships came to him as the king had commanded. However his purpose was to hold both parties of the Greeks in suspense. By siding with neither he hoped to make them destroy each other. [Thucid. l.8.]
- The junta of 400 at Athens was dissolved and replaced by 5000. The new government ratified the recalling of Alcibiades home into his country. [Thucid. l.8.] By the same order he was joined in his commission by Thrasybulus and Theramenes although they were absent at the time. Hence by the valour and virtue of the new government, the Athenian state was in a short time, greatly reformed and brought into a better order than ever before. [Emil. Prob. in the life of Aleibiades.]
- While the Peloponesians waited at Miletum, none of those whom Tissaphernes had left behind when he went for Aspendus took care to pay the navy. Neither did Tissaphernes himself pay them nor did the fleet come which he had promised. Both Philippus, who was sent with Tissaphernes to Aspendus and Hipposcrates from Phaselis wrote to Mindarus, who had the charge of the navy that he should not expect any ships or anything else of value from Tissaphernes. On the contrary, Pharnabazus, who served the king in these parts of Hellespont, showed them all the favour and friendship that they could imagine. For he solicited their coming and of his own accord incited all the Greek cities within his province, to defect from the Athenians [which Tissaphernes would have seemed to do too] hoping thereby to increase his own power. Mindarus was bothered by this news and made ready instantly 72 ships. He gave the word that they should leave suddenly so that the Athenians at Samos would not find out. He left Miletus and sailed straight to Hellespont. When Thrasyllus heard of this, he followed him from Samos with 55 ships. [Thucid. l.8.]
- Mindarus and the Syracuse squadron had a fierce naval battle with Thrasyllus and Thrasybulus at the cape of Cynos-sema [a place known by old Hecubae's tomb]. The Athenians won losing only 15 ships but captured 21 of the enemies' ships. For more details see: [Thucid. l. 8., Diod. Sic. 2nd year of 92nd Olympiad.]
- The Athenians repaired their fleet as best they could. On the 4th day after this fight they sailed from Sestos to Cyzicum which had revolted from them. When they saw 8 ships at Harpagium and Priapus which came from Byzantium, they attacked them. When they had beaten those who defended the ships from the shore, they captured the ships for their own use. They sailed to the unwalled town of Cyzicum and captured it and extorted a large sum of money from them. [Thucid. l.8.]
- Alcibiades sailed from Samos with 22 ships and exacted large sums of money from those of Halycarnasius. He destroyed the country of Cos and fortified the town of Cos with a wall. Since winter was now approaching, he returned with much spoil to Samos. [Thucid. l.8., Diod. 2nd year of 92nd Olympiad]
- Astacus a Persian and lieutenant to Tissaphernes conceived a secret deadly hatred against the men of Delos. These were driven out of their old habitation and dwelt at Atramytrium. When he came that way, he sent for all the chief men among them as friends and confederates to come and serve the king in his wars. At the time when they were altogether eating dinner, he surrounded them with his soldiers and they killed everyone with their darts. [Thucid. l.8.]
- Those of Antandrus in Eolia feared lest Astacus would do the same to them. They also disliked the heavy taxes which he imposed on them. Therefore, they sent for some Peloponesian soldiers from Abydus. They brought them secretly over Mount Ida into their city and expelled the garrison of Astacus from the citadel. [Thucid. l.8.]
- Tissaphernes returned from Aspendus into Ionia and was greatly disturbed by this last attempt of Antandrus and with others of Miletus and Cnidus. There the inhabitants expelled his garrisons also. He thought himself wronged by the Poloponesians. Therefore, he feared worse things from them and was troubled lest Pharnabazus in a shorter time and with far less cost should seem to have done more against the Athenians than he had done. Therefore he planned to go in person to the Poloponesians in Hellespont to reason with them concerning their expelling his garrison from Antandrus and to clear himself from the charges against him concerning the Phoenician fleet and other matters. As soon as he was come to Ephesus, he sacrificed to Diana. [Thucid. l.8. in fi.] Here ends the History of Thucidides which Theopompus continues for 17 more years and Xenophon for 48 years after that. [Diod. 2nd year of 92nd Olympiad.] The writings of Theopompus are lost but the latter we do have partially preserved for us. Besides the poem of his history, we lack the first two years of it. That is from the end of the summer of the 21st year of the Peloponesian war where Thucidides left off, to the end of the 23rd summer of the same war.
3594 AM, 4304 JP, 410 BC
- Concerning the 300 ships sent back to Phoenicia, Tissaphernes cleared himself with the Lacedemonians by saying that he had received news that the coast of Phoenicia was in danger of attack by the Arabians and the king of Egypt [meaning king Amyrteus] [as Diod. Sic. has it, 3rd year of the 93Olympiad.] However, Thucidides states that there only came 147 ships to Aspendus from Phoenicia and that they were all sent back again by Tissaphernes contrary to his promise.
3595 AM, 4305 JP, 409 BC
- There was another naval battle between the Lacedemonians and Athenians at Cynossema. This was described by Theopompus, as a certain nameless Greek writer says, in the life of Thucidides.
- Thymochares came to Athens with a small fleet of ships. There was another naval battle between the Lacedemonians and Athenians. The Lacedemonians under the command of Hegesandridus won. [Xen. in the beginning of his History of the Greeks. l.1.]
- Not long after this in the beginning of winter, Dorieus, the admiral of the Thurian fleet from Italy sailed with 14 ships from Rhodes to the Hellespont to meet Mindarus. He was at Abydus for a meeting of all the friends and confederates of the Peloponesian nation. When Dorieus had sailed as far as Sigeum, a port in Troas, the Athenian navy at Sestos found out about his trip and destination. They sailed toward him with 20 ships. When Dorieus heard of their coming, he fled from there and beached his ships on the Rhaetaean shore. When he landed his men, with the help of the men of Dardania, they warded off an Athenian attack. When the Athenians saw that they could not prevail, they sailed back to Madytus to join the rest of their army. Mindarus who at that time happened to be at old Troy sacrificing to Minerva, saw this battle. He raced with 84 ships to the cape of Dardania to meet Dorieus and to save his ships. He also found the army of Pharnabazus ready to help the Lacedemonian navy against their enemies. The Athenian fleet of 74 ships came close to the shore of Abydus and there started a naval battle. Mindarus commanded 97 ships besides those of Dorieus. He placed the Syracusians in the left wing and he took the right wing. On the other side, Thrasybulus had the right wing and Thrasyllus the left. The fight lasted from morning to evening, neither side winning. Suddenly Alcibiades came sailing in with 18 fresh ships from Samos headed towards the Hellespont. When the Lacedemonians saw this, they fled towards Abydus. The Athenians chased them and captured 10 of their ships. A violent storm arose which prevented the Athenians from finishing off their enemies. The Peloponesians all escaped safely to shore and fled to the army of Pharnabazus that was there. During the battle, Pharnabazus rode his horse into the sea up to its saddle-skirts and fought. He commanded his army to do likewise. The Peloponesians locked their ships close together into one mass and fought against their enemies from the decks close to the shore. When the night was drawing on, the Athenians returned to Samos with 30 empty ships which they had captured and there own fleet including the damaged ships. The next morning as soon as it was light, they gathered what spoils they could from the wrecked ships of their enemies. They erected a monument to the event and then left 40 ships to guard the Hellespont. The rest of the fleet was assigned to various destinations. Some gathered their tribute money. One of their chief captains, Thrasyllus, sailed back to Athens to let them know what a victory they had. He desired a supply of men and shipping for the carrying on of the war in those parts. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.1. Diod. Sic. l.13. Plutarch in the Life of Alcibiades.]
- About the first watch of the night, Mindarus went back to the seaside, and gave orders for repairing his ships which were damaged in the battle. He sent in all haste to Lacedemon for fresh supplies both by land and sea. While this was happening he planned to join his army with Pharnabazus to capture the tributary cities of the Athenians, that were in Asia. [Diod. Sic. l.13.]
3596 AM, 4305 JP, 409 BC
- In the mean time, Tissaphernes came into the Hellespont. Alcibiades planned to magnify himself after so glorious a victory over the Lacedemonians. He came to Tissapernes with rich presents and a princely train. Tissaphernes was in illrepute with the Lacedemonians and feared lest some accusation would be made against him to Darius. He laid hold on Alcibiades and put him in irons at Sardis. He pretended that this was the king's command and to show that he counted the Athenians as enemies. Within a month, he escaped with a fellow prisoner, Manitheus of Caria. He got horses and they escaped by night to Clazomenae. They let on that it was with the consent of Tissaphernes. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.1. Plutarch in Alcibia.]
