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Historical Writings

Ussher's "The Annals of the World"

The Seventh Age: 25 BC - 3 AD

3979 AM, 4689 JP, 25 BC
  1. Ten citizens of Jerusalem conspired against Herod. They hid their swords under their garments. One of them was blind and joined them to show that he was ready to suffer anything that would happen to the defenders of their country's rights. One of those whom Herod had appointed for finding out such things, discovered the plot and told Herod. When the conspirators were apprehended, they boldly drew out their swords and proclaimed that this was not for any personal gain but for the public good that they had undertaken this conspiracy. Thereupon they were led away, by the king's officers and executed by all manner of tortures. Shortly after this, the spy who exposed the plot and was hated by all, was killed by some, cut in pieces and thrown to the dogs in the presence of many men. The murderers were not caught until after long and wearisome inquisitions were made by Herod, it was wrung out by tortures from some silly women who knew of the act. Then the authors of that murder were punished along with their whole families. (Josephus, Antiq. l.15. c.11. )
  2. So that he would be more secure from the seditions of the tumultuous people, in the 13th year of his reign, [to be reckoned from the death of Antigonus] Herod began to fortify Samaria. It was a day's journey from Jerusalem. He called the place Sebaste. [Greek for the Latin name of Augusta] Its circumference was two and an half miles. He build a temple 300 yards long in the very middle of it which was exquisitely adorned. He arranged for many of the soldiers who had always helped him and also people of the neighbouring counties, to come and live there. (*Josephus, Antiq., l.15. c.11,12 ) Africanus calls it in the Chronicle of Georgius Syncellus, the city of the Gabinians, [p. 308.] for when Samaria was destroyed by John Hyrcanus, and rebuilt by A. Gabinius and repopulated [See note on 3947b <<4161>>] by the name of Gabiniun or Gabineiun. This can be understood only as the colony that Gabinius brought there. I am pleased that this was also noted by that man of learning and courtesy James Goarus [to whose great industry, the recent famous edition of the Georgian Chronicle is beholding.]
  3. Herod also built another fort previously called Strato's Tower to control the country. He named it Caesarea. Also in the large plain, he built a citadel and selected men by lot from his cavalry to guard it. In Galilee he built Gaba and Hesebonitis in Perea. These citadels were strategically located in the country so as to quickly put down any rebellion of the people. (Josephus, Antiq., l.15. c.11. )
  4. Augustus began his ninth consulship in Tarracon [a city of the Nearer Spain,] (Suetonius, in Octavian, c.26.) in the third year of the 188th Olympiad. The Indians asked for amity with Augustus. (Eusebius, Chronicle) Ambassadors were sent from King Pandion, (Georgius Syncellus, Chronicle, p. 311.) as we have also found noted from some Roman tables.
  5. P. Orosius confirms that there came to Augustus to Tarracon, ambassadors from the Indians who were from the farthest part of the east and from the Scythians from the north with presents from both their nations. (Orosius, l.6. c.21.) Horace wrote these verses about this occasion: The lofty Scythian and the Indians late, Came for the answer of their future fate.
  6. Horace in (Horace, l.4. Carminum 4.) an ode to Augustus wrote: The yet untamed Cantaber in thee, Mede, Indian, Scythian do mirrors see: Thou that preservest Italy from dread, And Rome, her glory and exalted head.
  7. Florus wrote (*Florus, l.4.1:349,351) "The Scythians and Samatians sent their ambassadors and desired friendship. The Seres [Chinese] and the Indians who live beneath the sun, brought presentes which included precious stones, pearls and elephants. Nothing so much spoke for their sincerity as the length of the journey which had lasted four years. The complexion of the men seemed as if they had come from another world."
  8. Suetonius wrote: (Suetonius, in Octavian, c.21.) "He induced the Scythians and Indians, [countries known only by name] to make suit of their own accord through ambassadors for amity with him and the people of Rome."
  9. Eutropius also wrote: (Eutropius, l.7.) "The Scythians and Indians, to whom the Roman name was unknown, sent presents and ambassadors to him."
  10. To conclude, Aurelius Victor lists other countries also: "Indians, Scythians, Garamantis and Bactrians sent ambassadors to him to desire a league with him."
  11. After Amyntus died, Augustus did not turn over the kingdom to his sons but made it a Roman province. From that time on, Galatia and Lycaonia began to have a Roman governor. (*Dio, l.53. 6:261) M. Lollius the propraetor, governed that province. (Eusebius, Chronicles; Eutropius, l.7.; Sextus Rufus, Breviary.) However, the towns of Pamphylia which were formerly given to Amyntus were restored to their own district. (*Dio, l.53. 6:261)
  12. In the 13th year of Herod's reign, very grievous calamities befell the country of the Jews. First there was a continual drought followed by a famine. The change in diet caused by the famine, caused a pestilent disease in the land. Herod had not means enough to supply the public needs. He melted everything in the palace that contained gold or silver. He spared nothing no matter how exquisitely it was made. He even melted down his own dinner plates and cups. He made money from this and sent it to Egypt when Petronius was governor there. Although he was plagued by a number who had fled to him from the famine, yet because he was privately Herod's friend and desired the preservation of his subjects, therefore he especially gave them permission to export grain. He helped them in the buying and in the shipping of the grain. So that the greatest means of the preservation of the country was attributed to Petronius. (Josephus, Antiq., l.15. c.12. )
  13. As soon as Herod had the grain, he first of all very carefully divided it to those who could not take care of themselves. Since there were many who through old age or some other disability could not prepare it for themselves, he assigned to them certain cooks so that they might have their food prepared. By his diligence, the people changed their minds toward him and he was praised as a bountiful and providential prince. (Josephus, Antiq., l.15. c.12 )
  14. From the 29th of August [that is, the third day before the beginning of the Syrian month Elul or of our September] on the 6th day of the week, the Egyptian epoch started which Albatenius in the 32Chapter of his astronomical work calls Al-kept [that is, of the Coptitiae or Egyptians.] He said the account and order of the motions of the stars are determined from Theon's calculations. To which from the account Dilkarnaim [or of the Seleucidae, which he begins with the Syrians, from the beginning of Elul or September] he says there have passed 287 years. This is how it reads in the manuscript, not as published, 387. For in this year, the first day of the month Thoth, both in the moveable year of the Egyptians, as in the fixed year of the Grecians and Alexandrians [as Theon speaks] was found to fall upon the same day [of August in the Julian account 29th.] This happens only after the full period of 1460 of the Alexandrian years and of the Egyptian, 1641 years which shows the renewing or constitution of either year. "This renewing happened to be made after 1460 years from a certain beginning of time, namely, the fifth year of the reign of Augustus."
  15. This is according to Theon in the explanation of mt pente eth, that is being ended or five years after the beginning of the empire of Augustus. Both Theon and Ptolemy agreed that this began 294 years after the death of Alexander or the Philippic account. From this Philippic account even to this constitution are 299 years as correctly noted in the astronomical epitome of Theodorus Metochita. Panodorus, the Alexandrian monk, did not intend anything else in discussing this period and constitution of 1460 years which happened on August 29th from the epoch of which he wrote that account. The motions of the stars and the eclipses are to ordered in the astronomical calculations. However, Georgius Syncellus who was very unskilful in these matters in his chronicle (George Syncellus, Chronicle, p. 312,313.) in telling his opinion, clearly perverted the meaning because he did not understand it.
3980 AM, 4689 JP, 25 BC
  1. Herod provided for his subjects against the harshness of the winter so that everyone would have proper clothing since their cattle were dead and there was a shortage of wool and other things. When he had provided for his own subjects, he took care also of the neighbouring cities of the Syrians. He gave seed for sowing. All the citadels and cities and the common people who had large families came to Herod for help and he was able to help the foreigners too. He gave 10,000 cors of grain to foreigners [100,000 Athenian medimni or 600,000 bushels] and 80,000 cors [800,000 Athenian medimni or 4,800,000 bushels] to his own subjects. [1 cor = 10 Athenian medimni] [1Athenian medimni = 6 bushels] (Josephus, Antiq. l.15. c.12. )
  2. Since Augustus was ill,he could not attend at Rome the marriage of his daughter and Marcellus, the son of his sister Octavia. He solemnized it with the help of M. Agrippa. (*Dio, l. 53. 6:206)
  3. On the first of January when Augustus entered his tenth consulship, the senate confirmed by oath that they approved of all his acts. He had promised every man in Rome 400 sesterces [100 denarii].
  4. When he approached near the city, [from which he had been a long time absent because of his illness] he said that before he would give the money, the senate must give their assent. The senate then freed him from legal constraints and that he should have absolute power and be sole emperor to do as he wished. (*Dio, l.53. 6:265,267)
  5. As soon as the grain was ready to harvest, Herod sent 50,000 men, whom he had fed in time of the famine to their own countries and to his neighbours, the Syrians. By his diligence, Herod restored the almost ruined estate of his own subjects and greatly helped his neighbours, who were afflicted with the same calamities. (Josephus, Antiq., l.15. c.12. )
  6. At the same time, Herod sent 500 select men to Caesar for his bodyguards. Aelius Gallus led these men to the wars with Arabia where they preformed valiantly. (Josephus, Antiq., l.15. c.12. )
  7. Aelius Gallus [incorrectly called Aelius Largus in the later editions of Dio] "was of the equestrian order" (*Pliny, l.6. c.32. 2:459)
  8. He was the third governor of Egypt under Augustus, of whom Strabo makes mention as his friend and companion. (*Strabo, l.2. c.12. 1:453,455) Strabo wrote that both of them saw the statue of Memnon at Thebes. (*Strabo, l.17. 8:123) Augustus sent him with part of the Roman garrison that was in Egypt into Arabia, (*Strabo, l.2. c.12. 1:453,455 l.17. c.54. 8:137) so that he might try to subdue those countries. This was on the border of the Ethiopians and Troglodytica beside Egypt and near the Arabian Gulf. It is very narrow here and separates the Arabians from the Troglodytae. Augustus advised him to make peace with them if they would otherwise to subdue them by force. (*Strabo, l.16. c.32. 7:353,355)
  9. For this expedition into Arabia, Aelius built 80 ships of two and three tiers of oars on a side, and some light galleys at Cleopatris, which was near the old canal of Nile. When there was no chance of any naval battle with the Arabians, he corrected his mistake and built 130 cargo ships. He sailed with 10,000 troops of Roman foot soldiers and their allies. These included 500 Jews and 1000 Nabateans under Syllaeus. (*Strabo, l.16. c.23. 7:355,357)
  10. At that time, Obodes was king of the Nabateans and was a slothful and lazy man especially about military matters. This was a common vice of all the Arabian kings. He had committed the government of his affairs to Syllaeus, who was a young, crafty man. (*Strabo, l. 16. c.24. 7:357; Josephus, l.16. c.11.) Syllaeus had promised Aelius that he would be his guide and would help him with provisions and anything he should need. However, he acted treacherously in all matters. He did not lead them safely by land or sea but through byways and circuitous barren routes. He took them to shores that were unfit for harbour and had dangerous submerged rocks or miry bogs because the sea never refreshed those places. (*Strabo, l.16. c. 23. 7:357)
  11. After many miseries, Aelius Gallus came on the fifteenth day to the territory of Album [Leuce Come e.g. White Village]. This was the largest trading place of all the Nabateans. He had lost many of his ships along with some of his men who died not from war but from the difficult trip. This was caused by the villainy of Syllaeus who said no army could be brought into the territory of Album by land. However, merchants come and go there by land with a large number of camels and men and in a way that is both safe and well supplied with provisions from one part of Arabia Petraea to the other. So many come and go in caravans, they seem to be an army for number. (*Strabo, l.16. c.23. 7:357)
  12. When the army of Aelius came there, it was stricken with the diseases of stomacaccis [scurvy] and scelotyrbe. These are diseases which are found in that country. One is as it were a palsy of the mouth and the other a lameness in the legs. These were caused by the bad water and plants they ate. Therefore, Aelius was forced to stay there a whole summer and winter to refresh his sick men. (*Strabo, l.16. c.24. 7:359)
  13. Zenodorus, who hired the house of Lysanias or the territory of Trachon, Batanea and Auranitis. He was not satisfied with its profits and joined the Trachonites who lived in caves like wild beasts. They were accustomed to rob and plunder the Damascens. The people that lived in those countries, were forced to complain to Varus, their governor of Syria. They asked if he would send letters to Caesar telling of the wrongs done by Zenodorus. Caesar wrote back that he would take special care to utterly root out those thieves. Therefore, Varro with his soldiers attacked those suspected places and purged the land from the thieves and took away the country from Zenodorus. (Josephus, Wars, l.1. c.15. Antiq, l.15. c.13.
  14. Herod built a palace in Zion which contained two very large and stately houses with which the temple itself could in no wise compare. He called one of them by the name of Caesar and the other by the name of Agrippa. (Josephus, Wars, l.1. c.16. Antiq. l.15. c.12.)
3981 AM, 4690 JP, 24 BC
  1. The 29th Jubilee.
  2. Herod removed from the priesthood Jesus the son of Phabes and made Simon, a priest of Jerusalem. He was the son of Boethus of Alexandra, who married his daughter, Mariamme. She was the most beautiful woman of that time. (Josephus, Antiq. l.15. c.12. Wars, l.18. c.7.)
  3. After the marriage was over, Herod began to build a new palace and made a town next to it called Herodian after his own name. This place was about 7 and an half miles from Jerusalem 60 toward Arabia where he had defeated the Jews when he was thrust out by the armies of Antigonus. (Josephus, Antiq. l.14. c.25. l.15. c.12. Wars, l.1. c.11,16.) Pliny mentioned Herodion and a famous town by the same name. (*Pliny, l.5. c.15. 2:275)
  4. Gallus left the Nabatean village of Album with his army and went through such places so that he was compelled to carry his water upon camels. This happened to him through the hostility of the guides. Therefore after many days he came into the land of Aretus who was allied with Obodus, the king of the Nabateans. This country was hard to cross because of the treachery of Syllaeus. He crossed it in 30 days travelling on unbeaten paths where his food was used up and he had few dates and used butter instead of oil. Finally, he came to the country of the nomads which was mainly a desert. It was called Ararena and was under the king of Sabos. (*Strabo, l.16. c.24. 7:357)
  5. Sabos was the king of Arabia Felix. No one came out to oppose Aelius. However, this journey was laborious. It was a hot sunny desert country and the waters that are naturally infected, caused the death of most of his army. That disease was not like any of ours. The head was affected and became parched thus killing many. Those who escaped death, had the disease go through their whole body into their legs and there afflicted the legs only. There was no remedy unless one drank oil mixed with wine and anointed himself with it. Very few could do this because neither was readily available, where they were, nor had they brought much with them. Among these misfortunes, the barbarians also, who at first had lost every battle with some towns also, used the disease as an opportunity to recover their losses. They attacked the Romans and recovered their lost towns and drove the rest of the Romans from the country. (*Dio, l.53. c.29. 6:269,271)
  6. These were the first and only Romans who carried the war so far into Arabia Felix even to the famous city of Athlula [or Athrula] (*Dio, l.53. c.29. 6:271) In that expedition, Gallus defeated these towns so named by previous writers: Negrana, Nestus, Nesca, Magusus, Caminacus, Labaetia, Mariba, [that was six miles in circumfirence] and Caripeta, which was the farthest he went. (*Pliny, l.6. c.32. 2:459) Had not Syllaeus betrayed him, he would have conquered all Arabia Felix. (*Strabo, l.17. 8:137) We now give the account according to Strabo.
  7. Fifty days were spent in travelling over Ararena through impassable ways and he came to the city of the Agrans [or rather Negrai] in a peaceable and fruitful country. Then King Sabos fled and the city was taken at the first assault. From here on the sixth day he came to the river. There the barbarians met him in battle array of whom there fell 10,000 and only two of the Romans. They were very cowardly and used their weapons unskilfully. Some used the bow, lance, sword and the sling. For the most part, they used a double edged axe. Then he took the city Asca which was abandoned by the king. From there, he came to Athrula and he easily took it and put a garrison there. He took supplies of grain and dates for his journey and came to Marsiaba, a city of the Rhammanites who were under Ilasarus. He attacked and besieged it for six days. Later from lack of water, he abandoned the place. He understood from the captives that he was only six day's journey from that part where the spices grow. However, he spent six months getting there through the deceit of his guides.
  8. At last, when he found out the treachery, he returned another way and came in nine days to Negrana where there was a battle. Then on the eleventh day he came to the place called the Seven Wells, so named from the wells there. He travelled through places that were farmed to the village of Chaalla and later to Malotha that is located by the river side. After that he went through deserts where there was not much water to the village of Egra [or Hygra] which was under Obodas and lies by the sea. On his return journey, he spent only 60 days in all whereas before he had spent 6 months. (*Strabo, l.16. c.22,23 7:353)
  9. While Aelius Gallus waged war with part of the Egyptian army in Arabia, the Ethiopians which dwelt beyond Egypt, were sent by their Queen Candace [a manly woman and blind in one eye] on a sudden invasion. They surprised the garrisons of three cohorts which were at Syena, Elephantine and Philae and carried them away captives. They overthrew Caesar's statues. Against these, Petronius, the governor of Egypt marched with less than 10,000 foot soldiers and 800 cavalry against 30,000 men. At first, he forced them to flee into Pselchis, a city of Ethiopia. Then he sent to them to demand the things that they had taken away and also to know the reason why they had started this war. They said that they had been wronged by the governors and he replied that they were not lords of the country but that Caesar was. They asked for three day's time to deliberate and in the meantime did nothing to satisfy him. He marched toward them and forced them to fight and soon routed them. They were poorly ordered and badly armed. They had large shields made of raw ox hides and used weapons like hatchets, spears and some had swords. Some were forced into the city and some fled into the deserts and others to the next island. Petronicus captured Queen Candace's captains after he crossed the river in boats and ships. He sent them to Alexandria. He went to Pselchis and captured it. When he numbered the captives and those who died in battle, he concluded that very few had escaped. (*Strabo, l.17. 8:137,139; *Dio. l.54. c.5. 6:293)
  10. From Pselchis, Petronius went to Premnis which was a naturally well fortified city. To get there, he had to cross those sand dunes which overwhelmed Cambyses' army in a sand storm. He took it at the first assault then he went on to Napata [called Tanape by Dio] where Candace's palace was and her son lived. She was in a nearby citadel and sent ambassadors to treat for peace. She restored the statues and the captives who were taken from Syena. However, Petronius stormed Napata and took it and her son was forced to flee. Petronius could not go because of the sand and the heat or conveniently stay there with the whole army. He fortified Premnis with walls and put a garrison there with enough food for 400 men for two years. He returned to Alexandria and sold most of the captives. Some died of disease and he sent 1000 captives to Caesar who had recently returned from the Cantabrian war. (*Strabo, l.17. 8:139,141; *Dio. l.54. c.5. 6:295)
  11. Pliny also wrote: (Pliny, l.6. c.35. 2:473) "In the time of Augustus, the Romans entered the country of the Ethiopians under P. Petronius their general who was an equestrian and governor of Egypt. He overcame their towns which he found in the same order that we list them: Pselcis, Primis, Bocchis, Cambyses' Market, Attenia, Stadissis. At the last place, the inhabitants lost their hearing because of the noise of the cataract in the Nile River. He also sacked Napata. The farthest that he went from Syene was 870 miles. It was not the Romans who destroyed the land but the constant wars Ethiopia had with Egypt."
  12. Phraates the 3was restored into his kingdom with much help from the Scythians. When Tiridates heard of their coming, he fled to Caesar with a large number of his friends. He desired that he might be restored into that kingdom and promised that Parthia would be subject to Rome if he would give him that kingdom. When Phraates knew this, he soon sent ambassadors to Caesar and asked that he would send back his servant Tiridates and his own son whom he had given as hostage to Caesar. (Justin, l.42. c.5.)
  13. When Tiridate's and Phraate's ambassadors were come to Rome, Augustus brought them both into the senate. When the senate appraised him of the matter, he heard the demands of each party. He then told them that he would not surrender Tiridates to the Parthians, nor would he help Tiridates against the Parthians. Lest they should seem to get nothing for their trouble, Augustus ordered a very generous allowance to be given to Phraates as long as he stayed at Rome. He sent back Phraates' son, that in lieu of him he might recover the captives and ensigns that were lost in the defeat of Crassus and Antony. (Justin, l.42. c.5.) (*Dio, l.53. p. 519.]
  14. There were mutual grudges between M. Agrippa and M. Marcellus, the nephew and son-in-law of Augustus. Each one thought the other to be more respected by Augustus than themselves. Augustus feared that the contentions would get worse if they both stayed in the same place. He immediately sent away Agrippa into Asia to govern those provinces beyond the sea in his place. Agrippa left the city but sent his lieutenants into Syria while he stayed at Mitylene, on the isle of Lesbos. (*Dio, l.53. 6:273,275; Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.93. 1:247; Josephus, Antiq. l.15. c.13.; Suetonius, in Octavian, c.66.)
  15. Augustus resigned the eleventh consulship and made Lucius Sestius, the great favourite of Brutus, consul in his place. The senate decreed these honours to Augustus. He should be the perpetual tribune of the common people. He could convene the senate as often as he wished although he was not a consul. He could make whatever laws he pleased. He would have always proconsulary power and even within the walls of the city. He would not need to renew this power. He would always have greater power in the provinces than the very governors. (*Dio, l. 53. 6:277)
3982 AM, 4691 JP, 23 BC
  1. Aelius Gallus returned from the expedition of Arabia and left the village Egra in the kingdom of the Nabateans. In eleven day's time, he marched his army across the harbour of Muris. From here, he marched by land over to Coptus and came to Alexandria with those forces that were able to bear arms. He had lost the rest, not in war, [wherein only seven were died] but by famine, labour, diseases, and the difficult way. (*Strabo, l.16. 7:363) Some of his medicines are mentioned by Galen (Galen, de Antidotis, l.2.) and among these was a formula which he gave to Caesar that he had used to save many of his soldiers.
  2. Marcus Marcellus died who was the son of Octavia, the sister of Augustus and the husband of Julia, the daughter of Augustus. (*Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.93. 1:247; *Dio, l. 53. 6:279)
  3. Augustus restored to the Roman people the control of Cyprus and Gallia Narbonensis because they did not need any troops and took control of Dalmatia. (*Dio, l.54. 6:291,1. 53. 6:221)
  4. The dancing of antic and stage plays, was first brought to Rome by Pylades Cilices and Bathyllus. Pylades was the first that ever had a choir to accompany him. (Eusebius Chronicles; Scaligeri Collectan. Grac. p. 390, Animadversion. p. 155,156.)
  5. After Herod had built Sebaste, he began to build most magnificently, another city in a place by the sea side where Strato's tower stood. He called it Caesarea and made an harbour of admirable work equal in size to the harbour of Piraetus [at Athens]. He finished all this in twelve years and spared neither labour nor cost. (Josephus Wars, l.1. c.16. & Antiq. l.15. c.13. ) Eutropius described it to Caesar thus: (Eutropius, l.7.) "The name of Caesar was so beloved by the barbarians that kings that were friends of the people of Rome, built cities in honour of him. One was called Caesarea. King Juba built this city in Mauritania and in Palestine there is another most famous city by the same name."
  6. Herod sent his sons Alexander and Aristobulus [whom he had by Mariamme the Asmonaean] to Rome to Caesar to be raised there. They stayed at the house of Pollios who was a good friend of Herod. Caesar entertained the young men very courteously and gave Herod the power to select one of his sons for the heir to his kingdom. Caesar also gave him Trachon, Batunaea and Auranitis. (Josephus, Antiq. l.15. c.13. )
3983 AM, 4692 JP, 22 BC
  1. After Herod had received Trachon, he took guides and went to the dens of the thieves and restrained their villainies and brought peace to the inhabitants. Zenodorus was angry from envy that he lost his possessions to Herod. He went to Rome to accuse Herod but could do nothing. (Josephus, Antiq. l.15. c.13. )
  2. After Herod had greeted his best friend Agrippa at Mitylene, he returned into Judea. (Josephus, Antiq. l.15. c.13. )
  3. Some citizens of Gadarea went to Agrippa to accuse Herod. He would not even hear their complains but bound them and sent them to Herod. However, Herod spared them. Although he was inexorable toward his own people yet he willingly overlooked and forgave injuries received from strangers. (Josephus, Antiq. l.15. c.13. )
  4. Augustus went into Sicily that he might settle its affairs. He went also to other provinces even as far as Syria. (*Dio, l.54. 6:295)
  5. Augustus sent for Agrippa whom he wished had more patience. [Because of some light suspicion of harshness, under pretence that he could not become emperor, he had left all things and gone to Mitylene.] Augustus asked him to come to him from Asia to Sicily. He ordered him to divorce his wife, although she was the daughter of Octavia, Augustus' own sister and to marry his daughter Julia, the widow of Marcellus. He sent him presently to solemnize the marriage and to undertake the government of the city of Rome. (*Dio, l.54. 6:297; *Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c.93. 1:247; *Suetonius, in Octavian, c.63,66.)
  6. Zenodorus was desperate and had rented out Auranitis, a part of his country, to the Arabians for fifty talents yearly. Although this part was contained in the grant which Caesar gave Herod, yet the Arabians hated Herod and would in no wise allow it to be taken from them. Sometimes they laid claim to it by invasions and force and sometimes contended for the right of possession before the judges. They won over some needy soldiers, who according to the custom of wretched men, hoped for better fortunes by seditions. Although Herod knew well enough, yet he tried to settle the matter by reason than with force, lest he should give an occasion for new seditions. (*Josephus, l.15. c.13. )
  7. After Augustus had ordered things in Sicily, he passed over into Greece, when he took from the Athenians, Aegina and Eretria, because as some reported, they had favoured Antony. (*Dio, l.54. 6:299)
  8. Petronius went with troops to prevent Candace the queen of the Ethiopians, who with many thousands, had attacked the garrison of Premnis. He entered the citadel and strengthened it with many provisions and compelled the queen to accept conditions of peace. (*Strabo. l.17. 8:141; *Dio, l.54. 6:295)
  9. Petronius ordered the ambassadors who were sent to him that if they would demand anything they should go to Caesar. They denied any knowledge of Caesar or where he might be. Therefore, he ordered some to escort them to Caesar. (*Strabo. l.17. 8:141)
3984 AM, 4693 JP, 21 BC
  1. After Augustus has settled his affairs in Greece, he sailed to Samos and wintered there. (*Dio, l.54. 6:299)
  2. The people of Armenia accused Artabazes or Artaxis, or Artaxias, [the son of Artavasdes who was taken by the treachery of Antony] and desired that his brother Tigranes who was then at Rome, might be their king. Augustus sent Tiberius to drive out Artabazes and to make Tigranes, the king in his place. (*Dio, l.54. 6:303; Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.3.)
  3. The ambassadors of Candace came to Samos and found Caesar preparing to go to Syria and to send Tiberius into Armenia. They easily obtained from him what they desired and he remitted their tribute also. (*Strabo, l.17. 8:141)
  4. In the spring, Augustus went into Asia when M. Apuleius, and P. Silius were consuls and from there into Bithynia. Although these provinces belonged to the people of Rome, he handled them with as much care as he did the provinces he was directly responsible for. He settled all things where it was convenient. He gave money to some and to others he imposed new sums over and above their regular tribute. He took away the freedom of the Cyzicenians because in a certain sedition, they had put to death some Romans after they had scourged them. (*Dio, l.54. 6:299)
  5. Augustus went into Syria, in the tenth year after he had last been in that province. (Josephus, Wars, l.1. c.15.) This was the 17th year of the reign of Herod [from the death of Antigonus.] (Josephus, Wars, l.1. l.15, Antiq. l.15. c.13.) He took away the freedom from Tyre and Sidon because of their factions. (*Dio, l.54. p. 525.)
  6. Zenodorus had solemnly sworn to the Gadarenes that he would never stop trying to free them from the jurisdiction of Herod and of being annexed to Caesar's province. Thereupon many of them began to complain against Herod and called him cruel and tyrannical. They complained to Caesar of his violence and rapines, and for violating and rasing their temples. Herod was not frightened by this and was ready to answer for himself. However, Caesar used him courteously and was not at all alienated from him for all this tumultuous multitude. The Gadarenes perceived the inclinations of Caesar and his friends and were afraid that they might be turned over to Herod. The next night after the meeting, some of them cut their own throats. Others who feared torture, broke their own necks and some drowned themselves in the river. Thus they seemed to condemn themselves by these actions and Caesar immediately absolved Herod. (Josephus, Antiq., l.15. c.13. )
  7. Zenodorus' bowels burst through and much blood came out of him. He died at Antioch in Syria. (Josephus, Antiq., l.15. c.13. )
  8. Augustus gave the tetrarchy of Zenodorus to Herod. (Josephus, Antiq., l.15. c.13. ; *Dio. l.54. 6:303) This was a large tract of land located between Galilee and Trachon, containing Ulatha and Paneas and the neighbouring countries. He made him also one of the governors of Syria and ordered the governors of that province to do nothing without Herod's advice. (Josephus, Wars, l.1. c.15., Antiq. l.15. c.13. )]
  9. Herod asked for a tetrarchy from Caesar for his brother, Pheroras. Herod gave him 100 talents from the revenues of his own kingdom, to the intent that if he should happen to die, Pheroras' estate might be assured and not subject to Herod's children. (Josephus, Wars, l.1. c. 15., Antiq. l.15. c.13. )]
  10. Claudius Tiberius Nero was sent by Augustus, his father-in-law, with an army to visit and settle the provinces which were in the east. he was an excellent well educated youth and had many natural talents. He entered Armenia with the legions and subdued it under the power to the people of Rome. He turned over the kingdom to Artavasdes. Thereupon the king of the Parthians was terrified by the reputation of so great a name and sent his sons as hostages to Caesar. Velleius Paterculus was the great flatterer of Tiberius. (Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.94. 1:247)
  11. All historians also mention that Tigranes, the son of Artavasdes, was at this time made king of the Armenians. Artavasdes was led captive into Egypt by Cleopatra and Antony. His oldest son Artaxius [whom Dio here calls Artabazes, by his father's name] reigned in the kingdom of Armenia. Archelaus and Nero expelled him by force from the kingdom and made his younger brother king instead. [He is called by Velleius, after his father's name, Artavasdes, but by all others Tigranes.] Thus Josephus (Josephus, Antiq., l.15. c.5.) related the story meaning by the name of Archelaus, the king of Cappadocia, and by the name of Nero, Claudius Tiberius although he was not yet adopted by Caesar. The narration in Horace is about Nero. (Horace, l.1. epist. 12.) Know further too what places do partake Roman affairs: Canteber to Agrippa falls, Claudius Armenia did by Nero take: The younger brother Phraates has all. Caesar's both right and rule imperial.
  12. With which agrees that of Ovid. (Ovid, Tristium, 3.) The Armenians sue for peace, the Parthian bow, Horse, arms, and ensigns are resigned now.
  13. Yet Dio affirmed that Tiberius or this Claudius Nero did nothing worthy of the preparations he went to. Artabazes, or Arsazius was killed by the Armenians before his arrival. (*Dio, l.54. 6:303) Although concerning this business, Tiberius boasted that he had done everything by his own power, and especially because there then were decreed sacrifices for it. Tacitus also seems to favour his account. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.3.) "Artaxias was killed by the treachery of his closest friends. Tigranes was made the king of the Armenians and brought by Tiberius Nero into the kingdom."
  14. Tiberius led his army into the east and restored the kingdom of Armenia to Tigranes and put the crown on his head in the tribunal. (*Suetonius, Tiberius [Octavian??], c.9.)
  15. Suetonius added in the same place that Tiberius recovered the ensigns that the Parthians had taken from M. Crassus. The Parthians at Augustus' demand, also restored the military ensigns that they had taken from Marcus Crassus and M. Antony. Moreover, they offered hostages also when Augustus came into Syria, for the settling of the state of affairs in the east. (Suetonius, in Octavian, c.21.) Phraates, who had done nothing he agreed to, feared lest Augustus should make war on Parthia and sent back to him the Roman ensigns which Orodes had taken at the defeat of Crassus and which his son had taken when Antony was routed. He also handed over all the captives who were in all Parthia from the armies of Crassus and Antony. Only a few were not returned who either had killed themselves for shame and some that stayed privately in Parthia. These things Augustus received, as if he had conquered the Parthians in war. (Livy, l.139; *Florus, l.4. 1:351; *Strabo, l.2. 1:37, l.16. 7:237; *Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.91. 1:241,243; Justin, l.42. c.ult.; *Dio, l.54. 6:301; Eutropius, l.7.; Orosius, l.6. c.21.; Casstodorus, in Chronicles)
  16. Eutropius wrote that the Persians or Parthians gave hostages to Caesar which they never did before to any and by delivering the king's children for hostages that they secured a firm league with a solemn procession. (Orosius, l.6. c.21) Strabo confirmed that Phraates (Strabo, l.6. 3:147) entrusted his sons and his grandsons to Augustus Caesar and desired with all reverence to merit his friendship by delivering hostages to him. Justin also confirmed (Justin, l.42, c.ult.) that his sons and grand children were hostages to Augustus. However, Tacitus said (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. init.) his real reasons for doing this. "He showed all duty and reverence to Augustus and sent some of his children to him for the strengthening of their friendship. He did this not so much for fear of him as for the distrust of the loyalty of his own subjects."
  17. Thermusa, an Italian woman, was Phraates' concubine whom he later made his wife. She thought to get the kingdom of the Parthians for her son, Phraataces whom she had born to the king when she was still his concubine. She persuaded the king, now her husband and with whom she could do anything she wished, to send his lawfully begotten children as hostages to Rome. (Josephus, Antiq. l.18. c.3. ) Phraates called Titius to a conference who was then the governor of Syria. He turned over to him his four lawfully begotten sons for hostages. These were Seraspades, Cerospades, Phraates and Bonones along with two of their wives and four sons. He feared a sedition and lest some treachery should be plotted against him by his enemies, he sent his sons out of the way. He persuaded himself that no one would be able to do anything against him, if he would have none of the family of the Arsaces to be established in his place. The Parthians were extremely fond of that royal family. (*Strabo. l.16. 7:237) In an old Roman inscription, there is added with Seraspadanes [for so he is there called] another son of Phraates who is not mentioned by Strabo. He was Rhodaspes, a Parthian and the son of Phraates Arsaces, the king of kings. (Gruter, Inscriptions, p. 288.)