- Toward the end of winter, Mindarus with 60 ships went to Cyzicum and joined with the army of Pharnabus. They captured Cyzicum by force. 86 ships under the command of Alcibiades, Thrasybulus and Theramenes attacked him. Mindarus was first routed at sea and then in a second fight on land in which Mindarus fought bravely and was killed. When the troops from Syracuse saw no means of escape, they set their own ships on fire. The rest of the fleet was captured by the Athenians who sailed them all to Proecannesus. This fight is more fully described [by Xenoph. Hellen. l.1. by Diod. Sic. l.13. by Plutarch in the Life of Alcibiades and by Polyanin, Stratag. l.1.]
- The next day, the Athenians sailed from Proeconnesus to Cyzicum and they were received into the city which was abandoned by Pharnabazus and the Peloponesians. [Xenoph.] There they erected two monuments, the one for their victory at sea at the isle of Polydorus and the other for that on land where they first put the enemies to flight. [Diod. Sic.]
- Alcibiades stayed at Cyzicum 20 days. When he had extracted a vast sum of money from them, he departed without doing them any harm and returned to Proeconnesus. [Xenoph.]
- The commanders of the Athenians which remained behind at Cyzicum, came at length to Chalcedon, There they walled Chrysopolis and made it a place to gather tolls from every ship that passed by from Pontus. [Xenphon Hellen. l.1. Polyb. l.4. p. 312. Diod. Sic. 4th year of 92nd Olympiad] They left a garrison and a fleet of 30 ships there under the command of Theramenes and Eubulus. This was to keep the town, to watch what ships came in and out at the mouth of Pontus and to do what mischief they could to the enemy. [Xenoph.]
- The Athenians intercepted letters written concisely from Hippocrates, the lieutenant of Mindarus to Lacedemon to the Ephori concerning the loss they had sustained at Cyzicum. It said: "All is lost. Mindarus is dead. Our men starve. We know not what to do." [Xenoph. and Plutarch.]
- The Lacedemonians sued for peace which was opposed by those who made a living from the war. [Justin. l.5. c.4.] For though the moderates of the Athenians were inclined to peace yet those who made their living by it chose to continue the war. Cleophon was one of the principal leaders of this latter group. He had spoken many proper things. Diod. Sic. elegantly expresses it: "He made the people proud by recounting to them the greatness of their good successes, as if fortune did not bestow her favours in the war by turns."
- Cleophon with his fiery speeches stirred up the people to a carry on the war, though to his own shame later. He made lyres and it was common knowledge that he had been a slave and kept in irons. Later by various devices came to live in Athens. At this time, he won the people over to him by his munificence and grew so bold as to openly profess: "that he would with his own hand cut off that man's head whomever he were, that would offer to speak any more of a peace"
- This is according to Eschines in his Oration, De false legation, i.e.of a false embassy.
- The Peloponesians and their confederates from Syracuse and as many as had escaped alive from the fight, went to Pharnabazus. He courteously entertained and comforted them. [Diod. Sic. l.13] He said they should not be discouraged by the loss of a few wooden ships since the king had more than enough wood in his kingdom to build more ships. The main thing was that the men were safe. He gave every man a new suit of clothes and two months pay in advance. He armed the sailors and placed garrisons all along the sea coast of his government. He assembled all the commanders of cities, and captains of every ship and ordered them to build as many new ships at Antandrus, as they had lost. He paid for this and allowed them to use timber from the mount Ida. When this was done, he sent to relieve Chalcedon. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.1.]
- While this navy was being built, the men of Syracuse joined with the inhabitants of Antandrus and built a wall around the town. They greatly fortified the place. In return the Antandrians gave the Syracusians free use of their city. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.1.]
- The captains of these troops from Syracuse were exiled by their country men at home. Their general Hermocrates, accused Tissaphernes at Lacedemon and they believed him and also the testimony of Astyochus. Hermocrates returned to Pharnabazus and without even asking he received from him a large sum of money. When he procured men and ships, he returned into his own country. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.1. with Diod. Sic. 4th year of 92nd Olympiad.]
- Parasippidas was condemned to be exiled to Sparta, because it was thought that by his plotting with Tissaphernes, he had procured all that favoured the Lacedemonian party. In a riot at the isle of Thasus he was expelled. Cratesippidas was sent to replace him and take charge of the navy at Chios. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.1.]
- With 25 ships he wasted his time about the coast of Ionia and did nothing worth the speaking of for a long time. Later when he was paid by the exiles from Chios, he brought them home again. He routed out the 600 of the opposing faction. These lived at Atarneum, the most fortified place on the continent opposite Chios and made daily attacks on them from there. [Diod. Sic. 4th year of the 92nd Olymiad]
- In the 93Olympiad, Eubotas the Cyrenian won the prize in running. Archippus was the Ephorus at Lacedemon. Euctemon was the Archon at Athens. There was a new game introduced in the Olympics. It was a race by a team of mules pulling a coach, called Eugwqiz
- In this year, the Medes who had defected from Darius the king of the Persians, submitted to him again. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.1.] Herodotus in the beginning of his History, [c. 130.] relates how the Medes revolted from Darius. They were defeated and again brought under his control. Because he makes mention of the war at Decelaea, [Herod. l.9. c.71.] which was waged 5 years earlier and of Amyraeus' son reigning after him, [Herod. l.3. c.15.] [of whom I shall speak more in the year following], I gather that he either wrote or at least revised his History in the very later end of the Peloponesian war.
- In the beginning of the summer, Thrasyllus at Athens, took command of the ships committed to his charge with 5000 sailors. These were all armed as targeteers and he was to join with those other targeteers at Samos. When he had stayed there 3 days, he sailed to the coast of Pygega in Ionia. He first wasted the country in that area. He came at last with his army before the wall of the town. When some reinforcements came from Miletus, they attacked the lightly armed Athenians who were busy gathering the spoil from the country. The rest of the Athenians came to relieve their troops, and killed most of the Milesians. They gathered 200 of their bucklers from the slain and erected a monument with them. The next day they sailed to Notium and there took on supplies. They sailed to Colophas which presently yielded to them. The next night they entered into Lydia when their grain was almost ripe. They set many villages on fire. While they were scattered here and there and minded nothing but their plundering, Stages, a Persian, [the same Tages, as it should seem, which I mentioned before in the year of the world, 3592 from Thucidides] attacked them with his horse and took one prisoner, and slew seven of them. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.1.]
- When Tissaphernes understood that Thrasyllus was ready to set sail for Ephesus to attack it by surprise, he gathered all the troops he could find. He sent about messengers into all parts, to order men to come in and defend Diana of the Ephesians. When Thrasyllus had spent 17 days in Lydia, he set sail for Ephesus. He landed his foot soldiers at Coressus, but the cavalry, targeteers and all the other soldiers, he landed on shore near a bog on the other side of the town. As soon as it was light, they approached the town in two companies. The troops in the town with the reinforcements Tissaphernes had sent them first attacked the foot solders who were at Coressus. They had routed them and pursued them to the seaside killing 100 men. After this they returned quickly and attacked those who were located near the bog. When they routed the Athenians and killed 300 of them, they erected one monument there and another at Coressus. Concerning their reinforcements, they highly rewarded the companies from Syracuse and Selinuntia because they behaved most valiantly. They promised freedom from taxes for ever to those that were expelled from their home city. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.1.] Plutarch also in the Life of Alcibiades mentions a brass monument set up to mock the Athenian nation.
- After a truce was made, the Athenians received the bodies of their slain and buried them at Notium. They sailed away to Lesbos and Hellespont. When they anchored at Methymna, a city of Lesbos, they spied 25 ships of the Syracusians with whom they fought at Ephesus. They attacked them and took 4 ships with all the men in them and routed the rest. They pursued them as far as Ephesus. Thrasyllus sent all the prisoners which he had taken to Athens, except for Alcibiades an Athenian, first cousin to Alcibiades and a banished man. These two were executed. They sailed for Sestus where the army was. From Sestus the whole army went to Lampsacus for the winter which they reckon from the beginning of autumn. When Alcibiades at Lampsacus wanted to create one large army, his soldiers refused to be mixed with those who had served under Thrasyllus. They said: "We who have ever been conquerors, to be counted with those that were beaten and routed but the other day." [Xen. Hellen. 1.]
3597 AM, 4306 JP, 408 BC
- When Alcibiades and Thrasyllus troops had wintered together at Lampsacus, [Diodorus writes, "Labdacus"] had fortified the area. They went to besiege Abydus. Pharnabazus came with a very great army to relieve it. He fought with the Athenians and was routed. Alcibiades chased Pharnabazus with his cavalry and 120 foot soldiers following him. He did not stop the chase until late in the night. After this victory, the whole army became friends and mixed with each other. They returned triumphantly into their camp from where they set out.