  18. In the east, Augustus established his subjects according to the form of the Roman laws, but allowed those who were in league with him to live according to the laws of their ancestors. He did not think it desirable to take anything from his subjects or extend the empire but to be content with what they had. Hence he wrote this to the senate and at this time made no wars. He gave to Jamblichus the son of Jamblichus, his father's principality in Arabia. He also gave to Tarcondimotus, the son of Tarcondimotus, his father's principality in Cilicia except for some sea towns. These he gave to Archelaus along with the kingdom of Armenia the Less because the Mede who held the kingdom previously, had died. He gave Commagena to Mithridates who was only a child because its king had killed the father of Mithridates. (*Dio, l.54. 6:303)
  19. After Herod had escorted Caesar to the sea side, he returned into his kingdom and there built a beautiful temple of white marble in honour of Caesar. This was near Paniun, at the foot of those hills are the springs of the Jordan River. He also remitted to his subjects some part of their tribute under the pretence that they should have some relief after the famine. However, in very deed, he did this to appease their minds because they were so offended with such vast building projects of the king which tended toward the destruction of their religion and good customs. (Josephus, Antiq., l.15. c.13. )
3985 AM, 4694 JP, 20 BC
  1. To prevent seditions, Herod, forbade all private meetings in the city and too many feasts. He also had spies who would mingle in companies and note what the people talked about. Indeed, he himself would go in the night in the clothes of a common man and mingle in the company of the people to learn what they thought of him. As many as obstinately disagreed with his actions, he punished without mercy. He bound the rest of the multitude to him with an oath that they should be loyal to him. (Josephus, Antiq., l.15. c.13. )
  2. Herod required this oath from many followers of the Pharisees including Pollio and Sameas. Although he could not make these two take the oath, he did not punish them as he did the others out of respect for the reverence he bore to Pollio. He did not impose this oath on the Esseans whom he much esteemed for Manahem's sake who was a prophet. When Herod was a private boy, Manahem greeted him as king of the Jews and had foretold that he would reign as king for more than 30 years. (Josephus, Antiq., l.15. c.13. )
  3. Caius was born to Agrippa by his wife Julia. There was a yearly sacrifice decreed on his birthday with some other things. (*Dio. l.54. 6:301)
  4. Augustus returned to Samos and there wintered again. To reward their hospitality, he granted the Samians liberty. A great many embassies came to him there. The Indians then by a firm league, ratified the peace which they previously had desired by their ambassadors. [See note on 3979 AM <<5330>>] Among the presents that were sent by the Indians, were tigers, which were never before seen by either the Romans or Greeks. They also gave him a certain young man who had no arms, [like used to be displayed on the statues of Mercury or Hermes] who did everything with his feet instead of his hands. He was said to bend a bow and shoot an arrow and sound a trumpet. (*Dio, l.54. 6:305)
  5. Nicholas Damascene reported that he saw these Indian ambassadors at Antioch by Daphnis. The letter they brought mentioned more ambassadors but he said only three were alive whom he saw and the rest died because the journey was so long. The letter was written in Greek on parchment, in which was signified that it was sent by Porus. Although he ruled 600 kings, yet he did much esteem Caesar's friendship that he was ready to meet him wherever Caesar wished and that he would help him in anything that was right. Nicholas said these things were contained in that letter. Moreover they brought presents by eight servants who were naked and had only breeches on and covered with perfumes. Among the presents was the youth, Hermes, who had no arms, huge vipers, a snake 15 feet long, a river tortoise of 4.5 feet and a partridge larger than a vulture. (*Strabo. l.15. 7:125,127)
  6. Among these was Zarmarus or Zarmanochegas, one of the wise men of the Indians. He killed himself for vain glory's sake or from old age according to the customs of his country or that he might make a display of himself to Augustus and the Athenians, [for he had come into Athens.] He was made a priest of the Greek gods, although [as they report] in an unlawful time yet it was done as a favour for Augustus. He thought that he must die and lest some adversity should happen to him if he stayed any longer. He laughed as he leaped on the funeral fire with his naked and anointed body. This inscription was written on his sepulchre. "Here lies Zarmanochegas, an Indian, of Bargosa, who immortalised himself according to the ancestral customs of Indians." (*Strabo. l.15. 7:127,129; *Dio, l.54. 6:305,307)
  7. When Augustus returned to Rome, he entered the city on horseback in a kind of triumph. He was honoured with a triumphal arch that carried his trophies. (*Dio, l.54. 6:301)
  8. Augustus considered it very praise worthy that he had recovered those things which were formerly lost in war without any fighting. Therefore he ordered that it should be decreed that there should be sacrifices for this reason. A temple of Mars the revenger [in imitation of Jupiter Feretrius] in the capitol should be built where the ensigns should be hung up. This was done. (*Dio, l.54. 6:301)
  9. This temple he had formerly vowed for Mars before the victory at Philippi. He now proclaimed that he had received another like benefit from him and he performed his vow at the twentieth year's end. He imitated Romulus who had killed Acro the king of the Coeninenses and hung up his arms in the temple that he dedicated to Jupiter Feretrius. Augustus built a temple to Mars, the twice revenger, and then placed there the military ensigns that he had recovered from the Parthians. He also instituted the Circensian plays to be solemnized every year in memory of these things. Ovid wrote: (Ovid, Fasti, 5) It does not Mars suffice once named to have gained He prosecutes the Parthian Ensigns yet retained. A country guarded with store of horse, bows, plains, For rivers inaccessible remains. Other Crassus yet much spirited by the fall, At once of army, standard, general. The Roman ensigns did the Parthian bear, And, while an enemy, their eagle wear. This blemish still had stuck; But Caesar's might, Better defended Latium's ancient right: He took the ensigns, cancelled that disgrace, And made the eagle know her proper place. What profits shooting back, thine envious land, Thy swifter steed, O Parthian? thy hand Delivers back thine ensigns, and thy bow: Thou canst no trophies of the Roman show. A temple duly vote Bis-ultor thy Honour receiveth most deservedly. More honourable Romans celebrate His plays: no scene supplies Bellona's state.
  10. Horace adds: (Horace, l.4. Ode Ult.) ------------[Caesar] thine age Affordeth plenteous fruits to the fields, And to Jove's capitol our ensigns yields From Parthian pillars snatched---------
  11. Many of Augustus' coins had the inscription: SIGNIS RECEPTIS, for the ensigns recovered.
  12. Herod in the 18th year of his reign [as calculated from the death of Antigonus] told the Jews of his intention to build the temple at Jerusalem. When he saw that they were troubled, lest if he demolished the old, he could not finish the new. He assured them that the old temple would remain intact until all materials that were necessary for the new building were prepared. He did not deceive them. He provided a thousand wagons to carry stones and he selected from all the number of craftsman, the most skilful 10,000 and also a thousand priests that were clothed with priest's garments at his own expense and were able masons and carpenters. He ordered them to start the work since the materials were ready. (Josephus, Antiq. l.14. c.14. )
3986 AM, 4696 JP, 18 BC
  1. When Augustus' first ten year term had almost expired, he extended it for another 5 years and gave to M. Agrippa another 5 years also along with some powers that were almost the same, as his such as the tribunal power. He said that so many years was then sufficient although shortly after, he accepted more years of the imperial power so that his Principality might be made decennial. (*Dio, l.54. 6:313)
  2. The books of the Sybill's were worn out through age. Augustus ordered the priests that with their own hands they should write them out so that none other should read them. (*Dio, l. 54. 6:325,337)
  3. Augustus restored Pilades, the Cilician dancer who had been exiled from Rome because of a sedition. Hence Augustus won the favour of the people by this. When Augustus reproved him because he was always quarrelling with Bathyllus, a fellow artist and also a friend of Maecenas, Pilades cleverly rejoined: "It is to your advantage, O Caesar, that the people should devote their spare time to us." (*Dio, l.54. 6:327)
3987 AM, 4697 JP, 17 BC
  1. All the necessary materials for starting the temple where assembled within two years' time. Herod began to build the temple of Jerusalem, 46 years before the first passover of the ministry of Christ. This is confirmed by the words of the Jews: (John 2:20) "This temple has been built forty and six years before this."
  2. as that aorist tense is correctly translated by our country man, Lydiat.
  3. The building of this temple under Zerubbabel was started in the first year of the reign of Cyrus and for some time the building programme was interrupted. It was finished after twenty years in the sixth year of Darius, the son of Hystaspes. The magnificent building of this temple was begun by Herod at this time and was finished in nine and an half years. When comparing the time spent in building this most magnificent structure, we must take into consideration not only the labour of these two but their successors also. When it was completed: "many ages and all the holy treasures that were sent to God from all the parts of the world there were spent." (Josephus, Wars, l.6. c.6.)
  4. Herod did not pay for this alone. Much of his wealth was spent on generous gifts and on building so many palaces, temples, and cities. He was building the city and port of Caesarea which was his most costly building project at the same time he was building the temple. Tacitus calls it: "a temple of immense riches" (Tacitus, Histories, l.5. c.9.)
  5. The great building project of the temple that was begun by Herod was carried on even to the beginning of the war of the Jews under Gessius Florus, by generous gifts which were consecrated to God. (Josephus, Antiq. l.20. c.8. ) "When the temple was finished, the people realised that more than 18,000 workmen would be unemployed who had made their living by building the temple. They were loath that the holy treasure should be stored their for fear it should become a prise for the Romans. They wanted to provide work for the workman because if one had worked only one hour, he was immediately paid his wages. They persuaded King Agrippa [the younger] that he should build the eastern porch which inclosed the outer most parts of the temple."
  6. Agrippa had Lucius by his wife Julia, whom together with his brother Caius, Augustus immediately adopted both him and his brother and appointed them as his heirs to his empire. (*Dio, l.54. 6:327)
  7. In Cyprus, many parts of the cities were destroyed by earthquakes. (Eusebius, Chronicle)
3988 AM, 4698 JP, 16 BC
  1. After Marcus Agrippa had exhibited quinquennial plays [which were held for the fourth time after the battle of Actium,] Augustus sent him to Syria. (*Dio, l.54. 6:331)
  2. Herod sailed for Italy to greet Caesar and to see his children at Rome. (Josephus, Antiq., l.16. c.1. <1:426>) He sailed and stopped in Greece. He was present and a judge at the Olympic games in the 191st Olympiad, [in which Diodorus Tyaneus got the prize.] When Herod saw that those games were too grand for the place where they were held because of the poverty of the Elidenses, he gave them annual revenues so that their sacrifices might be made the more splendid and other things that might belong to the gracing such great games. For his generosity, he was declared a perpetual judge of those games. (Josephus, Wars, l.1. c.16. Antiq., l.16. c.9. )
  3. When Caesar had courteously entertained Herod at Rome, he returned his sons who had finished their instructions in the liberal sciences. (Josephus, Antiq. l.16. c.1. <1:426>) Caesar went into Gaul. (Dio, l.54. 6:333)
  4. Aemilius Macer, a poet of Veronen, died in Asia. (Jerome, in Chronicles) of whom Tibullus wrote: What shall poor Amor now do all alone, Since sweet songed Macer to the camp is gone?
  5. At Jerusalem, the priests completed the building of the temple, properly so called, because it contained the Holy and the Holy of Holies. This took about 18 months during which it was reported that it never rained in the day but only in the nights. In the following eight years, the porches, the ranges and the rest of the buildings around the temple were all finished. (Josephus, l.15. c.ult. )
  6. There is extant two descriptions of this temple, one was by Josephus, [who himself was a priest in it.] (Josephus, Antiq., l.15 c.14, Wars, l.6. c.6.) Another one was by R. Judas, [almost 120 years after the destruction of the temple] in a book of his Mishna, which was entitled twrym. We have a description of the former from Ludovicus Capellus at the end of his short history of the Jews. The later we have from Constantine Lempereur, as a preface in his commentary upon the book of Middoth. In the preface, he shows that the prevailing opinion of the Jews was that the temple of Zerubbabel and this one of Herod, were rightly considered the same building. Likewise he shows (Tacitus, Histories. l.5.) that it was thought to be the same temple that was captured by Pompey that was then besieged by Titus.
3989 AM, 4699 JP, 15 BC
  1. When Alexander and Aristobulus returned to Judea, they were highly favoured by all men. Salome, the sister of Herod, and her followers, feared that they would at some time revenge their mother's death. They spread gossip among the people that the sons hated their father because he had killed their mother. However, Herod did not yet suspect anything and used them very honourably as they deserved. Since they were mature young men, he selected wives for them. For Alexander, he selected Bernice, the daughter of Salome and for Aristobulus, Glaphira, the daughter of Archelaus, the king of the Cappadocians. (Josephus, Antiq. l.16. c.1, (2). )
  2. Augustus restored liberty to the Cycizenians and he also gave money to the Paphians [in Cyprus] who had been afflicted with an earthquake. He permitted by a decree by the senate that their city should be called Augusta. (*Dio, l.54. 6:343)
  3. When Herod heard that M. Agrippa was again come into Asia, he went to him. He begged him that he would come into his kingdom as his friend and guest. (Josephus, Antiq., l.16. c.2. <1:427>)
3990 AM, 4699 JP, 15 BC
  1. Herod entertained Agrippa in all the cities that he had recently built, and showed him the buildings. He provided the best food for Agrippa and his friends as well as all kinds of other delights and magnificence. He showed him Sebaste, the port of Caesarea, and in the citadels which he had built, such as Alexandrion, Herodion, and Hircania. He brought him to the city of Jerusalem where all the people met him in their best and festival attire and with joyful acclamations. Agrippa made a large number of sacrifices to God and feasted the people. Although he would willingly have stayed longer there, yet for fear of storms since winter was now approaching, he hurried to sail into Ionia. He and his friends were honoured with generous presents. (Josephus, Antiq., l.16. c.2. <1:427>)
  2. When Asander who was the king of Cimmerian Bosphorus, had died, he left his kingdom to his wife Dynamis, the daughter of Pharnaces and grand daughter of Mithridates. Her own son Scribonius, pretended to be a great grandson of Mithridates and to have received the kingdom from Augustus. [??] [Dio version seems confused here. Editor] He seized the kingdom. When Agrippa heard of this, he sent Polemon, the king of that Pontus that bordered Cappadocia, to make war on him. (*Dio, l.54. 6:345)
  3. As soon as the Bosphorans knew of this deceit, they killed Scribonius and resisted Polemon who came against them. They feared that he would be made their king. Polemon conquered them in battle but yet did not subdue them. (*Dio, l.54. 6:345)
  4. As soon as it was spring, Herod heard that Agrippa was going with an army to Bosphorus. He hurried to go to him and sailed by Rhodes and Chios. When he arrived at Lesbos, he thought that he would find him. Herod was detained by contrary north winds and stayed at Chios. Many came to greet him privately and he gave them many princely gifts. He saw the portico of the city, that was thrown down in the war against Mithridates and was still lying in ruins. It was not repaired to its former beauty and greatness because they were so poor. Herod gave them more than enough money to finish restoring the gate. He exhorted them to restore the city as soon as they could, to its former beauty and greatness. (Josephus, l.16. c.3. )
  5. As soon as the wind changed, Herod sailed first to Mitylene and then to Byzantium. There he found out that Agrippa had already gone past the Cyanean rocks, so he followed him with all speed and overtook him at Sinope, a city in Pontus. He arrived there with his ships, much to the surprise of Agrippa. He was very grateful for Herod's arrival and they embraced each other with singular affection because it was an evident sign of Herod's fidelity and friendship that he left his own affairs and came to him at so convenient a time. Therefore Herod still stayed by him in the army and was his companion in his labours and partaker in his counsels. He was also present with him on occasions and was the only man who was consulted in difficult matters for the love Herod had toward him and in pleasant times for honour's sake. (Josephus, l.16. c.3. )
  6. Agrippa defeated the Bosphorans and recovered in war the Roman ensigns which they long since had captured under Mithridates. Agrippa forced them to give them back. (Orosius, l. 6. c.21.)
  7. Julia, the daughter of Augustus and wife of Agrippa, went to Ilium at night. It happened that Julia and her servants who waited on the coach, were in extreme danger in crossing the Scamander River. It was greatly swollen by sudden floods and the people of Ilium did not know she was coming. Agrippa was angry that they had not helped her and fined them 100,000 drachmas of silver. (Nicholas Damascen, de vita sua. in Excerptis ab Henrico. Vales. edit. p. (418).)
  8. The ambassadors of the Ilienses, did not dare to oppose Agrippa. They entreated Nicholas Damascen, [who by chance was there] that he would get King Herod to speak for them and to help them. Nicholas did this for the ancient renown of the city and told the king the whole story that Agrippa was unjustly angry with the Ilienses since she came without notice. They did not know of her coming because it was night. Herod undertook the cause of the Ilienses and had their fine removed (Nicholas Damascen, de vita sua. in Excerptis ab Henrico. Vales. edit. p. (418).) and reconciled Agrippa who was angry with them. (Josephus, l.16. c.3. )
  9. The Bosphorans finally laid down their arms and were put under the rule of Polemon who married Dynamis with the approval of Augustus. For this there was a procession in Agrippa's name. However, he did not have a triumph although it was decreed nor did he write to the senate anything at all about his affairs. In later times, others followed his example. They did not certify by letters about their deeds nor did they accept a triumph, although it was offered to them. Instead, they were content only with the triumphal honours. (*Dio, l.54. 6:345,347)
  10. After the trouble of Pontus was over, Agrippa and Herod came by land to Ephesus, through Paphlagonia, Cappadocia and the greater Phrygia. From there, they sailed to Samos. (Josephus, Antiq. l.16. c.3. )
  11. The Ilienses returned into their country because they had lost all hope of obtaining a pardon. When Herod was about to go into Paphlagonia to Agrippa, he gave a letter to Nicholas Damascene concerning the remission of their fine and carried on to Chios and Rhodes where his sons waited for him. Therefore, Nicholas sailed from Amisus and came to the port of Byzantium. From there, he sailed to Troas and came to Ilium. After he had delivered his letters about the remission of their fine, both he and especially Herod, received great honours from the Ilienses. (Nicholas Damascen, de vita sua. in Excerptis ab Henrico. Vales. edit. p. 418.)
  12. Agrippa gratified Herod in many things on their whole journey through many cities. Through the intercession of Herod, the cities received many of their needs. If any one had need of an intercessor to Agrippa, he could obtain his suit by no one else more easily than through Herod. Herod also paid the money for the Chians who were indebted to Caesar's praetors and got them immunity. He also assisted others in whatever they had need of. (Josephus, l.16. c.3. )
  13. When they came into Ionia, they found a large number of Jews who lived in that country. When the Jews had an opportunity, they complained of the wrongs they received from those country men who would not permit them to live after their own laws. On the Jewish festival days, they haled them before the tribunals and forbid them to send holy money to Jerusalem. They publicly compelled Jews to give them the holy money for those affairs, contrary to the privileges granted them by the Romans. Herod took all care that Agrippa should hear their complaints. He allowed their case to be pleaded by Nicholas Damascene, who was one of Herod's friends and had now returned from Troas. Nicholas pleaded their case Agrippa who was accompanied by many of the most honourable Romans and some kings and princes. The Greeks did not deny anything but only made an excuse that the Jews who dwelt among them, were troublesome to them. The Jews proved that they were free born citizens and that they lived by their own laws without injury to any. Therefore Agrippa answered that both for his friend Herod's sake he was ready to grant them their request and also because they seemed to demand what was just. He therefore ordered that the privileges that were formerly granted them should not be revoked and that no one should molest them for living after their country's laws. Then Herod rose up and thanked Agrippa in the name of them all. After they mutually embraced each other, they said goodbye to each other and Herod sailed from Lesbos to Caesarea. (Josephus, l. 16. c.4,5. )
  14. A few days later, Herod arrived at Caesarea due to favourable winds. From there he went to Jerusalem. He called all the people together and gave them a report of his journey and how he had gotten an immunity for the Jews who lived in Asia. To further gratify them, he said he would remit to them the fourth part of their tribute. They were very pleased and wished all happiness to the king and departed with great joy. (Josephus, l.16. c.5.)
3991 AM, 4701 JP, 13 BC
  1. Augustus assumed the Roman high priesthood after the death of Lepidus who previously was a triumviri and the priest. Augustus would never take it from him while he was alive. (Suetonius, in Octavian, c.31.; *Dio, l.54. 6:355) This was done on March 6th, [the day before the nones.] (Ovid, Fasti, l.3.)
  2. When he was made high priest, he burned whatever books in either Greek or Latin that had no author's name or not of substance, for a total of 2000 books. He kept only the books of the Sybill's. From those, he selected some and placed them in two golden boxes at the base of the pillar where the image of Apollo stood in the Palatine hill. (Suetonius, in Octavian, c.31.)
  3. A colony was sent to Berythus (Eusebius, Chronicles) which was highly honoured by the favour of Augustus (Ulpian. C. Sciendum est d. de Censibus.) and received two legions who were sent there by Agrippa. (*Strabo, l.16. 7:263)
  4. Herod was incensed by the false accusations and machinations of his sister Salome and his brother Pheroras against his two sons whom he had by Mariamme, Alexander and Aristobulus. To bring down their haughty spirits, he began to promote his other son, Antipater, publicly as his heir to the kingdom. He was his oldest son whom he had when he was a private man and his mother also was of lowly birth. [Herod had banished him from the city, in favour of his two other sons and only gave him freedom to come there on feast days.] Herod often wrote to Caesar on his behalf and privately gave him very great commendations. Herod was overcome by the intreaties of Antipater and he brought into the court his mother Doris, who was a woman of Jerusalem whom he divorced when he married Mariamme. (Josephus, Wars, l.1. c.17. Antiq. l.16. c.6. )
3992 AM, 4701 JP, 13 BC
  1. Agrippa's ten years of government in Asia [to be calculated from the time when he was sent by Caesar to Asia and Syria and he stayed at Lesbos] was over and he was now ready to leave. Herod sailed to greet him and only took with him Antipater of all his sons. Herod gave Agrippa many gifts and asked him to take Antipater to Rome and to be received into Caesar's favour. (Josephus, Wars, l.1. c.17. Antiq. l.16. c.6. )
  2. When Agrippa returned from Syria, Augustus sent him to make war in Pannonia. He was granted the tribunal power for five more years. When he arrived, the Pannonians were terrified and stopped their rebellion. Agrippa died on his return journey in Campania. His body was brought in the forum at Rome and Augustus commended him in a funeral speech. (Livy, l.139.; *Dio, l.54. 6:355,357)
  3. Antipater was highly honoured at Rome and was commended to all his friends by his father's letters. Although he was absent, he continued to stir up his father by letters against the sons of Mariamme. He pretended to be concerned for his father's safety but indeed by his wicked practices, he was promoting himself in hopes of getting the kingdom. (Josephus, Antiq., l.16. c.7. )
  4. Against his will, Augustus made his son-in-law, Tiberius to be his partner in the government to replace Agrippa because his grandsons C. Caius and Lucius were still children. Therefore he betrothed his daughter Julia, the widow of Agrippa to Tiberius, and first forced him to leave his wife Agrippina, [the daughter of Agrippa the daughter of Pomponius Atticus.] Tiberius was upset by this because his wife was nursing his son Drusus and was with child again. (Suetonius, in Octavian, c.63., Tiberius. c.7.; *Dio, l.54. 6:363)
  5. Herod had now become an enemy to his sons, Alexander and Aristobulus. He sailed to Rome with them to accuse them before Caesar. (Josephus, Antiq, l.16. c.3. ) He took Nicholas Damascene with him in the same ship with whom he studied philosophy. [Nicholas Damascene in Sua vita in excerptis Henric. Vales. p. 421.)
3993 AM, 4703 JP, 11 BC
  1. Herod did not find Augustus at Rome and followed him as far as Aquilei. Herod accused them of treachery against him and the young men satisfied all who were present of their innocence. They were finally reconciled to their father after many prayers and tears. They thanked Caesar and departed together. Antipater also went pretending that he was glad that they were reconciled. (Josephus, l.16. c.7,8. )
  2. A few days later, Herod gave Caesar 300 talents who was holding shows and giving gifts to the people. In return, Caesar gave him half the revenues of the metal mines of Cyprus and the other half he committed to his oversight. Caesar honoured him with other gifts of hospitality and he gave him permission to choose which of his sons he wanted for his successor or if he would rather divide his kingdom among them. Herod was ready to divide his kingdom now. Caesar would not allow Herod to do that while Herod was alive. He would not deprive him of his kingdom or his authority over his sons. (Josephus, l.16. c.7,8. )
  3. In Herod's absence, a rumour was spread that he was dead. The men of Tracon revolted from him and started their old thievery. The captains whom Herod had left in the kingdom, were able to subdue them again. Forty of the leaders of these thieves were terrified by what happened to those who were captured and fled their country for Arabia Nabatea. They were welcomed by Sylleus [who was an enemy to Herod, because Herod refused to give him his sister Salome for a wife,] and he gave them a certain well fortified place. (Josephus, l.16. c.13. )
  4. Herod and his sons sailed home and they came to Eleusa [its named was changed to Sebaste,] a city of Cilicia. They met Archelaus, King of Cappadocia who very courteously entertained Herod and rejoiced very much because his sons were reconciled to him. He was glad that Alexander had honestly answered the charges that were made against him. They gave royal gifts to each other and parted company. (Josephus, l.16. c.7,8. )
  5. When Herod returned into Judea, he called the people together and told them what he had done on his journey. He told them that his sons should reign after him, first Antipater and then Alexander and Aristobulus. The last two he had by Mariamme. (Josephus, l.16. c.7,8. )
3994 AM, 4704 JP, 10 BC
  1. At this about time that lame man was born who was more than forty years old when he was healed by Peter at the gate called Beautiful at the temple. ((Acts 4:22)]) Agrippa was born who was the first king of the Jews by that name and died when he was 54 years old when struck by an angel. ((Acts 12:23); Josephus, l.19. c.ult. )
  2. Augustus married his daughter Julia to Tiberius to whom he previously had betrothed her to him. (*Dio, l.54. 6:363)
  3. Caesarea Sebaste was finished in the 28th year of Herod's reign, [beginning from the death of Antigonus,] in the 3rd year of the 192nd Olympiad. It was dedicated with great solemnity and most sumptuous preparations. Musicians were brought to see who was the best. Naked wrestlers and a great number of sword players and wild beasts and whatever was done either at Rome or in other countries were also brought there to perform. These sports were consecrated to Caesar and were to be held every fifth year. All this preparation, the king provided to be brought there at his own expense to show the greatness of his magnificence. Julia, the wife of Caesar [Josephus always calls her Livia] gave many things toward the sports. The total cost of the event was over 500 talents. A huge crowd came to see these sports. He entertained all ambassadors who were sent to him from various countries to thank Herod for the favours they had received from him. He lodged, feasted and entertained them. He spent all the days in seeing the sports and the nights in banquets. (Josephus, l.16. c.9. )
3995 AM, 4704 JP, 10 BC
  1. After the dedication and feasts, Herod began to build another city in a place called Capharsala, [or Capharsuluma, (/APC (1 Maccabees 7:31))] which he named Antipatris, after his father's name. He built a citadel which he called Cyprus after his mother's name. In honour of his dead brother, he built in the city of Jerusalem, a good tower not inferior to the Pharos and called it Phasaelus. Later he built a town by the same name, in the valley of Jericho from which the surrounding country is called Phasaelus. (Josephus, l.16. c.9. )
  2. The Jews of Asia and Cyrene complained through their ambassadors to Augustus, that the Greeks would not allow them to practice their religion and ignored the immunities which were granted to them by the Romans. The ambassadors wanted to obtain letters confirming these privileges. (Josephus, l.16. c.10. )]
  3. Herod had wasted his wealth by his great expenses and now needed money. He followed the example of John Hireanus and went by night without the knowledge of the people and opened David's sepulchre. He found no money, but large amounts of costly attire and ornaments of gold, which he removed. To atone for this, he built a most sumptuous monument at the entrance of the sepulchre of white marble. Nicholas Damascene mentions this monument but not the king's entering the sepulchre. He wrote the acts of this King Herod in his lifetime. (Josephus, l.16. c.11. )
  4. Antipater continued to implicate his brothers, Alexander and Aristobulus, by false accusations made through others. He often seemed to take upon him their defence so that making a pretence of good will toward them, he might more easily oppress them. By these subtleties he so wrought with his father, that Herod thought he was his only preserver. Therefore, the king commended his steward Ptolemy to Antipater and discussed all his plans with his mother Doris. Everything was done according to their wishes and they made the king displeased with those whom it was to their advantage that he should be angry with. (Josephus, l. 16. c.11. )
  5. Pheroras fell so madly in love with his own servant that he refused the marriage with Cypros, Herod's daughter who was offered to him by Herod. He was persuaded by Ptolemy, the king's steward, to promise to divorce his servant and to marry Cypros within thirty days which he failed to do. He also accused Herod to his son Alexander, that he had heard from Salome, his sister, [which she denied] that Herod was greatly in love with Alexander's wife, Glaphyra. This made the king highly displeased with both of them. (Josephus, l.16. c.11. )
3996 AM, 4706 JP, 8 BC
  1. The man who was diseased started to lie at the pool of Bethesda. He was healed by Christ 38 years later. (John 5:5)
  2. Alexander by the wiles of his adversaries was driven to desperation. He was reconciled to his father by Archelaus, the king of the Cappadocians who came to Jerusalem. (Josephus, l.16. c.11. )
  3. Archelaus was considered one of Herod's best friends. He received generous gifts from Herod and departed into Cappadocia. Herod accompanied him as far as Antioch. Herod and Titus, the president of Syria, reconciled their differences and Herod returned to Judea. (Josephus, l.16. c.11. )
  4. Herod went the third time to Rome to Caesar. (Josephus, l.16. c.11. )
  5. While Herod was away from his kingdom, those thieves of Trachona, who had fled to Syllaeus, the Arabian, infested all of Judea and Coelosyria with their robberies. Syllaeus granted them impunity and security for their thievery. (Josephus, l.16. c.13. )
  6. When Augustus was the high priest, he restored to the previous reckoning, the year as it was ordained by Julius Caesar. Later, through negligence, it was incorrectly calculated. (Suetonius, in Octavian, c.31.) In 36 years, there were intercalated 12 days where there ought to have been but 9 days intercalated. Therefore, Augustus commanded that twelve years should pass without any leap year at all so that those excess three days that had been added by the over zealous priests in thirty six years should be eliminated in the following twelve years which would not be leap years. (*Pliny. l.2. c.6. 1:191; Salinus, c.3.; Macrob. Saturnal, l.1. c. 14.)
  7. In the ordering of the year, Augustus called the month Sextilis after his own name August, rather than calling the month September after his name even though he was born in that month. He did this because in the month of Sextilis, he had first been consul, and also had had many great victories. (Suetonius, in Octavian, c.31.; Dio, l.55. 6:395) Macrobius records the very words of the decree of the senate. (Macrobius, Saturnal, l.1. c.12.) He also mentioned the decree of the people concerning the same matter. Pacuritus the tribune of the people proposed the law. This was when C. Marcius Censorinus and G. Asinius Gallus were consuls. (Censorinus, de die. natali; *Dio, l.55. 6:391)
  8. In their consulship there was a second census of the citizens made at Rome. In the census, there were 4,233,000 Roman citizens, as is gathered from the fragments of Ancyran marble. (Gruter, Inscriptions, p. 230.) In Suidas in Aunousq the number is far less of those that were numbered, 4,101,017. Suidas very ridiculously states that this number was for the city and not the whole world.
  9. When Herod returned from Rome, he celebrated the dedication of the temple built again by him within nine and an half years on the very anniversary of his kingdom when he first received it from the senate. His custom was to solemnize the day with great joy. The king sacrificed 300 oxen to God and numerous others offered sacrifices according to their abilities. (Josephus, l.15. c.ult. )
3997 AM, 4706 JP, 8 BC
  1. Herod had found that in his absence, his people had been greatly harmed by those thieves of Trachona. He could not subdue them because they were under the protection of the Arabians and neither could he tolerate their attacks. Therefore, he entered Trachona and he killed all their relatives. By this they were the more incensed [especially because they had a law by which they are commanded not to allow the slaughter of their families to go unrevenged.] Therefore they ignored all dangers and molested all Herod's country with continual excursions and driving and carrying away their goods. (Josephus, l.16. c.13. )
  2. When Augustus would resign his principality since another ten years was almost expired, he assumed it again as though against his will. He made war on the Germans. He sent Tiberius against them but he himself stayed home. (*Dio, l.55. 6:393) He gave money to the soldiers also because they had Caius along with them for the first time taking part in their military exercises. (*Dio, l.55. 6:395)
  3. Dionysius Halicarnassus began to write the books of Roman history in the 193Olympiad when Claudius Tiberius Nero and Cn. Calphurnius Piso were consuls. This he stated in the preface to those books. He was considered an historian by Clement (Clement Alexandria, l.3. c.1.) and a rhetorician by Quintilian. (Quintilian, l.3. c.1.)
  4. Herod sent to the presidents of Syria who were appointed by Caesar, Saturninus and Volumnius [the agent] and demanded that he might punish those thieves of Trachona who were wasting his country by there invasions from Arabia and Nabatea. They were told that the robbers had increased to about 1000 and began to make sudden invasions and to waste both field and villages and cut the throats of all that fell into their hands. Therefore Herod demanded those thieves be turned over to him, and required the sixty talents that he had lent Obodas under Syllaeus' security. Syllaeus had kicked Obodas out of the government and now ruled all himself. He denied that those thieves were in Arabia and he deferred to pay the money concerning which it was debated before Saturninus and Volumnius. Finally, it was determined by them that within thirty days time both the money should be repayed and the runaways from both countries should be turned over to each other. (Josephus, l.16. c.13. ) Syllaeus also swore by the fortune of Caesar, in the presence of those presidents of Syria that he would pay the money within thirty days and turn over those fugitives to Herod. (Josephus, l.16. c.16. )
  5. After the time appointed was come, Syllaeus was unwilling to live up to his agreement and went to Rome. Herod, with the permission of Saturninus and Volumnius who had given him permission to prosecute those obstinate people, entered Arabia with an army. In three days, he travelled as far as they use to do in seven. When he came to the citadel where the thieves lived, he took it at the first assault. He demolished this fortress called Raeeptu and did no harm to the inhabitants of the country. When a captain of the Arabians came to their aid, they joined battle. A few of the Herodians and about 25 Arabians were killed along with their captain. The rest of the Arabians fled. When Herod was revenged of the thieves, he brought 3000 Idumaeans into Trachona to restrain the thieves who lived there. He sent letters to the Roman captains who were then in Phoenicia, in which he told them that he had only used the power they had granted them against those obstinate Arabians and nothing else. When they inquired about this, they found that what Herod had said, was true. (Josephus, l.16. c.14. )
3998 AM, 4707 JP, 7 BC
  1. At Rome, Syllaeus received letters about what happened but they grossly exaggerated everything. These lies so incensed Caesar against Herod that he wrote to him threatening letters because he had marched with an army from his own kingdom. At first, Caesar would not so much as admit his ambassadors who were sent to plead his cause. They again petitioned to be heard and he dismissed them without anything being done. (Josephus, Antiq. c.16. c.15. )
  2. The Trachonites together with the Arabians seized on this occasion and attacked the garrison of the Idumaeans that Herod had sent to them. Herod was terrified by the anger of Caesar and was forced to bear it. (Josephus, Antiq. c.16. c.15. )
  3. After Obodas, the king of the Arabians [of Nabatea] had died, Aeneas succeeded him in the kingdom, who changed his name and was called Aretas. While Syllaeus was at Rome, he tried by false accusations to have him thrust from the kingdom and to get the kingdom for himself. He gave much money to the courtiers and promised many great things to Caesar. He knew Caesar was offended with Aretas because he dared assume the kingdom without his consent. (Josephus, Antiq. c.16. c.15. )
  4. Caius and Lucius, the sons of Augustus by adoption, were raised in the imperial house. They were quite insolent even when they were very young. Lucius, the younger of the two, entered the theatre unattended where he was received with a general applause. This increased his boldness and he even dared ask that the consulship might be given to his brother Caius before he was of military age. When Augustus heard this, he wished that there might never be a time of necessity as in his own case when the consulship was given to one that was not 20 years old. When his son did earnestly desire this of him, he then said, that this office was to be undertaken by one who could both avoid making mistakes and that could resist the desires of the people. Finally, he gave the priesthood to Caius and gave him permission that he might go into the senate and to sit with the senators both at the plays and the feasts. (*Dio, l.55. 6:401) He also granted that although they were not yet seventeen they should be called princes of youth. Augustus declined the consulship for them which they strongly wanted. (Tacitus, Annals, l.1. c. 3.)