- The next day Alcibiades set up a monument and went and wasted Pharnabazus' province with fire and sword without any opposition. All the priests which he took, he let go free without a ransom. [Plutarch in Life of Alcibiades]
- When the Lacedemonians were upset with Tissaphernes, they sent Boeotius and other ambassadors with him to Darius. Boeotius easily obtained from Darius all that they ever wanted. [Xen. Hellen. l.1. 7.]
- In the same winter Alcibiades and Thrasyllus armies attacked various countries that belonged to Darius on the continent and reeked havock there. [Xen. Hellen. l.1. 7.]
- Darius put his 16 year old son Cyrus the younger in charge of all the sea coast. He was born after his father became king. [Ctesias affirms this and Plutarch also in the Life of Artaxerxes.] He had the title of satrap or governor of all those countries. He headed the army that was in the plain of Castolus in Lydia. He was ordered to join with the Lacedemonians in fighting the Athenians. [Xen. Hellen. l.1. 7.] [Expedit. Cyri. l.1. in instio.] Justin [Justin, l.5. c. 5.] from Trogus, says, "Darius king of Persia made his younger son Cyrus governor of all Ionia and Lydia. It was he who restored the Lacedemonians to former strength."
- Diodorus expressly states that Darius sent his son Cyrus to this very end, that in pursuing the war against the Athenians, he should relieve and help the Lacedemonians. [1st year of the 93Olympiad.] He also correctly states that Cyrus was made commander of all the governors by the sea coast [2nd year of the 94th Olympiad.] and [in the 2nd year of the same Olympiad] that he was made commander-in-chief, over all the provinces lying on the sea coast. It is obvious that both Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus though both satraps and governors of their provinces were both under his command.
- We read in Euseb. Chron. that after Amyrtaeus of Sois, Nepherites the king of a new dynasty succeeded him in the kingdom of Egypt. However we find, [Diod. Sic. 1st year Olympiad 95] that next before Nephereus or Nepherites, Psammitichus reigned in Egypt. He was descended of the family of that old Psammetichus whom Manetho places in the 26th Dynasty who was also of the Sais. (*Manetho, 1:169) So that a man may well doubt, whether this was not Pausiris the son of Amyrtaeus, who by the help of the Persians recovered his father's kingdom, as Herodotus states. [Herod. l.3. c.5.] Concerning the number of this and other Egyptian kings' reigns, we have already discussed in our Egyptian Chronology.
- In the beginning of the spring when Pantacles was Ephorus in Sparta and Antigenes Archon in Athens had held office for a year, the Athenians with all the forces they could gather, sailed into Proeconnesus. They left there and camped before Chalcedon. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.1.] Diodor. says that they went to Theramenes, who at that time lay before Chalcedon with 70 ships and 5000 men. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 92.]
- When the inhabitants of Chalcedon heard of the approach of the Athenian army, they sent away all their goods to the Thracians of Bithynia who were their neighbours. When Alcibiades heard of this, he went with all his cavalry and a part of his foot soldiers and demanded all those goods from them. He threatened force if they refused to deliver them. When he received these goods, he made peace with the Bithynians and returned to his camp before Chalcedon. He built a wooden wall before the city across the neck of land from sea to sea. When Hippocrates the Lacedemonian commander saw this, he gathered all his forces and fought with Thrasyllus. The battle was drawn for a great while until Alcibiades came in with his forces, both of cavalry and footmen. Hippocrates was killed and his men fled back into the city. While the fight continued, Pharnabazus and all his army came another way outside the wooden wall. He fought unsuccessfully to break through to rescue Hippocrates. He retired to Heracleum or the Temple of Hercules, which was in the territory of Chalcedon where his own camp was well entrenched. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.1. and Plutarch in the Life of Alcibiadis.]
- After this Alcibiades and Chersonesus went into the Hellespont to gather tribute. The rest of the commanders, [though Diodorus says, only Theramenes] came to an agreement with Pharnabazus concerning Chalcedon. He would give them 20 talents and would convoy the Athenian ambassadors safely to the king. By solemn oath they covenanted with each other that the men of Chalcedon would pay the Athenians the same tribute as they did before with all arrears. In the mean time, the Athenians would not bother Chalcedon, until the return of their ambassadors from the king and the return Alcibiades. They sent two commissioners from Chalcedon and Pharnabazus sent two more from Crysopolis. They swore to keep this covenant and pledged their support to each other. [Xenoph.]
- When these things were done, Pharnabazus returned and wanted the ambassadors who were to go to the king, to meet him at Cyzicum. The names of the ambassadors were Dorothius, Philodices, Theogenes, Euryptolemus, Mautitheus and Cleostratus and Pyrolochus both from the Argivans. Passipedas and other ambassadors from the Lacedemonians also went. These all journeyed to the king. Hermocrates, who was banished from Syracuse and his brother Proxenus went with the group. [Xenoph.]
- While Pharnabazus was escorting the ambassadors to the king, Clearchus, a Lacedemonian commander, came to him from across the sea. He wanted money to pay their army and to assemble the ships into a fleet that were scattered, some at Antandrus, some in Hellespont and some in other places. He hoped to cause trouble for the confederate states of the Athenians. He hoped to draw off their forces from Byzantium. In his absence, Byzantium was betrayed and surrendered to the Athenians. [Xenop.]
- As these Athenian ambassadors were on their way to the king, they met Boeotius and the rest of the Lacedemonian ambassadors returning from the king. Cyrus was with them on his way to become governor of all the sea coasts of those parts. When they saw him they asked if they might safely continue their journey to the king and if not that they be allowed to return home safely. However, Cyrus ordered Pharnabazus either to turn over the ambassadors to him or to send them home again. Since Pharnabazus did not want the Athenians to know what was planned against them, he stalled for time. Sometimes he told them that he would take them to the king and sometimes that he would send them home again. So he delayed for three years [or rather, indeed of three months] and in the end by Cyrus' consent, he sent them home. [Xenop.]
- Alcibiades took 20 ships from Samos and sailed into the Bay of Ceramus in Caria. He gathered 100 talents and pillaged no less than 200 ships which he had either searched or sunk. He returned to Athens where he was declared general of all their armies with full and absolute power of command and received 200 talents from of the treasury of the city, [according to Lysias, in his oration, against his son Alcibiades.] He raised an army of 1500 foot soldiers and 150 cavalry with 100 ships. [Xephon, Hellen. 1. Diod. Sic. l.13. Justin. l.5. c.4,5. Plutarch and Emil. Probus, in the Life of Alcibiades.]
- Satyrus the son of Spartacus, ruled the kingdom of Bosphorus Cimmerius for 14 years. [Diod. Sic. year 4Olympiad 96.]
- The Lacedemonians replaced Cratesipidas their admiral when his term expired, by Lysander. When he came to Rhodes, he gathered the fleet there and sailed to the Isle of Cos and Miletus. From there he went to Ephesus with 70 ships and stayed there until Cyrus came to Sardis. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.1.] Ephesus welcomed him and the Lacedemonians. They were grieved by the loss of trade caused by the Persians. The Persian governors stayed most often at Miletus and attracted all the trade from them to that city. Therefore Lysander made Ephesus his residence and ordered all merchant ships to unload there. He made docks and had all ships for the navy built there. In a short time he filled their port with ships and their city with commerce and wealth. [Plutarch, in the Life of Lysander.]
- When Lysander knew that Cyrus came to Sardis, he and the rest of the commissioners from Sparta went there to him. He charged Tissaphernes very heavily. When the king ordered him to support the Lacedemonians to rid the sea of the Athenians, he on the contrary by Alcibiades' subordinate grew remiss. He kept back their pay from the mariners and utterly destroyed the Lacedemonian navy. Cyrus was more than willing to receive any information against Tissaphernes who was not a good fellow. Lysander befriended Cyrus. The more Lysander pressed Cyrus to do things, the bolder Cyrus was to promise that all would be done. Cyrus added that it was his father's command that it should be so and assured him that there would be no want either of effort or money on his part. For that purpose, he raised the pay of the mariners and sea soldiers from 3 soles by the day to 4. He paid the whole army all that was in arrears and advanced a whole month's pay. He paid to Lysander 10000 darics for that purpose. By this, he put heart and courage into his seamen more than ever and left the Athenian fleet almost without sailors for the most of their ships. Because of greed for better pay, they left the Athenians and went to Lysander. Those who stayed grew idle and careless in the service and mutinous and troublesome daily to their commanders. [Xenoph, Hellen. l.1. Diodor. l.13. and Plut. in the Life Lysander.]