  5. To make his sons behave more modestly like private citizens, Augustus granted to Tiberius the power of Tribune for five years. He assigned him to Armenia which had revolted after the death of Tigranes [who was made king by Tiberius.] This did not work as Augustus planned and the sons and Tiberius were offended. The sons felt ignored and Tiberius feared their anger and he went to Rhodes not to Armenia. (Xyphiline, ex Dio; Zonaras, ex Dio; *Dio, l. 55. 6:403) He used the pretence that he wanted to study the arts but his real reason was so the sons would be relieved of the sight of him and his actions. (Xyphiline, ex Dio; Zonaras, ex Dio)(*Dio, l.55. 6:403; in Excerptis, ab Henric. Vales. edit. p. 662.) He feared lest his glory might dim the beginnings of the careers of two rising young men. (Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c. 99. 1:257) Some thought that when Augustus' sons were now young men, Tiberius left the place and the position of second highest in the empire which he held so long. He followed the example of Marcus Agrippa, who went to Mitylene. Marcus Marcellus was admitted to public offices. If Tiberius was present he might conflict with them and detract from their glory. Tiberius gave that reason a long time later. (Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.10.)
  6. Some think that he went away because of his wife Julia whom he dared not accuse, nor divorce and he could not endure her any longer. (Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.10.; *Dio, l.55. 6:405; in Excerptis, ab Henric. Vales. edit. p. 662.) Others say that he was offended that he was not adopted by Caesar. Still others claim that he was sent there by Augustus, because he acted treacherously against his sons. (*Dio, l.55. 6:405)
  7. Concealing his true reasons, Tiberius asked permission of Augustus who was his father-inlaw, to go away from Rome and from his wife. (*Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.99. 1:403,405; Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.10.) Neither did he yield to his mother who humbly besought him or his father-in-law complaining that he also was forsaken by the senate. They resolutely detained him and he ate nothing in four days. Finally they granted him permission to go. He went down presently to Ostia and did not say a word to those who went with him. He kissed very few of them when he sailed. (Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.10.) At his departure, he opened his will and read it before his mother and Augustus. (in Excerptis, ab Henric. Vales. edit. p. 665.; Dio, l. 55. 6:405)
  8. From Ostia he sailed along the coast of Campania, where he heard of the weakness of Augustus. He stayed there a little time. However, the rumour increased as if he tarried for an occasion of greater hopes. He sailed to Rhodes almost in foul weather. (Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.11.) He took his journey like a private man, except that he compelled the Pharians to sell him a statue of Vesta which he dedicated in the temple of Concord. (Dio, l.55. 6:405; in Excerptis, ab Henric. Vales. edit. p. 662.)
  9. When he came to Rhodes, he was contented with a small house there and a slightly larger one in the country. He lived a most retired life. He sometimes walked into their gymnasiums without either sergeant or guard. He gave and received courtesies from the Greeks on equal terms. (Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.11) Nevertheless, all the proconsuls and lieutenants who were going into foreign provinces, came there to visit him. They always submitted their fasces to him. Although as a private citizen, he confessed that his retirement was more honourable than when he was in the government. (Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.99. 1:257) In his retirement, he diligently listened to Theodorus the Gadarean, a rhetorician, who desired to be called the Rhodian. (Quintil. l.3. c.1.)
  10. There was a great conjunction of the planets which only occurs once every 800 years.
  11. Aeneas, who is called Aretas, the new king of the Arabians of Nabatea sent letters and gifts to Caesar which included a crown worth many talents. In his letters, he accused Syllaeus of many crimes and of being a most wicked servant who had poisoned Obodas. While Obodas was alive, Syllaeus had done as he pleased. Caesar would not even hear his ambassadors and also despised his presents and dismissed them without anything done. (Josephus, Antiq., l.16. c.15. )
  12. Herod was compelled by the wrongs and insolence of the Arabians, to send Nicholas Damascene to Rome to see if he could get any justice from Caesar through his friend's mediation. (Josephus, Antiq., l.16. c.15. )
  13. The discord of Herod with his sons that he had by Mariamme was greatly increased by the wiles of Eurichus, a Lacedemonian. He was the same person [unless I am deceived] who fled 25 years earlier with Antony from the battle of Actium. He was now being entertained by Herod and stayed at Antipater's house. He had ingratiated himself to Alexander. Herod gave him 50 talents for information against Alexander. Eurichus went to Archelaus, the king of Cappadocia and bragged how he had reconciled Alexander to his father's favour again. He received money from Archelaus also and returned to Lacedemon. There he continued his wicked ways and he was banished from Lacedemon. (Josephus, Antiq., l.16. c.16. )
  14. Herod made diligent inquiry about his sons. He put to death, by extreme torture, many of his own and of his son's friends. However, he found nothing wrong except that some were too free in their complaints about these unfortunate young men. They complained of their father's immoderate cruelty and of the dishonest ease of listening to any gossip of wicked men. They noted the impiety and wicked deceits of their brother Antipater and of the faction that was combined against them. They thought to escape further harm by fleeing to Archelaus. His two sons did not deny this but Herod put them in prison, as if they were guilty of treason against their father. He said that he would punish them accordingly as his affairs went at Rome. Concerning this business, he sent letters to Caesar by Volumnius, [the general of his army] as Josephus calls him, (Josephus, Wars, l.1. c.17.] and Olympius, his friend. Herod ordered that on their trip they should stop at Eleusa, a town of Cilicia and give a letter to Archelaus. They should expostulate with him because he was a partner in his sons' plans. (Josephus, Antiq., l.16. c.16. )
  15. At Rome Nicholas Damascene allied himself with the Arabians who came to accuse Syllaeus. He claimed that he was Herod's accuser before Augustus and not Herod's defender otherwise he would not likely have been allowed to speak and turned away as others had been. When Nicholas had exposed publicly many of Syllaeus' crimes, he also added that Caesar was misled by his lies in the case of Herod. When he had so publicly shown and had confirmed by certain and authentic records, Caesar condemned Syllaeus and remanded him to the province that he might be punished after he had paid his debt. (Josephus, Antiq., l.16. c.16. )
  16. From this time, Augustus was reconciled to Aretas and Herod and then received his presents which he so often had rejected. He confirmed by his authority, the kingdom of the Arabians on him. He advised Herod also by letters, that he should call a council at Berytus and meet with the presidents of Syria, Archelaus, the king of the Cappadocians, and others of his friends and noble men. Together they should settle the whole business. (Josephus, Antiq., l.16. c.16. )
  17. In the isle of Cos, an earthquake destroyed much property. (Eusebius, Chronicles)
  18. The angel, Gabriel, [who had in time past foretold to Daniel the coming of the Messiah, by a definite number of weeks of years] appeared at the right side of the altar of incense to Zacharias, the priest of the course of Abia as he was offering incense in the temple of the Lord according to the custom of the priest's office. (Exodus 30:7,8) He told him that there would be born to him who was now old and to his aged wife Elizabeth, who was barren, a son. He would be called John, a Nazarite, and be the forerunner of the Lord. He would minister in the spirit and power of Elijah. Zacharias did not believe the promise and was made dumb. (Luke 1:5-22)
3999 AM, 4708 JP, 6 BC
  1. After the days of his ministry were finished, Zacharias returned home and his wife Elizabeth conceived a son by him and hid herself five months, saying: "Thus hath the Lord dealt with me in the days wherein he looked on me, to take away my reproach among men." (Luke 1:23-25)
  2. When Herod received Augustus' letters, he rejoiced exceedingly because he was restored into his favour and he was given the power to do what he wanted with his sons. He convened by messengers all those whom Caesar had appointed to meet at Berythus except for Archelaus who kept his sons not far from the city, in Plaran a city of the Sidonians. First of all Saturninus, one who had been a consul and one of great dignity spoke his opinion. He was moderate and said that indeed the sons of Herod were to be condemned but not to be put to death. After him his three sons who were their father's lieutenants, were of the same opinion. On the other side Volumnius stated that they were to be punished with death because they were so impious toward their father. Most followed his opinion. Then the king took his sons with him to Tyre where Nicolaus arrived as he came from Rome. After Herod had conferred with him concerning his sons, he ordered Nicolaus to sail with him to Caesarea. (Josephus, l.16. c.ult. )
  3. At Caesarea a certain old soldier named Tero smartly reprehended Herod for the wickedness he planned against his sons and told him that he and 300 captains were of the same opinion. Herod ordered him to be cast into prison. Trypho, the king's barber used this occasion and accused Tero. He said that he had been often solicited by Tero that he would cut the king's throat with his razor as he was trimming him. Immediately both the barber and Tero and his son were tortured. His son saw his father so cruelly handled. To free him from the tortures, he were unadvisedly merciful and accused him of intending to murder the king. Then Herod brought those 300 captains together with Tero and his son and the barber and accused them before the people. The people threw anything that came next to hand and killed everyone of them. (Josephus, l.16. c.ult. )
  4. Alexander and Aristobulus were led to Sebaste and there strangled by their father's command. Their bodies were buried in the citadel of Alexandrion where Alexander their grandfather on their mother's side, and many of their family were buried. (Josephus, Antiq., l. 16. c.ult. , Wars, l.1. c.17.)
  5. When Augustus had assumed the twelfth consulship, he brought Caius into the court who was now of age and designed him "Prince of Youth", and made him a prefect of a tribe, (Suetonius, in Octavian, c.26.; Zonaras, ex Dio; *Dio, l.55. 6:405) This title of prince was given him by: "all the Roman equestrians that gave him silver spears."
  6. Augustus stated this in the breviary of his deeds. Augustus also mentions the consulship that was then decreed both to Caius and Lucius. "In respect of honouring me, the senate and people of Rome designed them consuls when they were only fifteen years old so that they might enter into that office after five years, to be calculated from that day that they were brought into the court."
  7. Thus the Ancyran Marble has it. (Gruter, Inscriptions, p. 231) Whereas in another Roman stone it is said that the people created Caius consul when he was only fourteen years old. [For "created" it means "designed" for at this time his fourteenth year was ended and he was entering on his fifteenth.]
  8. After his brothers were dead, Antipater, intended also to remove his father. Since Antipater knew he was hated by many in the kingdom, he endeavoured by bribes to get the good will of his friends at Rome and in Judea. He especially solicited Saturnius, the president of Syria, and Pheroras and Salome, the brother and sister of Herod. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.1. <1:451>)
  9. Herod sent home Glaphira the widow of his son Alexander to Archelaus, her father, the king of Cappadocia. He gave her also a dowry from the king's treasury lest some controversy should arise concerning it. He took good care of the young children of Alexander and Aristobulus. Antipater was grieved by this and feared that when they were come of age, that they would restrain his power. Hence, he plotted their destruction also and he so overcame Herod by his intreaties, that he would allow him to marry the daughter of Aristobulus and allow Antipater's son to marry the daughter of his uncle, Pheroras. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.1. <1:451>)
  10. Herod invited Zamaris, a Babylonian Jew, and gave him a country in Trachonis to inhabit so that he might guard that country against thieves. He came with 500 cavalry and 100 of his relatives. He built various citadels in various places around Trachonis and also at Bathyra. With these he gave safe passage to the Jews who came from Babylon to the feasts at Jerusalem from the thiefs of the Trachonites and others. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.1. )
  11. Antipater plotted treason against his father and involved his uncle Pheroras with him along with some of the king's women who belong mainly to the Pharisees. Salome remained loyal to her brother Herod. The Pharisees were a crafty people, arrogant and enemies to kings. Thereupon when as the whole country was to swear loyalty to the king and Caesar, they alone would not swear. They numbered more than 6000. They were fined by the king for this reason and the wife of Pheroras paid their fine for them. Since they were thought to be able to foresee the future, in return they foretold her that it was decreed that the kingdom would be taken from Herod and his children and would be given to her and her husband and their children. Salome told Herod about this and that they had solicited and corrupted many of his courtiers with bribes. Herod killed the leading Pharisees who were involved along with the eunuch Dagoas and his catamite, Carus who was commended to him for his handsomeness. Herod also killed whomever he had found of his family that had conspired with the Pharisees. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.3. )
  12. After Herod had convicted the Pharisees and punished them, he called a council of his friends. Before them, he began an accusation against Pheroras' wife. When Pheroras would not forsake her in favour of his brother, Herod forbid Antipater to associate with Pheroras. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.3. )
  13. To remove all suspicion of his father from himself, Antipater through his friends who lived at Rome, requested that Herod should send Antipater immediately to Augustus. Herod sent along with him many expensive presents and his will. In it he stated that Antipater should be king but if he died then Herod's son, Herod Philip, whom he had by Mariamme, the daughter of Simon the high priest, would be the king. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.4.
  14. In the sixth month after John was conceived, the angel, Gabriel, was sent by God to Nazareth in Galilee, to the most blessed virgin Mary who was betrothed to Joseph. They were both of the tribe of Judah and of David's family. He greeted her and declared that she should bring forth the Son of God and should call his name, Jesus. She was more fully instructed by the angel of the admirable manner of her conception to be performed by the power of the Holy Ghost who would overshadow her. With great faith, she said that it should be to the handmaid of the Lord according to thy word. (Luke 1:26-38)
  15. Christ was thus conceived and the mother of the Lord hurried into the hill country to a city of Judah. [That is, Hebron, a city of the priests located in the mountains of Judah (Joshua 21:10,11)] When she had entered into the house of Zacharias, the priest and had greeted her cousin, Elizabeth, she perceived the child to leap in her womb. Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost and declared that Mary was blessed. She believed this and confirmed that those things should be performed that were told her by the Lord. Mary imitated that song of Hannah, (1 Samuel 2:1-10) and spoke that divine hymn, "My soul doth magnify the Lord, &c." Mary stayed with her about three months. (Luke 1:39-56)
  16. Syllaeus, the Arabian, went to Rome but had done nothing which Caesar had ordered him to do. Antipater accused him before Caesar of the same crimes that Nicolaus Damascene had previously accused him of. There was also present another accuser, Aretas [the king of the Nabateans] who accused him of the murder of many honourable men without his consent. He especially complained about the murder of Sohemus who was a man most famous for all virtue. He also complained about the murder of Fabalus, Caesar's agent. (Josephus, Wars, l.1. c.18. Antiq., l.17. c.4. )
  17. Herod banished his brother Pheroras into his tetrarchy because he so obstinately persisted in the love of his wife. He went willingly and swore that he would never return until he heard of Herod's death. Soon after that, Herod became sick and often sent for him to receive some private instructions from him as he lay on his death bed. He refused to come for his oath's sake. (Josephus, Wars. l.1. c.19. Antiq. l.17. c.5. ]
  18. When the time of Elizabeth was come, she gave birth to a son. When he was to be circumcised the eighth day the bystanders would have had him called Zacharias, after his father's name but his parents said that they would have him named John. Zacharias had his speech restored and was filled with the Holy Ghost and prophesied saying, "Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, &c." (Luke 1:57-68) When Joseph found his betrothed wife, Mary with child, he was willing to put her away quietly. He was told by God in a dream that she had conceived by the Holy Ghost and should bring forth her son, Jesus, who would save his people from their sins. He then took her as his wife. (Matthew 1:18-24)
  19. When Pheroras became sick beyond all hope of getting well, Herod, his brother, came and visited him and very kindly sought help for him. However, he died within a few days. Herod brought his body to Jerusalem and buried it there. Herod honoured him with public mourning. (Josephus, Wars, l.1. c.19. Antiq. l.17. c.5. )
  20. Two of Pherora's freed men who were most dear to him, [who were Taphenites] told Herod, how he had been killed with poison by Doris, the mother of Antipater. Herod inquired into this villainy and by luck he by little and little found out much greater villainies and the obvious treasons of his son, Antipater. Antipater on his journey to Rome, had given a deadly poison to Pheroras. Theudon, the brother of Doris, sent it from Egypt by Antiphilus, one of Antipator's friends, to kill his father. Theudon did this when he was away so that no one would suspect he had anything to do with his father's death. (Josephus, Antiq. l.17. c.6. )
  21. Thereupon Herod expelled Doris, the mother of Antipater, from the palace and took her jewels from her which were worth many talents. Herod divorced his wife, another Mariamme, the daughter of the high priest, who was in on this plot. He removed her son from his will, where he was appointed successor. He also deprived his father-in-law of the high priesthood and substituted Matthias, the son of Theophilus who was born at Jerusalem. (Josephus, Antiq. l.17. c.6. )
4000 AM, 4709 JP, 5 BC
  1. On the day of atonement, when there was a solemn fast of the Jews, the new high priest Matthias could not perform the divine service because he had suffered from nocturnal pollution. Therefore Joseph, the son of Ellemus was appointed to be his assistant and substitute, since he was his relative and the same day he entered into the Holy of Holies. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c. 8. )
  2. Bathyllus, the freed man of Antipater came from Rome. When he was tortured, he confessed that he had brought poison which he gave to Antipater's mother for Pheroras. He said if the first poison was too weak, they could certainly kill him with this one. Antipater had his friends at Rome sent letters to the king. These accused Archelaus and Philip, Herod's sons, of complaining about the murder of Alexander and Aristobulus and pitied the misfortune of their innocent brothers. These young men were at that time at Rome to study but now their father ordered them to return. Thereupon Antipater bribed his friends with large gifts that they might make his father suspect these two men who stood in the way of Antipater's ambitions. Antipater himself, wrote to his father concerning them as if he were excusing them because they were young. (Josephus, l.17. c.6. , Wars, l.1. c.20.)
  3. Augustus ordered that all the Roman world should be taxed. This taxing first happened when Cyrenius was governor of Syria. (Luke 2:1) From this a little book was made by Augustus, containing all the public riches, number of Roman citizens and armed allies. It listed the navies, kingdoms and provinces. It had what tribute and customs were required to be paid. (Tacitus, Annals, l.1. c.11.)
  4. P. Sulpicius Quirinius is called in the Greek Kutwiou or Kurniou had been a consul at Rome for seven years previous to this. Strabo (*Strabo, l.12. c.6. 5:479) wrote about the Homonadensians, a people of Cilicia: "Quirinius overcame them by famine and took 4000 men and distributed them into the neighbouring cities."
  5. Tacitus wrote: (Tacitus, Annals, l.3. c.48.) "He was a valiant warrior and ambitious in all his duties. He had the consulship under Augustus. He was famous for he won the citadels of the Homonadensians by assault and he obtained the ensigns of triumph."
  6. Augustus himself had decreed that magistrates should not be sent into provinces as soon as they had left office. (Suetonius, in Octavian, c.36.) They should wait five years after their term of office. (*Dio, l.53. 6:227)
  7. Thereupon Quirinius obtained the proconsulate of Cilicia and might be sent into Syria that was close by either as censor with an extraordinary power or as Caesar's governor with ordinary power. He would still retain the proconsulship of Cilicia and Sextius Saturninus of Syria. We have often read in Josephus that Volumnius and Saturninus in like manner were called presidents of Syria, when as Volumnius, was only epitropou (Josephus, Wars, l.1. c.17.) A little later, Quintillius Varus was made successor to Saturninus with the proconsular authority. So nothing is incorrect in that Quirinius may be said to have succeeded or rather to have been added to the office of administration of Caesar's affairs, as King Herod was. Josephus noted Herod was to be the governor of all Syria (Josephus, Wars, l.1. c.15.) and was so constituted by Augustus that he was added to the governors and that all things should be done according to his wishes. (Josephus, Antiq. l.15. c.13.) Hence both would govern together as Tertulian has it: (Tertulian, contra. Marcion, l.4. c.9.) "that there was a tax raised under Augustus in Judea, by Sentius Saturninus."
  8. The words of Luke tell us when this same taxing was made. "when Cyrenius or Quirinius was governor of Syria."
  9. Luke would rather mention him than of the governor of Saturninus because he would compare this taxing with another that was made by the same Quirinius ten years later after Archelaus was sent into banishment. He stated that of the two taxings that this was the first that was the time of the birth of Christ.
  10. When this first taxing was enacted, Joseph went up from Galilee, from the city of Nazareth into Judea to the city of David, called Bethlehem because he was of the house and linage of David so that he might be taxed with Mary his wife who was due to deliver. (Luke 2:4,5)
  11. Jesus Christ and Son of God, in the fulness of time was born of the most blessed virgin Mary, at Bethlehem. (Matthew 1:25; Matthew 2:1,5; Galatians 4:4) Mary wrapped him in swaddling clothes and laid him in a manger because there was no room in the inn. (Luke 2:7)
  12. The birth of our saviour was revealed by an angel of the Lord to shepherds who kept their flock by night in the neighbouring fields. They heard the word of a multitude of the heavenly host who prayed for glory to God, peace to the earth and good will to men. The shepherds hurried to Bethlehem and found Mary and Joseph and the child lying in the manger. They told everyone what they had heard concerning the child and they returned praising and glorifying God. (Luke 2:8-20)
  13. The child was circumcised on the eighth day after his birth and his name was called Jesus as foretold by the angel before he was conceived in the womb. (Luke 2:21)
  14. The wise men from the east were guided by a star and came to Herod at Jerusalem. They were told that the birth place of Christ was in Bethlehem of Judea. They went there and entering into the house which was showed to them by the star that stood over it. They found the little child with Mary, his mother. They fell down and worshipped him and gave their treasures to him, gold, frankincense and myrrh. They were warned by God in a dream that they should not return to Herod and so they departed into their own country by another way. (Matthew 2:1-12)
  15. On the fortieth day after her delivery, Mary went to Jerusalem to the temple to present him to the Lord according to the law of the firstborn and also to offer for herself a pair of turtle doves or two young pigeons. [She could not afford to offer a lamb.] This was according to the Levitical law. (Luke 2:22-24,27; Leviticus 12:2-4,6,8)
  16. When his parents brought the child Jesus into the temple to perform the requirements of the law, Simeon came into the temple to whom it was revealed by God that he should not die until he had seen the anointed of the Lord. He took Jesus in his arms and praised the Lord and spoke prophesies about Christ and his mother. At the same time, Anna, a prophetess the daughter of Phanuel, came and publicly acknowledged the Lord and spoke of him to all who looked for redemption in Jerusalem. (Luke 2:25-38)
  17. When Joseph and Mary had performed all the things according to the law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee to their own city of Nazareth. (Luke 2:39)
  18. The angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream and warned him to flee to Egypt to save the life of the child and escape the machinations of Herod. When he awoke, he took the young child and his mother by night and went into Egypt where he remained until the death of Herod. (Matthew 2:13-15)
  19. Herod thought the young child was still at Bethlehem. He killed all the children who were in Bethlehem and in all the surrounding area who were two years old or less. This was according to the time when the star first was seen in the east and when the wise men enquired about the child. (Matthew 2:16)
  20. Herod received letters from Antipater from Rome, in which he told him that he had settled all his business according to his wishes and he would return home in a short time. Herod wrote to him back again and concealed his anger. He said he should hurry home lest anything happen to him while he was away. He also modestly complained of his mother and promised that he would settle all differences after his return. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.7. )
  21. Antipater heard no news all this time either of the death of Pheroras or of those things that were brought against him even though seven months had elapsed. (Josephus, Wars, l.1. c.20; Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.6. fin. ) On his journey, he received a letter at Tarentum about Pheroras' death. In Cilicia he got those letters from his father that told him to hurry home. When he came to Celenderis, a town of Cilicia, he began to have doubts about his return and was extremely sorrowful for the disgrace of his mother. However, he sailed on and he came to Sebaste, the port of Caesarea. He was greeted by no one and he went to Jerusalem. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.6. fin. )
  22. It happened that at the same time, Quintilius Varus was at Jerusalem, who was sent as the successor to Saturninus in Syria and was summoned there by Herod. Herod wanted Varus to help him with his council in his weighty affairs. As they were sitting both together, Antipater came in not suspecting anything. He entered the palace in his purple garment that he usually wore. When he entered, the guards at the gates allowed none of his followers to come in with him. As he approached them, his father thrust him from him and accused him of the murder of Pheroras, Herod's brother and of intendeding to poison his father. He told him that on the next day Varus would both hear and determine all things between them. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.6. fin. )
  23. The next day Varus and the king sat in judgment. His father first began the accusation and left the prosecution and confirmation of it to Nicholas Damascene, his dear and close friend and one who knew all the business. When Antipater could not clear himself from the crimes alleged against him, Varus ordered the poison which he had prepared for his father to be brought out. It was given to another condemned man who immediately died. After this, Varus arose from the council and the next day he went to Antioch because this was the main palace of the Syrians. Herod soon put his son into prison and sent letters to Caesar indicating what he had done. He also sent messengers who by word of mouth, might verify to Caesar of the cursed treason of Antipater. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.6. fin. )
  24. At the same time, letters were intercepted from Antiphilus to Antipater from Egypt along with others from Rome which were sent to Antipater and Herod the king and written from Acme. She was a Jew and a chambermaid to Livia, Caesar's wife. She was well bribed by Antipater and sent a forged letter to Herod as if it had been written from Salome to her Livia against him, in which she desired that she might have permission to marry Syllaeus. [This is that Nabatean who was Herod's sworn enemy.] A little after this, Syllaeus was beheaded at Rome for betraying Aelius Gallus on the Arabian expedition and for other crimes. (*Strabo, l.16. 7:363) Herod sent by his ambassadors to Caesar, a copy of these letters together with those of his own against his son. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.6. fin. )
  25. While the ambassadors hurried to Rome, Herod fell sick and made his will. He left the succession of his kingdom to his youngest son, Herod Antipas since he was estranged from Archelaus and Philip, by the false accusations of Antipater. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.8. )
  26. Judas, the son of Saripheus and Matthias, the son of Margalothus, were two of the most learned of the Jews and best interpreters of the law. When they knew that the king's sickness was incurable, they persuaded some young men who were their scholars that they should throw down the golden eagle that Herod erected over the large gate of the temple. They went at noon day, they pulled and hewed down with their axes the eagle while a large number in the temple witnessed their actions. As soon as it was told the captain, he came with a strong band of soldiers and laid hold upon some forty of the young men together with their masters and brought them to Herod. These continually defended their actions and Herod ordered them to be bound and sent to Jericho. He convened the rulers of the Jews and was brought into the assembly in a litter because he was so weak. He complained not so much of the wrong done to himself as to God, as he said. They denied that it was done according to their order and Herod dealt more mildly with them. He took away the high priesthood from Matthias since he knew of this affair and replaced him with Jazar the brother of his wife, [Mariamme, the daughter of Simon the high priest.] He burned alive the other Matthias that was partner of this sedition along with his companions. That night the moon was eclipsed (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.8 ) on March 13th, three hours after midnight according to the astronomical tables.
  27. Herod's disease grew worse, for he was inflamed with a slow fire which was not felt but it burnt up his very bowels. He had also the disease called bulimia which was a continual desire for food. To satisfy this, he was always eating. He was also continually tortured with ulcers in his bowels and pains of the colic. His feet swelled with a moist liquid. Also his thighs and his members rotted and were full of worms. He also had a filthy and no less troublesome priapism and a most terrible stench. In addition, he was troubled with convulsions and had difficulty in breathing. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.8. )
  28. Although he was so grievously tormented that everyone thought he would die from this, yet he hoped he should get well. He very carefully sent for physicians and sought medicines from every place. He went also beyond the Jordan River into the hot baths at Callirrhoe which drained into the Dead Sea. Beside their medicinal value, the water is pleasant to drink. By the advice of his physicians, he was placed in a bathing tub filled with oil. When he seemed to have died, his friends suddenly cried out and bewailed him. He came to himself and now realised there was no more hope for recovery. He ordered 50 drachmas to be given to every soldier and was generous to his captains and friends. He returned again to Jericho. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.8. )
  29. Augustus had heard that among the children that Herod, the king of the Jews had ordered to be killed who were two years or under. One of Herod's own sons was also killed by this same edict. Augustus said: (Macrobius, Saturnal, l.2. c.4.) "It was better to be Herod's hog than his son."
4001 AM, 4710 JP, 4 BC
  1. Herod by an edict, convened to Jericho from every place, the most noble of the Jews and locked them up in a place called the hippodrome. He ordered his sister Salome and her husband Alexas, that as soon as he was dead, they would order the soldiers to kill all those that were confined so that the people should have cause for sorrow otherwise they would rejoice at the death of their king that they hated so much. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.8. )
  2. Letters came from Rome from the ambassadors that were sent to Caesar. They stated that Acme was put to death by Caesar who was angry for her involvement in Antipater's conspiracy. Antipater was left to his father's pleasure, either to banish him or to put him to death. When Herod had heard these things, he was cheered a little but presently he was in pain again. He was hungry and called for an apple and a knife to peal it. When he tried to stab himself, Achialus, his nephew, prevented him and called for help as he held out Herod's right hand. A great sorrow with fear and tumult struck the whole palace, as if Herod had been dead. (Josephus, Antiq., l. 17. c.9. )
  3. When Antipater heard the noise, he thought certainly that his father was dead. He began to bargain with his keeper about letting him out. He promised him many things now and in the future when it was within his power. The keeper told the king who for very anger cried out. Although he was so near death yet raised himself up in his bed and ordered one of his guard to immediately go and execute Antipater. He was to be buried in the castle of Hircania without any honour. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.9. )
  4. Then Herod changed his mind and made a new will. Antipas who before he had made his successor in the kingdom, he made him tetrarch of Galilee and Petrea. He gave the kingdom to Archelaus and assigned to his son Philip the regions of Gaulanitis, Trachonitis, Batanaea and Paneada in the name of a tetrarchy. He gave to Salome, his sister, Jamnia, Azotus and Phasaelis with 500,000 drachmas. To the rest of his family, he gave money and yearly pensions. To Caesar he gave 10,000,000 drachmas of silver and all his vessels as well of gold as silver, and a great quantity of precious clothes. To Livia, Caesar's wife and to some certain friends he gave 5,000,000 drachmas. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.10. )
  5. After Herod had ordered these things, he died five days after he had executed Antipater. He held the kingdom for 34 years after he had killed Antigonus but from the time that he was declared king by the (Romans 37) years. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.9. ) He died about the 25th of November that is the 7th of the month Chisleu which is therefore accounted a joyful and festival day because in that day: "Herod died who hated all wise men."
  6. This is according to Edward Liveley, a most learned man, as noted in his chronology, in the tyn[t tlygm, Volume of the Fejunii.
  7. Before the king's death was known, Salome and Alexas, sent all those home that were locked up in the hippodrome. They said that Herod had so ordered that they should go into the country and follow own their businesses. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.10. )
  8. When the king's death was declared, all the soldiers were called into the amphitheatre of Jericho. They first read the king's letter to the soldiers in which Herod thanked them for their fidelity and love to him. Herod desired that they would be faithful to his son Archelaus, whom he had appointed to be his successor in the kingdom. Then Ptolemy the keeper of the king's seal, read his will which he could not ratify without Caesar's consent. Then was there a shout for joy that Archelaus was king and the soldiers came flocking in with their captains around him. They promised that they would be just as faithful to him as they had been to his father and they prayed God to prosper him in his reign. Archelaus prepared the king's funeral most royally. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.10. )
  9. After Herod had died who sought the life of the young child, Jesus, the angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream in Egypt and ordered that he should return with the young child and his mother to the land of Israel. When he awoke, he did what he was commanded to do. ((Matthew 2:19-21).)