- When the Athenians heard this they were discouraged and through Tissaphernes, they sent ambassadors to Cyrus. Cyrus refused to see them even though Tissaphernes himself spoke for them. He told Cyrus that what he did, he did upon the advice of Alcibiades. His counsel was to hold the Greeks in balance and let neither side beat the other. Allow them to continue the war and by this to consume one another to nothing. [Id. ibid.] Although the Poloponesians were supported by the Persian purse, yet the Athenians held out for 3 whole years against them. [Thucid. l.2.] Who can wonder that the Athenian state was defeated and came to nought since the power of all the east helped in their destruction. [Justin. l.5. c.1.]
- Lysander returned to Ephesus and he rested for a while. In that time, 90 of his damaged ships were refurbished. [Xephon. Hellen. 1. ] He sent for the leaders from every nearby city and made an alliance with them. He assured them that if everything in this war went as he hoped, he would make everyone of them a prince with his own city. They were so enthused that every man was ready to do more than Lysander could reasonably require from them. He had more provisions for the war effort than he could have imagined. [Diod. l.13.]
- When Alcibiades had heard that Thrasybulus was gone out of Hellespont to fortify Phocaea, he sailed to him. He left the fleet in the meantime, under the charge of Antiochus with a strict command that he should in no wise stir or fight with Lysander in his absence. However, Antiochus planned to sail to Ephesus with his own vessel and one other from Notium, as Xenophon and Plutarch state. [Diodorus says, that he selected 10 of his best ships.] He skirted along under the very noses of Lysander's ships. First, Lysander set out with a small company of ships and pursued him. When more and more ships came to help Antiochus, Lysander drew out his whole fleet and the Athenians did the same from Notium and other places. They arrived there in a disorderly way. They quickly lost 15 ships and the rest fled to saftey. Antiochus was killed in the fight. Lysander erected a monument at Notium and returned with the ships which he had taken to Ephesus. The remaining ships of the Athenians went to Samos. When Alcibiades heard what had happened, he went with his whole fleet before the port of Ephesus and there ranged it in battle array. Lysander did not stir for he had far fewer ships than the Athenians. Alcibiades returned to Samos again. [Xenoph. Helllen. l.1. Diodor. l.13. Plut. in the Lives of Alcibiades and Lysander.]
- Alcibiades sailed from Samos to Cuma. He made many false charges against them and after he took many of them prisoners, he brought them aboard his ships. The Cumeans rallied and attacked their enemies. Alcibiades was able to hold them off until the rest of those in that area came to their aid. Alcibiades returned the prisoners and was forced to flee to his ships for safety. This bothered him so he sent for more troops to Mitylene. He drew his men forth in a battalion before the walls of Cuma and dared them to come out to battle. When no man stirred, he led his men back to Mitylene after he first ravaged the surrounding country.
- The Cumeans sent to Athens and made their case against Alcibiades for plundering a confederate city and the surrounding area which had not offended the Athenians. When this case was made, others also complained about his conduct and misdeeds. A garrison in Samos, which did not like him, stole over to Athens and informed against him. They publicly charged him before the whole assembly of the people that he was dishonest and had secret communications with the Lacedemonians. They said he had private correspondence with Pharnabazus who assured him that if the Lacedemonians won, he would be made ruler of Athens. [Diod. l.13.]
3598 AM, 4307 JP, 407 BC
- The Cumeans on the one side and Thrasybulus on behalf of the armies on the other, accused Alcibiades of many wrong doings in his administration. Colon with 9 assistant commissioners were sent to replace Alcibiades as general of the army. When he heard of this, he sailed secretly to his own lands and citadels in the Chersonesus of Thrace, [Diodor. l.13Xenoph. Hellen. l.1. Plutarch in the Life of Alcibiades]
- Lysander sent for men having leadership qualities from the nearby cities and asked them to make as many friends as he could and help him. He assured them as before that as soon as the Athenians were defeated, he would replace the democratic governments in all those cities and make each one of them a ruler in his own city. [Plut. in the Life of Lysander.]
- The moon was eclipsed 3 hours after sunset [Xenoph. Hellen. l.1.] on the 15th of April, according to the Julian Calendar. This is verified by the astronomical calculations.
- When Pityas was Ephorus at Sparta and Callias, Archon at Athens, Lysander's year of command expired. Callicratidas was sent to be admiral of the navy. Although Lysander hated him, he surrendered the command of the ships but he returned the money he had received from Cyrus for the navy, to Cyrus at Sardis. He told Callicratidas to go ask Cyrus if he could have it and see how he could get money to pay the navy. This forced Callicratidas to go to Lydia to Cyrus and get money for the navy. Since he was not well known, he quickly grew impatient waiting to see Cyrus. He was put off from day to day. He said the Greeks had come to a low estate if they must now stand begging for pay from a company of barbarians. He delivered his request and left. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.1. and Plut. in the Life of Lysander.]
- Callicratidas sailed to Miletus and got the money from them for the navy. He sailed to Chios and took the citadel of Delphinium which was held by 500 Athenians and destroyed it. After he got more money there for the sailors, he went to Teos. He slipped into the town by night and sacked it. He came to Lesbos, where he took Methymna the chief city of the island. Conon, the Athenian, hurried to their rescue but arrived too late. When he came and found the situation hopeless, he began to sail away. Callicratidas chased him with his fleet of 170 ships. He attacked and defeated him. Conon lost 30 ships and fled with the 40 that were left to Mitylene. Callicratidas followed him there and blockaded him by sea and land. While he besieged Mitylene, Cyrus sent the money to him, he asked for. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.1. Diod. Sic. l.13.]
- The Athenian navy of 150 ships sailed to Mitylene to break the blockade. Callicratidas, left Eteonicus with 50 ships to continue the siege and he sailed with 120 ships to the Arginuse Islands which were between Malea, the bay of Lesbos and Cape Catanis in Asia. He attacked the Athenians and was killed. The Athenians won the battle but lost 25 ships and most of the crew. A few were saved by swimming to shore. The Peloponesians lost 77 ships and fled to Chios. Most of the remaining fleet retired into the countries of Curna and Phocea. [Xenoph. Hellen. l. 1. Diod. Sic. l.13.] This battle at the Arginuse Islands happened when Callias was Archon at Athens, the 3rd year of the 93Olympiad. This is confirmed by Xenophon and Diodorus. Atheneus affirms this in his 5th book, Delphosoph.
3599 AM, 4309 JP, 405 BC
- Cyrus killed his two first cousins, Autobezaces and Mitreus, the sons of his father Darius' sister. When they met him, they had not pulled in their hands within their sleeves. This honour was reserved for the king only. Hieramenes and his wife, the parents, as it seems, of those who were killed heard about this. They told Darius that it was a shame for him to ignore so foul a deed by his son. Therefore, Darius sent for his son to come to him pretending that he was sick. Darius was in his camp at Thamneria in the country of the Medes where he went with his army against the Cadusians, a bordering nation which had recently revolted from him. [Xenophon Hellen. l.2.]
- The Lacedemonians who were scattered in the countries of Eolia and Ionia, met together at Ephesus. They sent messengers to Lacedemon to let them know how things went with them in Asia and to request that they might again have Lysander for their general. He had proved his worth in the previous year. Cyrus also joined with them in this request. Their law stated that the same man could not be twice admiral of their fleet. Therefore they gave the title of admiral to Aracus but committed the whole management of the war to Lysander as a lieutenant to Aracus. Lysander came to Ephesus and sent to Eteonicus to come to him with his ships from Chios. He was to gather from Peloponesus and other lands all the ships that he could. Lysander repaired those which he had and built new ones in the port at Antandrus. [Xenophon. Hellen. l.2. Diodorus in the 3rd and 4th years of the 93Olympiad. Plutarch in the Life of Lysander.]
- Lysander journeyed to Cyrus and desired money from him as before. He got it after much difficulty. Cyrus made it appear to him that because he was so generous to him in the past, he was short of funds. Lysander immediately appointed sea captains over every ship and paid every ship and sailor his due. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.2.]
- When the Carthaginians captured Gela in Sicily, they took the huge brass statue of Apollo, which was in his temple in the suburbs of the city, back to Tyre. [Diod. year 4. Olympiad 93.]
- When Cyrus received his father's message, he sent for Lysander to come unto him at Sardis. He did not want him to fight the Athenians at sea until he had a far larger fleet than he had now. He promised that when he returned he would bring with him a very great navy from Phoenicia Cilicia and other surrounding areas. He committed the care of all the cities of his government to Lysander. All tributes that belonged to him, he assigned to Lysander. What was left over he said Lysander could keep for himself. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.2. Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 93. Plutarch in the Life of Lysander.]
- Cyrus journeyed to his father and took Tissaphernes as a friend along with him and 300 Greek foot soldiers under the command of Xenophon of Arcadia. [Xenophon de Expedit. Cyri, l. 1. p. 243,254.]
- When Cyrus was gone, Lysander paid his army and went with his fleet to Ceramium a bay in Caria. He attacked the town Cedreas which was a confederate of the Athenians and captured it the next day. He sacked it and enslaved its inhabitants who were no better than a kind of half barbarous people. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.2.] However Diodorus [year 4. Olympiad 93.] states: "Lysander, with a great number of ships attacked Thasus, a city of Caria and confederate of the Athenians. He took it by force, and cut the throats of the 800 men there. He sold the women and children as slaves and levelled the city to the ground."
- He writes "Thasians" instead of "Cedrenians." These were the inhabitants of the isle of Thasus. These lived far off from there. After the defeat of the Athenians at Egos Potamos and the final ruin of Athens, the Thasians were not taken by force by Lysander but surprised by a ruse of his. This we may easily learn from a broken passage of [Emil. Probus, in the Life of Lysander,] and the complete account of the matter by [Polyenus, l.1. Stratagem.]
- At Miletus, a man overturned the democratic government there with the help of Lysander. In the Feast of Bacchus, they cut the throats of 40 of those those who opposed them in their own homes. Afterward in a crowded market, they seized 300 more of the richest people and cut off their heads. About 1000 of the important people who feared for their lives, fled to Pharnabazus, the Persian governor in those parts. He entertained them very kindly and gave every one of them a statue of gold. He gave them a citadel in Claudia called Clauda to live in. [I think this may be the island of Clauda mentioned in (Acts 27:16).] [Dior. year 4. Olympiad 93.]
- The Athenians set sail from Samos and came to Chios and Ephesus. When they had wasted the king's countries in these areas, they prepared for a sea battle. Meanwhile Lysander sailed with his fleet from Rhodes and left Ionia on the right hand and went to Hellespont. He planned to blockade that strait and destroy all cities in those parts that had revolted from him. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.2.]
- Lysander sailed from Abydus with his fleet to Lampsacus, a confederate city of the Athenians. He was met by the men from Abydus who came by land and others under the command of Thorax, a Lacedemonian captain. They attacked the city, captured and sacked it. It was rich, full of grain, wine and other provisions. He sent away the Athenian garrison. According to his word, he allowed all freemen there to enjoy their liberty. When he had given its spoil to his soldiers, he left the place to its inhabitants. [Plutarch. in the life of Lysander.]
- The Athenian navy of 180 ships, was wholly surprised and taken by Lysander at Egos Potamos, in the strait of Hellespont. Barely 10 ships escaped with 3000 soldiers and their commanders. [Plutarch. in the life of Lysander.]
- Conon their admiral, saw the Athenian cause was now hopeless. He did not want to return to Athens for fear of the cruelty of his country men. He escaped with 9 ships only to Cape Abarinders in Lampsacus. He took from there some main masts of Lysander's ships and sailed away to to his good acquaintence, Euagoras, king of Cyprus. He sent a small ship to Athens to tell them what had happened to him at Egos Potomos. [Plutarch. in the life of Lysander, with Isocrat. in his Euagoras, Aristot. l.2., Rhetor. Justin l.5. c.6. and Aristid. in Oratio. Rhodiaca.]
- Lysander had rifled their camp and carried away the ships, prisoners and spoils and everything else. He found the Triumphant Songs to Lampsacus for pipe and flute. The same day he sent Theopompus who had been a Milesian pirate, to Lacedon with the news of this victory. He went in the best ship with pennants and streamers flying and all other magnificent attire. Philocles the captain took 3 days to complete the journey. They had 3000 Athenian prisoners with them who had their throats cut except for Adimantus. [Xenoph. Diodor. Plutarch.]
- When Lysander had set all things in order at Lampsacus, he sailed to Byzantium and Chalcedon. Both cities opened their gates to him and sent away the Athenian garrisons in both places giving his word for safe conduct. When they who had formerly betrayed Byzantium to Alcibiades got away, they first went into Pontus and from there to Athens where they were all made free citizens. Lysander placed Sthenelaus, a Lacedemonian as governor of both Byzantium and Chalcedon. He returned to Lampsacus to repair his navy. [Xen. Hellen. l.2.]
- Lysander expelled from every city any who favoured the Athenians and destroyed the democraties and all other forms of government he found. He left them only, Harmostae as they were called in Sparta or Moderators to govern them. Each city was divided into ten wards. He appointed ten men to rule the city. He only chose those who were formally loyal to him or would sware allegence to him. Thus he created a Decemvirate or a government of ten men in every city. These were all loyal to him and did his bidding. [Plut. and Emil. Prob. in the life of Lysander.]
- After Lysander had spent a little time in this, he sent word to Sparta that he was ready to sail with 200 ships. Together with Agis and Pausanias, the Spartan kings, he immediately came to besiege Athens, hoping to take it in a short time. When he found that they defended themselves beyond his expectation, he returned into Asia. There he abolished all deomocraties and established everywhere his Decemvirates or government by ten men. He killed many and forced the rest to flee for their lives. At Miletus he helped his friends destroy the democratie there. They had joined an opposing party. He most cunningly managed the matter so that he delivered no less than 800 of the democratic party to be murdered by those which stood for an aristocracy in that city. [Plutarch. in the life of Lysander.]
3600 AM, 4310 JP, 404 BC
- The Athenians were besieged by sea and land by the Lacedemonians. They surrendered under certain conditions. However, on the 16th day of Munichion the Attic month [the 24th of April, according to the Julian Calender] as Plutarch in his life reports, they were told that they had broken the articles because they had not demolished their walls within the 10 day time limit. Hence, it is gathered, that that peace tready was made upon the 6th of their month Munichion, that is on April 14. Thus ended the Peloponesian war after 27 years of fighting. [Thucidides in his 5th book]
- Shortly after this peace, Darius king of all Asia died after he had reigned for 19 years. His oldest son, Artaxerxes reigned for 43 years after him. [Diodor. Sic. year 4Olympiad 93.] However, Ctesias who was physician to Artaxerxes, says, that Darius Ochus died at Babylon. He was succeeded by Arsacus or Arsaces who was born to him by Parysatis before he became king. When he became king, he changed his name to Artaxerxes. From respect the greatness of that king, he was surnamed Mnemon. To which also, as I conceive refers that account of [Athenaus, l.12. Deipnosoph.] where he says that when Ochus was dying, he was asked by his oldest son by what wisdom and policy he had guided the state for so many years. He wanted to learn from the king the correct way to rule the kingdom. The old king replied that he had done it by always doing right to both God and man. Darius Ochus was often urged by his wife Parylatis, who loved her younger son Cyrus more than the older to follow the example of Darius Hystaspes. He left his first son that was born after he became king, the kingdom not the first born son who was born before this. However he would not listen to her. By his last will, he gave the kingdom to his oldest son Artaxerxes and to his younger son Cyrus all those cities and territories which he had at that time under his government in Asia. [Plutarch in the life of Artaxerxes. Justin. l.5. c.11.]
- As soon as Artaxerxes came to the throne, his wife Statyra persuaded him to take Vadiastes, who had murdered Terituchmes, her brother and husband to Amistris, who was Artaxerxes' own sister. He had his tongue to be drawn backward out of his mouth and be cut off and he was killed. He made Mitredates or Mithridates' son, [who had preserved the city Zaris for the son of Terituchmes], satrap or governor in his place. [Ctesias]
- Artaxerxes went to Pasargada, where according to the custom, he was to take off his robe and to put on the robe which old Cyrus had worn before he became king. He was inaugurated according to the ancient regal ceremonies by the priests of Persia. Tissaphernes brought him the priest, who had instructed his brother Cyrus in his childhood, according to the custom of his country and taught him the principles of the art of magic. He was trusted by Artaxerxes when he accused Cyrus of plotting against the king. When Artaxerxes was taking off his own robes, he attacked his brother and planned to murder him in the very temple. [Plutarch. in the life of Artax.]
- Artaxerxes had his brother held for he planned to have him executed. He put him in gold chains out of the respect of his royal blood. When he was to be killed, his mother caught him about the middle and then threw her hair around his neck and tied him with her hair. After many tears and lamentations she secured his pardon and position back. He was sent again to his command in Lydia and the other sea towns in Asia. [Plutarch. in the life of Artax., Xenoph. in Expediso. Cyri. l.1. Justin. l.4. c.Ult., Ctesias.]