  10. When Joseph came into the land of Israel, he heard that Archelaus reigned in Judea in the place of his father, Herod and he feared to go there. God warned him in a dream and he departed into the region of Galilee [the tetrarchy which Archelaus' father Herod had given to Antipas in his will.] He settled in the city of Nazareth from whence Jesus took the name of Nazarene, (Matthew 2:22,23) and the Christians of Nazarenes. (Acts 24:5)
  11. Herod's body was carried in a funeral possession 45 miles from Jericho, to the citadel Herodion where he had arranged to be buried. (Josephus, Wars, l.1. c.ult. fin. ) Each day they only travelled one mile. He was carried on a golden bier embroidered with precious jewel and covered with a purple cloth. His body was clothed with purple also. A diadem was put on his head and also over him a crown of gold and a sceptre in his right hand. His son and his relatives walked beside the bier and were followed by the soldiers, marshalled according to their countries. Then came 500 servants who carried perfumes. (Josephus, Antiq. l. 17. c.10. )
  12. After the funeral ceremony was over, Archelaus came to Jerusalem, and solemnized the mourning for his father for seven days according to the traditions of the Jews. At the end of the mourning, he made a funeral banquet to the people. He went up into the temple and wherever he went he was congratulated. He went up to a higher place and sat on a golden throne. He spoke graciously and honestly to the people. However, he said that he would not take the name of king until Caesar had confirmed his father's will. After the sacrifices were over, he banqueted with his friends. (Josephus, Antiq. l.17. c.10. )
  13. The friends of those whom Herod had put to death for throwing down the golden eagle, made a sedition. They reproached the dead king and demanded some of his friends also to be punished. Moreover they desired that Joazar, the high priest to be removed from the priesthood. Archelaus tried to appease them but in vain. It happened that about the feast of the passover, Archelaus sent the whole army against them and 3000 men were killed by the cavalry around the temple. The rest fled to the adjoining mountains. (Josephus, Antiq. l.17. c.11. )
  14. Archelaus went down to the sea with his mother [Malthace, a Samaritan] to sail to Caesar. He took along Nicolaus Damascene, Ptolemy [Herod's agent] and his many other friends. He committed his family and kingdom to the trust of his brother Philip. Salome also, the sister of Herod, went with him and took with her all her children. Others of his relatives also went under the pretence of helping him to get the kingdom when indeed they planned to oppose him and to accuse him for that deed that was committed in the temple. (Josephus, Antiq. l.17. c.11. )
  15. As Archelaus was travelling with this group, Sabinus, Caesar's agent in Syria met him and said he sent to Judea to take charge of Herod's money. Varus, the governor of Syria fortunately met him and restrained him for Archelaus had sent for Varus by Ptolemy. Sabinus yielded to the governor and neither seized the citadels of Judea nor sealed up the king's treasures. He left all things in Archelaus' control until Caesar should determine something concerning them. When Sabinus had promised this, he stayed at Caesarea. After Archelaus sailed for Rome and Varus returned to Antioch, Sabinus went to Jerusalem and seized the palace. He convened the captains of the citadels and the king's agents and demanded the accounts from them and that the citadels should be delivered over to him. The captains obeyed Archelaus and kept all things as they were until the king's return. They pretended that they kept them for Caesar. (Josephus, Antiq. l.17. c. 11. )
  16. At the same time Antipas, the son of Herod, sailed to Rome with hopes of getting the kingdom for himself. Salome instigated him to do this since he was to be preferred before Archelaus because he was appointed the successor of the kingdom in Herod's first will which ought to have more validity than the second. He took with him his mother [Cleopatra who was born at Jerusalem] and Ptolemy, the brother of Nicolaus Damascene. He was one of Herod's best friends and favoured his title. He especially included Irenaeus, an orator who was an eloquent man knowledgable in the king's businesses, to help him secure the kingdom. After Antipas came to Rome, all the relatives sided with him because they hated Archelaus. Sabinus wrote letters to Caesar also to accuse Archelaus. (Josephus, Antiq. l.17. c.11. )
  17. Archelaus through Ptolemy showed a petition to Caesar containing his own right and the accounts of Herod's money that was sealed up. When Caesar had read the petition as well as Varus' and Sabinus' letters, he convened his friends. He gave the first place in the council to Caius, the son of Agrippa and his daughter Julia whom he had now adopted. Antipater, the son of Salome who was a very eloquent man, spoke against Archelaus to whom Nicolaus Damascene answered in his defence. When he had finished his discourse, Archelaus fell down at Caesar's feet, whom he courteously raised up and pronounced that he was worthy of the kingdom. Caesar said pretending that he would do nothing unless it was prescribed in his father's will or that should be profitable for Archelaus. When Caesar saw the young man confirmed in some hope by his promise, he determined nothing more at that time. (Josephus, Antiq. l.17. c.11. )
  18. Varus came from Antioch to repress the seditions that were raised in Judea after Archelaus' departure. He punished the instigators of the sedition and after the sedition was mostly settled, he returned and left one legion in Jerusalem to prevent further seditions. As soon as he was gone, Sabinus, Caesar's agent came there and took control of those troops. He thought he was more than a match for the people and tried to seize the citadels. He forcibly searched for the king's money for his own private wealth and covetousness sake. (Josephus, Antiq. l.17. c. 11. )
  19. Many thousands came to the feast of Pentecost not so much for religion's sake but to revenge Sabinus. They came not only from Judea which was more grievously afflicted but from Galilee, Idumaea, Jericho and from the towns that were beyond the Jordan River. They fiercely attacked Sabinus and divided their troops into three brigades. The Roman soldiers valiantly opposed them and killed many of them. The soldiers entered the treasure house of the holy treasure and stole most of it. 400 talents of that money was openly brought to Sabinus. A company of the most warlike Jews besieged the palace but Rufus and Gratus, who had under their command 3000 men of the most warlike and best of Herod's soldiers, allied themselves with the Romans. In spite of this, the Jews zealously continued the assault and undermined the walls. They exhorted their adversaries to depart and promised them safe conduct. Sabinus did not trust them and would not withdraw his soldiers. He expected help from Varus. (Josephus, Antiq. l.17. c.11. )
  20. In this state of things, there were various other seditions raised in Judea and in other places because the country did not have a king of their own who might restrain the multitude and compel obedience to the law. For 2000 men, who had served under Herod, were disbanded to live at home. They got together and attacked the king's faction who were under Archiabus, Herod's nephew, and general for the king. He dared not attack the old soldiers on equal terms and so he defended himself and his side as well as he could by retreating to the mountainous regions that were hard to get at. (Josephus, Antiq. l.17. c.11. )
  21. Judas [the son of Ezekias who headed a robber band and in previous times tried to overthrow Herod,] gathered a band of desperate men at Sepphoris, a city of Galilee and made incursions into the king's dominion. He captured the king's armoury and he armed all his soldiers and seized the king's treasure in those places. Thereupon he began to terrorise the inhabitants. He spoiled all that fell into his hands. He aspired also to the kingdom, not by lawful means, of which he was wholly ignorant, but by force. (Josephus, Antiq. l.17. c.11. ) For whereas hdwhy of the Hebrews, is the same with hdwt of the Syrians, from which comes Judas and Thaddaeus. (Luke 6:16; Mark 3:18) The name is Theudas since this Judas seems to be no other than Theudas, of whom (Acts 5:36) Gamaliel spoke: "Before these times rose up Theudas, boasting himself to be some body, to whom a number of men, about 400, joined themselves, who were slain, and all as many as obeyed him, were scattered and brought to nought."
  22. Simon also, a servant of King Herod's was a wise man esteemed among all men, for his handsomeness, height and strength. He dared assume the kingdom. He was attended by a large company and proclaimed king by them. These were an unbridled multitude and persuaded him that he was more fit to be the king than anyone else. He began his kingdom by plundering and burning the king's palace at Jericho. Then he burned other palaces and gave their plunder to those who followed him. He would also have done more licentious deeds if he had not been quickly stopped. Gratus, the captain of the king's soldiers, who then followed the Roman side, marched with his forces against Simon. There was a fierce conflict on the other side of Jordan. Simon's men fought in disorder and more from courage than skill and were defeated. Gratus captured Simon, as he was fleeing through a narrow valley and cut off his head. (Josephus, Antiq. l.17. c.11. ) Tacitus refers this rather to Varus (Tacitus, History, l.5. c.5) and wrote this about Simon: "After the death of Herod, Simon made himself king, without so much as looking for Caesar's consent, but he was punished by Varus, the governor of Syria."
  23. At Amatha, also by the Jordan River, a royal palace of the king, was burnt by the rabble of men that Simon had. Athronges who was an obscure shepherd and only famous for his great height and strength, made himself king. He had four brothers that were just as tall and strong whom he made his lieutenants over the multitude that came flocking to him in this time of unrest. He wore a crown and although he consulted others, he kept the sole command in his own hands. The power of this man lasted long, [for he was not a king for nothing] until he was brought under the power of Archelaus when he returned from Rome. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c. 12. )
  24. Athronges' cruelty affected especially the Romans and the king's side for he hated them both alike. His forces surprised a cohort near Emmaus as it was carrying food and weapons to the army. He killed with their arrows, Arius, a centurion along with 40 of his best foot soldiers. The rest would have been killed had not Gratus arrived with the king's soldiers and rescued them but left the dead bodies. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.12. )
  25. Quintilius Varus knew the danger that Sabinus was in by his letters and feared the utter destruction of the third legion. He left with two other legions, [for at the most there were but three legions in all Syria] and four troops of cavalry and the auxiliaries of the king and tetrarchs. He hurried into Judea to help the besieged and ordered those who were sent ahead, to meet him at Ptolemais. On his way past the city of Berythus, he received 1500 auxiliaries from them. Antus was a Petrean and a friend to the Romans. In spite of his hatred of Herod, he sent him good a number of cavalry and foot soldiers. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.12. )
  26. After all the army came to Ptolemais, Varus turned part of it over to his son and to one of his friends. They were to march against the Galilaeans who bordered on Ptolemais. When they entered the country, they put all to flight who dared oppose them. They took the city Sepphoris and sold all the inhabitants and burned the city. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.12. )
  27. Varus went toward Samaria with the army but did no harm to the city because he knew it had not been involved in the sedition. He pitched his camp in a certain village which was called Aras and was in the possession of Ptolemy. The Arabians had burnt it because they hated Herod's friends because they hated Herod as well as anyone who was Herod's friend. He marched and came to Sampho which the Arabians first plundered and then burnt even though it was well fortified. On all that march, they burned everything and killed anyone they met. Emmaus was burnt by the order of Varus, in revenge of his soldiers who were killed there. However, the inhabitants had first abandoned it. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.12. )
  28. Then when they came near to Jerusalem, the Jews who besieged the Romans on that side, were terrified as soon as they saw the army coming. They abandoned the attack they had begun. Those of Jerusalem were grievously reproved by Varus. They excused themselves and said that the people indeed were gathered together for the feast but that the sedition was not started with their consent. It was caused by the boldness of the strangers who came there. Varus was met by Joseph, a nephew of King Herod's, Gratus and Rufus with their soldiers and the Romans that had endured the siege. Sabinus would not come but stole away secretly and hurried to the seaside. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.12. )
  29. Then Varus sent part of his army throughout all the country to capture the instigators of this sedition. When he found them, he punished the most guilty and some were let go free. About 2,000 were crucified for this sedition. After this he dismissed his army who were disorderly and disobedient and committed many outrages for mere money's sake. When he heard that there were 10,000 Jews gathered together, he hurried to apprehend them. They dared not withstand him and surrendered themselves by advice of Achiabus. Varus pardoned the common people for their sedition but sent the ring leaders to Caesar. So all things were made peaceful again and he left the same legion in Jerusalem in the garrison. He returned to Antioch. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.12. )
  30. Malthace, the mother of Archelaus, died of a sickness at Rome.
  31. When Caesar had received Varus' letter about the revolt of the Jews, he pardoned the rest of the captains of the seditions and only punished some of King Herod's relatives who with no regard for justice had fought against their own relatives. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.12. )
  32. At the same time, with the permission of Varus, an embassy of the Jews came who desired that they might live according to their own laws. There were about 50 ambassadors who were joined by about 8000 Jews who lived at Rome. Caesar had convened a council of his friends and chief citizens into the temple of Apollo which he had built at great expense. The ambassadors and a multitude of the Jews who following them also went there. Archelaus came also with his company. Philip was also there who came by Varus' advice from Syria so that he might be an advocate for his brother to whom Varus wished well. He also wanted a share in the division of Herod's kingdom. The ambassadors were given permission to speak and they began with accusations against Herod and Archelaus and then desired that they might have no more kings. They wanted the government to be annexed to Syria and that they would obey the governors sent to them from Rome. When Nicolaus Damascene had answered the objections for Herod who was dead and for Archelaus who was present, Caesar dismissed the council. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.12. )
  33. A few days later, Caesar declared Archelaus not to be king but made him lord of half part of that dominion that was left him by his father, Herod. He promised him a kingdom if he behaved himself so as to merit a kingdom. A fourth part of their tribute was remitted because they did not join the sedition. These cities were included in his government, the tower of Strato, Sebaste, Joppe, and Jerusalem. The cities Gaza, Gadara, and Hippos were cities which followed the laws of Greece. For this reason Caesar annexed them to Syria. There accrued to Archelaus 600 talents annually from his own dominion. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.13. )
  34. Caesar divided the other half of Herod's dominion into two parts, one for each of Herod's sons. Herod Antipas was given Galilee with the little country of Petraea. [It was a most fertile country and lies beyond Jordan between the two lakes of Tiberias and the Dead Sea.] This generated 200 talents a year in revenue. Philip received Batanea with Trachonitis as well as Auranitis, with a certain part of the palace of Zenodorus, [as they call it] which paid annually 100 talents. Salome received in addition to the cities which were left her by her brother, Jamnia, Azotus and Phasaelis and 500,000 drachmas of silver. Caesar gave her a palace in Askelon and she also received from those places which were subject to her, 60 talents. Her residence was within the dominion of Archelaus. The rest of Herod's relatives received what was bequeathed by his will. Also two of Herod's daughters who were virgins, received in addition to what was bequeathed them, 250,000 drachmas of silver from the bounty of Caesar and they were married to the sons of Pheroras. Caesar gave his portion of the king's estate which amounted to the sum of 1500 talents to his sons. He kept only a few vessels not so much for their value but as keep sakes for the memory of his friend. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.13. )
  35. Thus the children of Herod governed the country and were now restrained by a threefold division. (Tacitus, l.5. c.9.) Strabo added this about his children: "Some of them Herod put to death himself under the charges of treachery, others at his death he left as his successors and assigned to everyone his portion. Caesar also highly honoured Herod's children and his sister Salome and Berenice the daughter of Salome."
  36. A certain young man, a Jew of lowly parentage, was brought up in Sidon, with a Roman freed man. He resembled Alexander the son of Herod in his face and pretended to be Alexander who was saved from death with his brother Aristobulus by means of a certain friend of his keeper. This man took on an accomplice who was very well acquainted about Herod's palace and well instructed by this fellow's cunning and deceits. When he had sailed into Crete, he persuaded all the Jews that came to meet him this thing was so. He got money from them and he sailed to the island of Melus, where he got a huge amount of money under pretence that he was of the king's family. He now hoped that he should recover his father's kingdom and he hurried to Rome with his friends. When he had sailed to Puteoli, he was there likewise well received and deceived the Jews. As he was coming to Rome, all the Jews who lived there came out to meet him. When this news was brought to Caesar, he sent there Celadus, one of his freemen who was previously very well acquainted with the young men. Caesar ordered him that if he was Alexander, he should bring him to him. He likewise was deceived and brought him to Caesar. However, he did not deceive Caesar who sent this false Alexander when he had confessed his imposture to the galleys as a rower because he had a strong body. He executed the one that put him up to this fraud. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.14. )
4002 AM, 4711 JP, 3 BC
  1. When Archelaus returned to his government in Judea, he removed the priesthood from Joazar, the son of Boethus [or his grandchild by his son Simon] accusing him that he had favoured the seditions and gave that office to Joazar's brother, Eleazar. (Josephus, Antiq., l.17. c.15. )
  2. Augustus brought his son Lucius [in his 13th consulship] into the court. (Suetonius, Octavian, c.26.) He conferred the same honours on him which he had conferred three years earlier on his brother Caius shown by the inscriptions on the coins. They show ensigns of Caius and Lucius with bucklers and spears with this inscription, "C. L. Caesares, Augusti. F. Cos. Des. Principes. Juvent." This means "Caius and Lucius Caesar, the sons of Augustus, designed consuls, princes of youth."
  3. In the same 13th consulship, he wrote on a monument of Ancyra, that he: "gave 60 denarii to the common people that received public grain. [welfare]"
  4. He added: "there were more than 200,000."
  5. This very thing is also found in Xyphiline, in his writings from Dio, (Xyphiline, ex Dio) except that for 60 denarii, which the Greeks called drachmas, the Latin author wrote 240 denarii. We do not know the basis for the change.
  6. When Augustus and Gallus Coninius were consuls, they satisfied the desires of the Roman people with gladiatorial shows and a sham naval battle. (*Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c. 100. 1:257; Jerome, in Chronicle) For these shows, he brought water into the circus. Thirty crocodiles were killed. (Xyphiline, ex Dio)
  7. He also held a naval fight and hollowed the ground around the Tiber River. That place was later called Caesar's Grove. (Suetonius, in Octavian, c.43.) The hollowed place was 1800 feet long and 200 feet wide. He had 30 warships and many galleys and smaller boats fight. This is recorded in the breviary of his doings which was engraved in the marble of Anoyra. Augustus wrote that this was a novelty in Rome. Ovid makes mention of this: (Ovid, Art, l.1.) What, Caesar when, like a sea-fight by land, Made the Persian and Cecropian beaks the sand To ride? He brought both men and maids from the main, And made the city all the world retain.
  8. When Augustus was preparing his games in Rome, there was trouble in Armenia. Only Pompey had exposed the Armenians to the government of Roman governors. They had expelled Artarasdes [or Artabazes] whom Augustus had set over them as governor and had substituted Tigranes in his place. To support this revolt, they called the Parthians for help. So Armenia yielded to the Parthians and the Parthians broke their alliance with Rome and seized Armenia. (*Florus, l.2. c.32. 1:341,343; *Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.101.; Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.3.; Zenaras, ex Dio; excerptis a Fulv. Ursino Edit. legat. 39.; Sextus Rufus, in Breviary)
  9. Augustus brought Caius and Lucius who were yet very young into the government service. He sent them around the provinces and armies and they had the title of consuls. (Suetonius, in Octavian, c.64.) Hence we read in Velleius Paterculus, (Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.101.) that Caius went about the provinces to settle them. Beatus Rhenanus thinks it should read "to quiet them." Justus Ligsius thinks it should read, "to visit them." This is the best reading as that place of Dio shows in the collections recorded by Henricus Valesius, [p. 665.] "Caius Caesar went about as they usually do in peace, viewed the legions that were encamped by the Ister River for he had never any command in the wars not that there was not any war at that time. This was because he had learned the arts in peace and security while the dangers of the war were committed to others to manage."