- Alcibiades feared the power of the Lacedemonians who commanded all the sea and land. He left that part of Bithynia which belonged to the Thracians and carried with him a great quantity of silver and gold. However, he left much more behind in the citadel where he had been. As soon as the Thracians knew about his wealth, they planned to catch him and take his money. They missed him for he stole secretly away to Pharnabazus in Phrygia. He was so taken and enamoured with Alcibiades' gentle behaviour that no man was so close to him as Alcibiades was. Hence he gave him the citadel of Grynium in Phrygia. He made 50 talents a year in tribute from the place. [Plut. and Emil. Prob. in the life of Alcibiades.]
- The Lysandrian feast and games were instituted in honour of Lysander. When Antimachus and Niceratus contested in Poetry, Lysander gave the garland to Niceratus. Antimachus was so disappointed that he burnt his own poem. The youth, Plato, cheered him and told him that ignorance harmed only the ignorant themselves, as blindness did the blind. [Plut. in the life of Lysander, with Diod. Sic. 4th. year 93Olympiad, from Apollodorus.]
- In the next Olympiad after the capture of Athens by Lysander, Crocinas a Thessalian won the prize in running. This was the 94th Olympiad. Xenephon [Xeneph. Hellen. 2.] states that there was an eclipse of the sun which the astronomical calculations show happened on the morning of September 3.
3601 AM, 4310 JP, 404 BC
- When Cyrus returned safely into Lydia, he remembered how his brother had shackled him and began to plan how he might avoid future problems with his brother and how he might make himself king. Therefore he gathered as many Greek soldiers as possible and made various excuses to gather a great army from many nations. He planned a surprise attack on his brother. [Xenoph. Exped. Cyr. l.1. Plutarch in the Life of Artaxerxes.] He sent Lysander a gift of a ship made all of gold and ivory, 2 cubits [a yard] high. He congratulated him with this gift for the great sea victory he had. Lysander put the present in the treasury of Brasidas and Acanthians. [Plutarch in his Lysander] Lysander came to him at Sardis to deliver a present from all the confederate cities. Among these things was perhaps that jewel or necklace, which Elian. [Var. Histor. l.12. c.1.] says, was sent to him from Scopas the younger from Thessaly. Cyrus welcomed him and showed him his orchard which he had laid out and planted himself. He entertained Lysander with a discourse on husbandry as recorded by Xenophon in his Oesonimies, in the person of Socrates.
- Among the Persians, Satabarzanes accused Orontes for keeping company with Parysatis, the king's mother. His other wife had always been faithful to him. Therefore Orontes was executed. Parysatis grew unhappy with her son and had Mithridatis that son of Terituchnes' son to be poisoned. [Ctesias.]
- When Alcibiades learned that Cyrus intended to make a war against his brother with the Lacedemonian's support, he planned to go quickly to Artaxerxes. He wanted to be the first to expose this treason and hoped to get some reward for himself as Themistocles had done before him. He also wanted the king's help to free his country of Athens from their Lacedemonian bondage. Meanwhile, Critias, one of those 30 tyrants, whom Lysander had set over the Athenians to rule them, told Lysander to have Alcibiades killed or all that he did at Athens would be undone. Lysander did nothing until a cipher was brought him from Lacedemon ordering him to kill Alcibiades. Lysander sent to Pharnabazus to let him know that unless he immediately gave him Alcibides either dead or alive, the league between the king and the Lacedemonians would be broken and war would break out again. Pharnabazus sent Susamithres' uncle and Magaeus, [whom Emil. Probus calls Bagoas] to murder Alcibiades while he was in a certain place in Phrygia called Melissa near the mountain of Elophois. He was preparing for his journey toward the king.
- The people of the country whom they had hired to kill him, dared not attempt it directly. In the dead of the night they put a great pile of wood around the house where he was sleeping and set it on fire. When Alcibiades escaped they shot arrows at him which killed him. They carried his head to Pharnabazus. His sweet heart wrapped the rest of his body in her own gown. [A little before he had dreamed that he was wrapped in it.] She buried the body in the same fire which the house was burned with and gave him as honourable a funeral as she could afford. [Ephorus l.17. cited by Diod. year 1. Olym. 94. Aristot. Histor. Animal. l.6. c.29. Cic. l.1. de Divina. Valer. Max. l.1. c.7. Justin. l.5. c.8. Athen. Deipnosaph. l.13. Plutarch and Emil. Prob. in their lives of Alcibiades.]
- Clearchus a Lacedemonian was a tyrant of Byzantium. He was overthrown by his own people under the leadership of Panthoedas. He stole away by night and came into Ionia. He learned that Cyrus planned to attack his brother. He befriended Cyrus and was made general of all his forces. Cyrus found that he was a proud, courageous and daring man. He gave him 10000 dracmas. He raised forces and marching from Chersonsus and attacked the Thracians that bordered northward upon Hellespont. Because it seemed to the advantage of the Greeks, therefore the cities of Hellespont contributed willingly to the support of the army. So that these forces were maintained secretly for the service of Cyrus. [Xenophon de Expedit. Cyri. l.1. Diodor. year 2. Olympiad 94.]
- Lysander brutally wasted the province of Phrygia and other places under the government of Pharnabazus. Therefore he complained about this at Lacedemon where he was held in great esteem and much beloved because he had much wealth and always supported their state against its enemies. Therefore the Ephori were greatly displeased with Lysander. They killed Thorax, his good friend because they found that he had a store of money in his house. They sent their cypher to Lysander and recalled him from Asia. Hereupon Lysander entreated Pharnabazus to write letters to justify him. This he publicly did. These were so well done that Lysander could not have wished for better. Since he had other letters already written, he inserted them into the bundle when they were sealed. He sent them away by Lysander to Lacedemon for the Ephori. Thereby, he was made to be the accuser against himself. [Plut. and Emil. Prob. in their lives, of Lysander and Polyanus, l.7. Stratagem.]
- Not long after this, he was permitted by the Ephori to travel to visit the temple of Jupiter Ammon. He pretended that it was to pay the vows which he had made before he entered into certain battles which he had fought in their service. However the real purpose was to bribe the priests there for his own ends. To that end, he carried with him a large sum of money. There he had an old friend of his father, King Lybis. In memorial of that friendship his father named his younger brother, Lybis. The chief priest of that oracle would not be bribed and informed against him at Sparta. When he returned to Sparta, he was called into question for it but was acquitted by the court. [Diodor. year 2 of the 94th Olympiad, Plutarch and Emil. Probus in their lives of Lysander.]
3602 AM, 4312 JP, 402 BC
- At this time all the cities of Ionia, except Miletus which was under the government of Tissaphernes, defected to Cyrus. When Tissaphernes was residing at Miletus, he learned that the Milesians were also inclined toward Cyrus. He thwarted their purpose by killing some of them and expelling others. When these came to Cyrus, he graciously received them. He immediately gathered an army by land and sea to restore to them their city. [Xen. De Expedit. Cy. l.1. p. (244).] Among his army was Socrates of Achaia with 500 foot soldiers and Pasio of Megara with almost 700 more. [Xen. De Expedit. Cy. l.1. p. 245] Cyrus' admiral, Tamos an Egyptian, blockaded Miletus with 25 ships. [Xen. De Expedit. Cy. l.1. p. 252.]
- Cyrus sent to Artaxerxes requesting that he would entrust those cities to him rather than with Tissaphernes. His mother supported him in this. When the king learned that there was no treason in this action, but Cyrus had kept an army only to oppose Tissaphernes, he was content that they should forget past differences. For Cyrus duly sent to Artaxerxes the tribute from those cities, which Tissaphernes had formerly held. [Xen. De Expedit. Cy. l.1. p. 241.]
- This Cyrus was never king either of Persia or Babylon. He is the man, whom Geor. Harvartus fancies was the king who after the end of the Babylonian captivity, allowed the Jews to return home with their governor Zerubbabel and Joshua, or Jeshua, the son of Jozadak the high priest. However, it was Artaxerxes Mneonon who was then king of Persia, and Johannes, who in (Nehemiah 12:11,22,23) is called Johanan and Jonathan, was the high priest of the Jews. The governor of the Jewish nation was a certain Persian Lord, whom Josephus Antiquit. [l. 11. c.7.] says was called Bagoses a captain of another Artaxerxes as Rasinus translates him. That is another descendent from Artaxerxes Longimanus of whom Josephus had spoken in the next precedent chapter. But the relationship which he makes between these men is this:
- Jesus was brother to Johannes the high priest whom Bogoses was a close friend and promised to bestow the next high priesthood on him. Confident of Bogoses' support, Jesus became very bold. First he had an argument with John and then a public brawl with his brother in the very temple. He provoked John so much that his brother slew him in the place. When this happened, Bagoses came and profaned the temple by entering it. He said that the high priest had already polluted it with his own brother's blood. For the next 7 years he vexed the Jews for that murder and lay a heavy fine upon them. Before they offered their daily sacrifice, they should pay [not for every year, as the common translations of Josepheus and from them Salianus have it] but for every lamb, 50 drachmas. This punishment continued only as long as that Johannes was the high priest. We determine this happened in the reign of Artaxerxes Mnemon, not Artaxerxes Ochus. With the beginning of Artaxerxes Mnemon's reign we therefore reckon this because we find mentioned Johannes or Johanan [though not then the high priest] in (Ezra 10:6; Nehemiah 12:23). For between the 7th year of Artaxerxes Longimanus to which that history of Ezra refers and the end of the 7th year of Artaxerxes Mnemon's reign [before which we suppose and take for granted, that this Johannes did not die] there was at least 70 years according to our account. So he died after living over 90 years and his son Jaddus succeeded him in the priesthood and held it to the reign of Alexander the Great. He died about the age of 83, if we suppose that he was born the end of Darius Nothus' reign. This is an aside. We now return to the history of Cyrus the younger, who died before he was 22 years old.
3603 AM, 4313 JP, 401 BC
- Cyrus sent messengers to Lacedemon and asked them that as he from time to time had supported them with men and money against the Athenians, so now they would send him men. He bragged that if they sent them footmen, he would give them horses, if horsemen, chariots, if they had lands, he would give them towns, if towns, cities for their reward. For their wages, they would have it not by number but by weight paid to them. Hereupon, the Lacedemonians determined what he asked for was right and that this war be to their advantage. Ignoring the fact that this war was against Artaxerxes, they planned to send him aid hoping to ingratiate themselves to Cyrus. If things did not go as planned they had a good excuse to Artaxerxes that they had decreed nothing against him in person. The Ephori sent letters to their admiral at Samos to do whatever Cyrus required. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.3. Diod. Sic. year 4Olympiad 94. Justin l.5. c.ult. Plutarch in the Life of Artaxerxes.]
- Therefore the Lacedemonian admiral with his ships sailed to Ephesus to meet with Tamos the Egyptian, admiral to Cyrus and offered Tamos his services to the best of his ability. He joined his fleet with Tamos' fleet. They sailed around the coast of Ionia to Caria so that Syenesis the governor of those lands, would not move to hinder Cyrus in his march by land against his brother. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.3., Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 94., Xenophon, Cy. l.1. p. 248, (252).] Diodorus says, that Samos, the Lacedemonian admiral at Samos, had 25 ships and Tamos had 50. Upon the more accurate testimony of Xenophon, in his book of this journey, undertaken by Cyrus, Tamos had only 25 ships and Pythagoras the Lacedmonian, 35, [for he makes him to be the other admiral and not Samos]
- Cyrus with his army of foot soldiers resolved to march into upper Asia under the pretence that he went against the Pisidians who often attacked areas under his control. Thereupon he sent for Clearchus the Lacedemonian, Aristippus of Thessaly, Xenes of Arcadia, the banished of Miletus, the army which besieged Miletus. He sent Proxenus a Boeotian with all the speed he could make to the Greeks and others to come quickly to Sardis. [Xenoph. de Exped. Cy. l.1.]
- When Tissaphernes determined that a much greater force was being assembled then an attack on the Pisidians would require, he hurried away with 600 cavalry as fast as he could to Artaxerxes. When he knew what was happening, he prepared for war. [Xenoph. de Exped. Cy. l. 1.]
- Cyrus left some of his trusted Persian friends to manage affairs at Lydia. He entrusted his good friend Tamos, the Egyptian admiral to take care of the cities of Ionia and Eolia in his absence. He marched with his army towards Caria and Pisidia under the pretence that certain persons in those parts were unruly. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 94.] "But how Cyrus gathered his army, marched against his brother, how the battle was fought and how Cyrus perished in it and how those Greeks who went with him, came back again safely to the sea, i.e.into Asia Minor, Themistogenes of Syracuse has recorded. Xenophon states this in the beginning of the third book of his Greek History. If we compare this part of the history with Plutarch's book, [de Gloria Athenicusium], he says that Xenophon wrote a history of himself. He recorded how he was a captain and what exploits he did. Then he said that Themisogenes of Syracuse had written it, thus giving away the glory of this his writing to another man so that the things therein written of himself, might find the more credit in the world."
- And another place in Suidas, he shows: "That the Expedition of Cyrus, which commonly goes with Xenophon's History of the Greeks and some other pieces concerning his own country, were all of Xenophon's own writings."
- For indeed, these books of the Expedition of Cyrus went before with the rest of his Greek Histories. In the end of it, he plainly says, that the writer of it was present at all those events. Therefore the work itself, which is everywhere full of Xenophon's noble acts, is attributed to him not only by Plutarch but long before him by Cicero, Dionysins, Halicarnassaeus, Hermogenes, Laertius, Athenaeus and [not to speak of our Divines, Eusebius, and Jerome] by Arianus of Nicomedia. Themistogenes also had the nick name of New Xenophon as we read in Photius and Suidas because he compiled the discourses of his teacher Epictetus in 4 books, as Xenophon had done for those of his teacher Socrates. Also, as Xenophon had written that Expedition of Cyrus in 7 books, so he had written the Expedition of Alexander in 7 books. Although Xenephon in his Expedition of Cyrus which has a brief preface to every book but not to the set in general as Laertius has noted. Where as in every book except the 6th, Themistogenes made a preface using a summary of the previous books which Xenophon did not do in his books. Themistogenes has details in those books which do not flatter Xenophon. Therefore, I am rather inclined to think that these books were written by Themistogenes and not by Xenophon. However, I followed the authority of those ancient writers. I have all along cited him by the name of Xenophon, as they have done before me.
- Now of those five points mentioned by Xenophon [Xenop. Hellen. l.3.] and said to have been written by Themistogenes the first four are entirely in the first book of this Expedition of Cyrus. (1). The gathering of his army. (2). Their marching into upper Asia and coming to the place where they fought. (3). The details of the battle. (4). The fall of Cyrus in that battle.
- Cyrus left Sardis, where Xenophon had met him after being sent for from Athens by Proxenus the Boeotian. There he volunteered for the action, as we find in the 3rd book and came to Celaenae in Phrygia. He stayed there 30 days. During that time Clearchus and other Greek commanders came from various parts to him. They assembled a force of 11,000 foot soldiers and about 2000 targeteers.
- From Celaenae, Cyrus came with his army to the bank of Cayster. He received money from Epiaxa the wife of Syenesis the king of Cilicia. [Cyrus was formerly thought to have been too familiar with her.] He paid his army the 3 back months he owed them plus the next month in advance. Epiaxa arrived at Tartius in Cilicia 5 days before Cyrus. She persuaded her husband Syenesis to come there also and to give Cyrus a vast sum of money toward the support of his army. Both Ctesias and Diodorus add, that Syenesis, like a wise man, supplied both Cyrus and Artaxerxes with the necessities for the war. For having two sons, he sent one of them to Cyrus with a competent number of men for his service. However he had sent away the other privately before to Artaxerxes to let him know that with such an army as Cyrus had, he dared not oppose Cyrus but publicly joined with him. Nevertheless he was loyal to Artaxerxes and would defect to him as soon as he could find an opportunity. Cyrus stayed 20 days at Tarsus where the Greek companies told him plainly that they would march no farther. Clearchus by his tact, changed their mind so they marched to Issus. This was the remotest city of Cilicia where Cyrus' fleet met him bringing him 700 foot soldiers, but Diodorus says 800. The Lacedemonians had sent these men to Cyrus under the command of Chirosophus. Also 400 foot soldiers who had formerly served Artaxerxes under their captain Abrocomus came into his camp. However, Abrocomus left Phaenicia with 300,000 men and marched to Artaxerxes and arrived 5 days before the battle. By leaving the place where he was, Cyrus passed the straits of Syria and without halting came to the place of the pending battle. He travelled from Ephesus to that place in 93 days and marched 535 parasanges or about 2000 miles or over 21 miles a day.