  10. At Rome in the very year that Augustus held the shows of the combatants on land and sea, there was a filthy and horrible disaster in his own house. His daughter Julia who was altogether unmindful either of the greatness of her father or husband, left no disgraceful deed untried that it was possible for a woman to do or happen to her. She measured the greatness of her fortune by her liberty in sinning and considered everything lawful if it pleased her. (*Velleius Paterculus, l. 2. c.100. 1:259) She came to such height of lasciviousness that she kept her mighty feasting in the very courts of justice. She abused those courts with lascivious acts in which her father had made the law against adultery. Thereupon her father was so enraged that he could not contain his anger within his own house. He published these things and told them to the senators. (Seneca, de Beneficiis, l.6. c.32.; Xyphiline, in Dio; Excerptis, Valesii, p. 665.) He was not present but he had a quaestor read a note to them telling everything that happened. He kept himself also from any company for a very long time for very shame. He was thinking also of putting his daughter to death. (Suetonius, in Octavian) At last, she was banished to Pandataria, an island of Campania and her mother, Scibonia voluntarily accompanied her into exile. (Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.100. 1:259; Xyphiline, in Dio) Her mother was divorced from Caesar on that very day she was born. L. Martius and C. Sabinus, were consuls at that time (*Dio, l.48. 1:291) in 39 BC or 4675 JP. Hence Julia was 38 years old at that time. Macrobius confirms she was at least that old. (Macrobius, Saturnal, l.2. c.5.)
  11. Tiberius was in Rhodes and heard that his wife Julia was condemned for her lusts and adulteries and that a divorce was sent to her in his name by the order of Augustus. Although he was glad, yet he thought it his duty as much as lay in him to frequently write to Augustus. He begged him that he would forgive his daughter and would give her, although she did not deserve it, whatever he had given her. (Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.11.)
4003 AM, 4712 JP, 2 BC
  1. When Augustus heard that the Armenians had revolted and they were helped by the Parthians, he was grieved and did not know what to do. He could not manage the war himself because he was too old. Tiberius had withdrawn himself and he dared not trust any of the more powerful citizens. Caius and Lucus were too young and unfit for such matters. From necessity, he sent Caius and made him a proconsul. To give him more honour, he had him get married. He would have more friends to give him wise counsel. (Zenaras, ex Dio) He married Lollia Paulina, (Suetonius, in Claudius, c.26.) who was either the daughter or niece of Marcus Lollius. (*Pliny, l.9. c.35. 3:243; Solinus, c.53.) Augustus wanted him to be an adviser for his young son. (*Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.102. 1:261; Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.12.)
  2. When Caius was prepared for this expedition, Ovid wrote mataioqecnian, in his first book. He mentioned the recent naval battle which had ended. Caesar prepares with courage to subdue Of the whole world the only unconquered crew, Now must the Parthian by him overcome, Receive chastisement and observe his doom. Rejoice yon buried Crassians, what you lost, Revengefully is taken to their cost, By one, though captain young, yet shows the world, Such high achievements cannot be controlled.
  3. He added a little latter: With father's fate and gravity renowned, Thou fighting shalt with victory be crowned: Such expectation doth thy name obtain, Though now of young, a prince of old thou let reign.
  4. Ovid was a very good prophet in trying to predict the outcome of this expedition. He recorded Caius' age correctly. His father Augustus was nineteen years old when he gathered his army as it has been shown before from the Ancyran Marble. Caius just turned nineteen, when he prepared for the Armenian and Parthian war. He was a commander in war just at the same age that his father had been.
  5. The Emperor Augustus sent ahead Dionysius who was a most excellent geographer into the east to note the geography of the land for his older son who was to go into Armenia. Pliny records information about Parthia and Arabia. (*Pliny, l.6. c.27-32. 2:421-459) We do not know whether it was that famous Dionysius whose records of geography are extant in Greek poetry or Dionysius, the son of Diogenes, of whom Marcianus Heracleota in his first book of journeys stated that he measured the dimension of the earth.
  6. Caius Caesar was assigned Armenia for his province. (Tacitus, Annals, l.2. c.3. l.3. c. 48.) He was sent into Syria. (*Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.101. 1:259) He was made the governor of the east. (Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.12.) He was sent by Augustus to order the provinces of Egypt and Syria. (Orosius, l.7. c.3.) Pliny cites the letters of King Juba written to the same Caius concerning the expedition into Arabia. (Pliny, l.6. c.31. 2:445.) Caius had only seen Arabia but never made any expedition there. (Pliny, l.6. c.32. 2:459)
  7. As soon as Phraates, the king of the Parthians, heard of the war preparations that Caius made against the barbarians, he sent an apology for those things that were done and desired peace. Caesar replied by letters and ordered him to leave Armenia. Tigranes, at that time, sent no embassy to him. (Dio, in Excerptis, ab Ursin. edit. legat. 39.)
  8. When the time of his tribuneship was over, Tiberius finally confessed that he went into his retirement only to avoid all suspicion of envy between himself and Caius and Lucius. There was no danger concerning that now because they were grown men and next in authority to the emperor. Tiberius requested that Augustus would give him permission to see again his relatives whom he had a great desire to see. This was not granted and he was warned that he should forget about those whom he so willingly left. (Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.11.)
  9. Therefore Tiberius stayed at Rhodes against his will. He was not able to obtain that through his mother's request that he should remain there as a lieutenant to Augustus to cover his ignominy. He only lived as a private citizen and was in danger and fear. He hid in the middle of the island to avoid seeing those who sailed by. (Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.12.)
  10. When Caius went to the Armenian war, Tiberius crossed over to Chios to present his service to him. He removed all suspicions about himself and was very humble to Caius and to his followers. (Xyphiline, ex Dio; Zonaras, ex Dio) Although Velleius flattered Tiberius, as he did always and wrote that Caius gave all honour to Tiberius as his superior. (Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.101. 1:259,261) Suetonius wrote that Tiberius went not to Chios, but Samos, to see his son-in-law, Caius. He was poorly received through the false accusations of Marcus Lollius. (Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.12.)
  11. Tiberius came also into suspicion through gifts he gave to some centurions. [??] They went from meeting him to the camp again and seemed to have given dubious commands to many which might tempt them to a revolt. When Augustus knew of this suspicion, Tiberius continually desired that Augustus would send one to him of any rank to be a witness to his words and deeds. He stopped his usual riding and his other martial exercises. He went in his coat and shoes and laid aside his country living. In that fashion he lived at Rhodes for the next two years and every day he was more despised and hated. (Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.12.)
  12. Caius passed through Judea and scorned to worship at Jerusalem. As soon as Augustus knew this, he highly commended him for this. (Suetonius, in Octavian, c.93.; Orosius, l.7. c. 3.) Orosius added that Caius came from Egypt and passed by the borders of Palestine.
  13. Zonaras (Zonaras, ex Dio) stated that Caius came from there into Syria and did nothing praiseworthy. Velleius Paterculus stated that he behaved himself with such versatility that there was much he could be praised for as well as critical of. (Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.110.) Through the greatness and majesty of the Roman name, he settled all things. (Sextus Rufus, in Breviary)
  14. When Quirinus returned to Rome, he married that generous woman Lepida, who was intended for sometime to be the wife for Lucius. [??] She was the daughter-in-law to Augustus. After twenty years when C. Marcus Valerius Messala and Marcus Aurelius Cotta were consuls in 20 AD, he divorced her and accused her of trying to poison him. (Suetonius, in Tiberius. c.49.; Tacitus, Annals, l.3. c.22,23.)
  15. When Augustus wrote the letters to Phraates, he did not call him king. Phraates was not intimidated but proudly wrote back again and called himself "king", and called Augustus nothing but "Caesar." (Dio, in Xephiline; Legat. 39. Ursin. deit.) When he knew that Caius came into Syria, Phraates suspected that his subjects would not be quiet because they hated him. Hence he made a peace with Caius on this condition that he would lay aside all claims to Armenia. (Xyphiline, ex Dio) From this we read: (Eutropius, l.7.) "Augustus received Armenia from the Parthians."
  16. We read also (Eusebius, Chronicle) that Caius Caesar made peace with the Parthians.
  17. When Artabazes or Artavasdes had died of a disease, Tigranes sent presents to Augustus for joy that his enemy was gone. He did not address himself as king and begged the kingdom of him. Augustus was troubled by these things and feared a Parthian war. He accepted his presents and offered him some hope if he went to Syria. He said: "The Armenians who were then stronger than the Parthians, are subdued by Caius. The Armenians allied themselves with the Parthians and are easily overcome by Caius Augustus. The Armenians thought it better to be reconciled to the friendship of the Romans and to live in their own country than to join with the Parthians and loose their country and have the hostility of the Romans."
4004 AM, 4714 JP, 1 AD
  1. This is the first year of the common Christian account of which we now calculate to be 1663 [when Ussher wrote this paragraph.] Caius Caesar was now twenty years old and this was five years after he was brought into the forum. He was consul in the east, as Pighius showed from a marble table of Naples and Anagna. (Pighius, Annals)
  2. Also this year, Tiberius lived at Rhodes as a banished man, under the pretence of leading a anxious life, for thus Tacitus rightly terms it. (Tacitus, Annals, l.1. c.4.) Thereupon when his name was mentioned in a banquet, a man promised Caius, that if he would allow him, he would sail immediately to Rhodes and bring him the head of that banished man. Tiberius was compelled more from danger than fear to desire his return by his own and his mother's [of Livia] most earnest requests. However, Augustus was determined to do nothing concerning this matter except what pleased Caius. (Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.13.)
  3. After his climax year is past, Augustus celebrated his 64th birthday. On October 23rd [9th calends], he wrote this letter to Caius. "All hail my Caius, my best delight whom in good faith I always desire when you are from me but especially on such days as this is. My eyes always long for Caius, whom wherever you are, I hope that you are merry and in health and celebrated my 64th birthday. For you have seen that we have past the 63rd, the common climax of all old men. I pray the gods that for the rest of my life that remaines, I may lead it in an happy estate for the government and that you are healthy and behaving yourself like a man and will succeed in my place."
  4. This is from a book of the letters of Augustus to Caius that Aulius Gellius has preserved. (Aulius Gellius, Noctibus Atticis, l.15. c.7.)
4005 AM, 4714 JP, 1 AD
  1. Caius went to a conference with the king of the Parthians on an island in the Euphrates River. Each side had an equal sized retinue. The Roman and the Parthian army faced each other on either side of the river. First the Parthians was feasted by Caius on the Roman side and then Caius by the Parthians on the Parthian side. Velleius Paterculus witnessed this event. He was paymaster for the troops since he was a tribune for the soldiers. (Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c. 101. 1:262)
  2. At that time, the Parthians told Caius Caesar of the perfidious, subtle and cunning councils of Marcus Lollius. (Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.102. 1:262) He was notorious for taking bribes from the kings and for robbing all the countries of the east. Caius excluded him from his friends although his own wife, the daughter or niece of this Lollius, was said to have been given a gown by Lollius that was covered with pearls and valued at 40,000,000 sesterniums. [Some say this was a third of a million pounds of gold!] (*Pliny, l.9. c.38. 3:243; Solinus, c.55.) The more Caius was offended with Lollius, the more he showed himself gentle and kind to his father-in-law, Tiberius. (Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.13.)
  3. Velleius did not know if the death of Lollius which happened a few days later was accidental or a suicide. Pliny and Solinus stated that he died by taking poison. Velleius stated that all men rejoiced as heartily over this man's death as the city mourned the death of Censorinus. He died a little later in that province and was very well liked by everyone. (Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.102. 1:259,261) It seems that Caius Marcius was this Censorinus who represented the Jews of Cyrene and of Asia to Augustus. (Josephus, Antiq. l.16. c.10. )
  4. Quirinius was made adviser to Caius Caesar to replace Lollius who served Tiberius when he lived at Rhodes. Tiberius acknowledged this in the senate after the death of Lollius [??] and commended the services of Quirinius to Caius. He accused Lollius as the author of the illwill and differences between him and Caius Caesar. (Tacitus, Annals, l.3. c.48.)
  5. With Caius' consent, Tiberius was recalled but on the condition, that he should hold no office in the government. (Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.13.)
  6. Tiberius was very skilful in astrology. He had Thrasyllus, a mathematician with him, who saw a ship sailing toward them in the distance which brought the news from Livia and Augustus of his return from exile. Tiberius said he was happy when in fact these things had recently happened to him before Thrasillus' predictions. Tiberius had intended at that very time as they walked together to throw him headlong into the sea since he was not honest with him and knew his secrets. (Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.14.; Xyphiline, ex Dio)
  7. Tiberius had stayed seven years at Rhodes. In the eighth year after his departure, he returned into his country when Publius Vineius was consul and Lucius and Caius were still alive. (Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.14.; *Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.99. 1:255 c.103. 1:263) When he returned to Rome, his son Drusus was in the forum. Tiberius presently went from Pompey's house in the street Carinae to Mecaenas, his gardens in Esquiliae. He wholly gave himself to ease, doing some private entertaining but did not meddle with the government. (Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.15.)
  8. As Lucius was about to go to the armies in Spain, he died at Marseilles of a sudden death, who was not famous for anything, twenty two months before his brother Caius' death. (*Florus, l.2. 1:343; *Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.102. 1:263; Tacitus, Annals, l.1. c.3.; Suetonius, in Octavian, c.65.; Zonaras, ex Dio)
  9. After Lucius' death, Augustus would have adopted Tiberius but he vehemently refused it for he feared the envy of Caius. (*Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.103. 1:263)
4006 AM, 4716 JP, 3 AD
  1. Caius entered into Armenia and at first had good success. A little later Addo or Adduus, [he was called also Ador by Strabo] the governor of Artagera, persuaded the citadel to revolt. He enticed Caius to the wall, as though he would tell him some secret business, and wounded him. Caesar's captains took the citadel by continual assault and dismantled it. (*Velleius Paterculius, l.2. c.103. 1:263; *Strabo. l.11. 5:327; Zonaras, ex Dio)
  2. In Florus (*Florus, l.2. 1:343) this story is thus related. Dones or Domitus whom the king had made governor of Artaxatis or Artagerae pretended to betray the king. He wounded Caius as he was looking over a scroll which he had given him that contained a record of the treasures. Caius was indeed wounded, but in a short time recovered from his wound. The barbarians were attacked on every side by the army with the swords. Domitus was wounded and hurled himself upon a burning pyre. Thus he made atonement with his life to Caesar who outlived him. Sextus Rufus also followed Florus in his breviary. (Sextus, in Breviary). However he relates this as it had been concerning the Parthians and not concerning the Armenians. He without any reason adds: "The Parthians to give satisfaction for such a bold attempt, first gave hostages to Octavian Caesar and restored the ensigns that were taken away under Crassus."
  3. This is the account of all those things to this history of Caius [incorrectly called Claudius, both here and by Jornandes, and in that writing of the Latins, that Georgius Syncellus transferred into his Greek Chronicle] which Suetonius (Suetonius, Octavian, c.21.) had written about the Parthians. He confuses the two accounts and combines them into one: "The Parthians easily yielded up Armenia to [Octavian] who claimed it. They restored the military ensigns to him that he demanded which were taken from M. Crassus and M. Antony. Moreover, they offered hostages."
  4. Caius made Ariobarzanes governor over the Armenians at their request. He was a Mede and was very handsome and intelligent. (Tacitus, Annals, l.1.)
  5. Caius was less useful because of his wound and he was less energetic and his mind was less profitable to the state. He never lacked the company of men who by their flattery fomented his vices. By this it happened that he would rather spend all his time in any corner of the world than to return to Rome. He became less astute through sickness and more retiring and he desired that he might live a private life. Augustus was grieved by this and advised him that he should return into Italy He sailed to Lycia and died of sickness in the city Limyra. (Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.102. 1:259) Tacitus notes that he died as he came from Armenia and was sick from his wound. (Tacitus, Annals, l.1 c.3.) Sextus Rufus affirmed that he died from his wound after he returned to Syria. Suetonius confirmed that he died in Lycia as does also Dio and Velleius [who was a tribune of soldiers and then served under Caius.] (Suetonius, in Octavian, c.65.)
  6. Augustus was very grieved by the death of Caius. In his letters, he complained to Asinius Pollio who was his dear friend when eating a large supper when his grief was too fresh and great. Pollio wrote back: "I supped after the same fashion when I lost my son Aterius. Would any exact more grief from a friend than from a father?"
  7. Marcus Seneca relates this in the poem of the 4th book of his controversies. (Seneca, Controversiae Suasoriae. l.4.)
  8. The bodies of Caius and Lucius were brought to Rome by the captains, armies and commanders of every city. The golden [or silver] shields and spears which they received from the equestrians when they came to manhood, were hung up in the senate house. (Xyphiline, ex Dio) Although Bellonius related in the second book of his observations that the epitaph of G. Caesar may be seen at Hama or Emesa in Syria. However, his bones were buried at Rome as this epitaph showed which is seen before the temple of the gods behind the temple of Minerva. "OSS A C. CAESAR IS AVGVSTIF. PRINCIPIS JUVENTUTIS." This means the bones of G. Caesar the son of Augustus, prince of youth. (Gruter, Inscriptions, p. 235. 4.) There was a suspicion that both these brothers were taken out of the way by the deceit of their stepmother Livia, to make way for her son, Tiberius for the empire. (Tacitus, Annals, l.1. c.3.; Zonaras, ex Dio)
  9. Augustus was made a god by the people. He did not approve and forbid it by an edict. (Xyphiline, ex Dio; Zonaras, ex Dio; Suetonius, in Octavian, c.53.)
4007 AM, 4716 JP, 3 AD
  1. After the thirteen years of his government had expired, he took upon himself the empire for another ten years. He did this as if it were upon compulsion. He had now become more mild and was loath to exasperate the senators and would not offend anyone any more. (Xyphiline, ex Dio)
  2. Augustus made Tiberius Nero his partner in the tribuneship. Tiberius eagerly refused both privately and in the senate. (Velleius Paterculus, l.2. c.103. 1:265) Suetonius stated that the tribuneship was given to him for five years (Suetonius, in Tiberius, c.16.) and Dio said for ten years. (Dio, l.55. 6:425)