- According to Plutarch, the battle was fought at Cynaxa which is about 63 miles from Babylon. According to the 2nd book of the Expedition of Cyrus, that the fight was about 383 miles from Babylon. Jacobus Capellus, thinks it should be read, "from Susa". In the army of Cyrus there were about 13,000 Greek soldiers although Justin. [l. 5. c.ult.] says, there were not more than 10,000. Of these, there were 10,400 foot soldiers and 2500 targeteers. From the other nations, 100,000 men and about 20 hooked chariots. Artaxerxes had 900,000 men and 1500 hooked chariots. However, Ctesias Cnidius, who was in the battle is quoted by Plutarch and Ephorus who is cited by Diodorus state there were only 400,000. In the battle 15,000 soldiers of Artaxerxes died according to Diodorus and 3000 on the side of Cyrus. However, Ctesias in Plutarch states that Artaxerxes lost not more than 9000 soldiers and not more than 20,000 died that day. This battle was fought the 4th year Olympiad 94. when Xenaenetus was archon in Athens and one year before Socrates was put to death there. [Diogenes Laertius, in the life of Socrates]
- In this battle the two brothers met and Artaxerxes was first wounded through his coat of armour. Ctesias helped him recover from this wound. Cyrus carried on with good success against his brother, fearing no danger and was slain by an unknown hand in the battle. Artaxerxes spent his rage upon the dead body of his brother. He severed his head from the body of him and cut off the hand from the arm that had wounded him. He carried it about in a triumphant manner. When his sorrowful mother came to Babylon she tearfully gathered up his remains and buried them there. The battle between the two brothers is more fully described by Plutarch, from Ctesias and Dinon.
- When the king came to rifle his camp, he found and took the concubine of Cyrus. She was a woman much renowned for her wit and beauty. [Xenoph. l.1. p. 270. Exped. Cy.] She was a Phoecaean who was born in Ionia the daughter of Hermotimus. Her name was Mitto but was changed by Cyrus to Aspasia because she seemed equal to Aspasia the Miletian, who was the mistress of Pericles. See note on 3564 AM. Artaxerxes was anxious to get her. When she was brought to him all bound, he grew exceedingly angry with those who had brought her and laid them in irons. She was most highly esteemed of all the 360 concubines he had and he doted on her the most. [Plut. in the lives of Pericles and Artaxerxes. Ilian. Var. Hist. l.12. c.1. Justin. l. 10. c.2.]
- The Greeks on the other side did not know that Cyrus was dead so they kept on fighting. In their quarter they beat back Tissaphernes and all his forces with a squadron of about 6000 Greeks according to Isocrates. In his Panegyric, he adds: "that they were not of the best Greeks but the mere refuse of them and such as could no longer live in their own homes. These now in a strange country, forsaken of their companions, betrayed by their companies and bereft of their captain whom they followed to this war."
- The king came with most of his army to rescue Tissaphernes. He entered their camp and rifled it. However, when the Greeks returned from the pursuit of Tissaphernes, they recovered their camp and drove the king from it. They spent the night there with no food and went hungry the next day too. This is the end of Xenophon's first book of Cyrus' Journey.
- The second book describes how these Greeks under the command of Clearchus planned to return home again. Tissaphernes promised to escort them back with his own forces and to guide them. He broke this promise. He rounded up Clearchus, with Proxenus, Agias and Socrates with 20 more captains and 200 soldiers to be murdered. Ctesias also in his Persian History, [which the author of this book of the voyage of Cyrus had undoubtedly read] had formerly told us how cunningly Tissaphernes worked. Using Menon, a Thessalian and by his promises he captured Clearchus and the rest mentioned in the group. They were put in irons and sent to the king at Babylon. Ctesias tells how he was the physician to Parysatis, the king's mother. Through her he was able to help Clearchus while he was in prison. Through her request to the king, the king had promised that Clearchus would not be harmed. However, by the instigation of Statyra his queen, the king had Clearchus and all the rest of the commanders except Menon to be butchered. All the bodies were thrown out and devoured by wild beasts and birds. Only the body of Clearchus was covered and preserved by a huge sandhill caused by a strong wind. [Ctesias in the collections of Photius and Plut. in the life of Artaxerxes.]
- In Xenophon's 3rd and 4th book, he narrates the journey back to Greece of the rest of the Greeks whom Tissaphernes did not capture. Xenophon had the soldiers choose new captains to replace the ones they lost. Xenophon was chosen to replace Proxenus. He describes their journey through many enemy countries and how they endured the very cold winter and many hardships and dangers. Finally they returned home safely. This account is found in Diodorus Siculus, [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 94.] and in Isocrates' Panegyric.
- For his good service in this war, Artaxerxes gave Tissaphernes all the governments which his brother Cyrus held in addition to what he had before. [Xenoph. Hellen. l.3. Diod. Sic. year (4). Olympiad, 94.] He lavished many other expensive gifts and favours on him. Lastly, he gave him his own daughter for a wife. Tissaphernes was his most confident friend and servant. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 94.]
- For 10 days, Parysatis, the king's mother tortured the Carian who mortally wounded Cyrus in the thigh. She had his eyes pulled out and boiling lead poured in at his ear holes until he died. Mithridates, who first wounded Cyrus and bragged that he had killed him, was put between two boats. He lay there for 17 days until he was eaten out with worms. Parysates won Bagabaeus, the king's eunuch from the king at a dice game. It was he who ordered Cyrus' head and right hand to be cut off. She had him flayed alive and then his body was laid across three crosses and his flayed skin hung near it. After this by the humble suit of the king, Parysatis stopped mourning for her son Cyrus. [Ctesias and Plutarch in the life of Artaxerxes.]
- Parysatis had the queen Statyra, her daughter-in-law poisoned. Statyra had a trusted maid servant called Gingis or Gigis. Dinon says she willing helped in the death of Statyra. Ctesias said she did it against her will. The one who gave the poison was called Bellitara by Ctesias and Melantas by Dinon. There is a little bird in Persia called Rhintaces or Rhindaces which has no excrements at all but all its guts are full of fat. One of these birds, Parysatis cut in two with a knife and gave the poisoned half to Statyra as they sat at dinner. This is what Ctesias thinks happened. However, Dinon says that it was Melanta not Parysatis, who served her the poisoned bird. When the Queen died in extreme torments after this, the king suspected his mother for it. She was well known for her cruelty and implacable disposition of nature. He had the servants and carvers to be questioned and used the rack on them. Parysatis kept Gingis a long time in her own chamber and though the king required her yet would she not give her up to justice. At last Ginges desired to steal secretly to her own home by night. Artaxerxes captured her and punished her as a poisoner. He did not harm his mother but when she asked permission to go to Babylon, he gave it to her. However, he told her that while she lived, he would not come there. [Plutarch, in the life of Artaxerxes.]
- Aristo, with some others, surprised the city of Cyrene. In the battle they slew 500 of the principal men of the inhabitants. The rest escaped. These joined with some 3000 of the Missenians, whom the Lacedemonians at this time had expelled from their country. They fought in an open field with those who had taken their city. In the fight, many of the Cyrenians on both sides were killed. Almost all the Missenians were killed. When the fight was over, the Cyrenians agreed with an oath to forget the past and live together peacefully. [Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. (94).]
3604 AM, 4313 JP, 401 BC
- Tissaphernes [Diodorus incorrectly writes Pharnabazus] was sent by Artaxerxes to take charge of all the governments in Asia Minor. He also wanted all the cities of Ionia. [Xenoph, Hellen. l.3. Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 95.]
- When Tissaphernes came, all the governors and cities who had followed Cyrus were afraid and sued for peace. Tamos the Egyptian who was the most important of these, was governor of Ionia. [See notes on 3593 & 3603b AM.] He loaded his fleet with all his treasure and his sons except Gaus, [who later became the king's general] and sailed to Egypt. He visited Psammyticus the king and was confident of good treatment because of how he had treated Psammyticus in the past. However, Psammyticus disregarded past favours done to him and butchered him and his children to get the ships and treasure which he had brought. [Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 95.]
- The Greeks [of whom I spoke before] departed from Trapezus which was the first Greek city they came to. It is situated on the coast of the Euxine Sea in the country of Colchos. After a 3 day march, they came to another Greek city in the same country of Colchos. It was also a sea town as was the former town and was called Cerasunta. They stayed there 10 days and numbered their men. Only 8600 remained of the 10000 they started with. The rest were lost. Either they were killed by the enemy in the battle or they died in the snow or of other sicknesses on their return journey. From there, they went through the countries of the Mosynaecori, the Chalybes and Tybarenians and came to a Greek town called Catyora, a colony of the Synopians. 8 months or rather, as the order of the history implies, 5 months after the battle in the country of Babylon. They journeyed from there to this place in 122 days and marched 620 parasanges or 4650 miles [about 38 miles per day]. They stayed here 45 days. [Exped. Cy. l.5.]
Wednesday, May 12th, 2021
Eve of Ascension
Eve of Ascension