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Historical Writings

Ussher's "The Annals of the World"

The Sixth Age: 588 BC - 501 BC

3416 AM, 4126 JP, 588 BC
  1. Tyre rejoiced to see the wretched condition Jerusalem experienced by Nebuchadnezzar's hand. However, in the 11th year of Jeconiah's captivity, in the first day of the first month, Ezekiel prophesied that Tyre would also perish in like manner by the same hand and that all who saw her former wealth and bravery would be amazed. Tremellius and Pradus places this prophecy in the 5th month. This would place it in the 12th year of Jeconiah's captivity in Babylon. He also foretold the same misery for the Sidonians, Tyre's neighbours. (Ezekiel 26:1-18) At that time the fame of Daniel's wisdom was so great, even in foreign nations, that used to speak in a proverbial way "as wise as Daniel". It was from this man that God upbraided Ithobolus king of Tyre, with his pride and arrogancy of his mind. "behold, thou art wiser than Daniel; no secret can be hid from thee," (Ezekiel 28:3)
  2. In the same year, the 7th day of the 3month, [Tuesday, April 26th] God revealed his will to Ezekiel, of sending and arming Nebuchadnezzar against Pharaoh, to the ruin of Egypt. (Ezekiel 30:20-26)
  3. In the same year also, upon the first day of the 3month, [Sunday, June 19th] God declared that the Egyptian, could no more avoid this determination, than the Assyrian could. (Ezekiel 31:1-18)
  4. Near the end of the 11th year of Zedekiah, (Jeremiah 1:3) on the 9th day of the 4month [Wednesday, July 27th] the famine grew strong in Jerusalem. The city was broken up and the Chaldeans entered it. 2Ki 26:2-4(Jeremiah 39:2,3; Jeremiah 52:5-7)
  5. When the city was taken Zedekiah and all the men of war fled away by night.
  6. The Chaldeans pursued after them and took Zedekiah. They brought him as a prisoner to Riblah where Nebuchadnezzar was. He saw his children slaughtered and he had then his eyes put out. He was enchained with steel chains and carried away from there to Babylon. (2 Kings 25:4,7; Jeremiah 39:4,7); Jer 52:7,11The prophecies were fulfilled of him, that with his eyes he would see the king of Babylon, (Jeremiah 32:4; Jeremiah 34:3) but he would not see Babylon although he would die there.(Ezekiel 12:13)
  7. On the 7th day of the 4month [Wednesday, August 24th] Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard was sent by Nebuchadnezzar to enter the city.(2 Kings 25:8) He spent two days preparing provisions. On the 10th day of that month, [Sunday, August 27th] he executed his charge. He set fire to the temple and on the king's palace. He also burned to the ground all the noble men's houses, with all the rest of the houses in Jerusalem.(Jeremiah 52:13; Jeremiah 39:8) Our country man Tho. Lydiate, thinks that fire was set on it on the 7th day; but not burnt down till the 10th. In remembrance of this calamity, the fast of the 5th month was ordained to be kept.(Zechariah 7:3,5; Zechariah 8:19) This fast is observed by the Jews to this day. However it is kept by them on the 9th day and not the 10th of the month Ab. The temple was destroyed toward the end of the 19th year of Nebuchadnezzar's reign.(Jeremiah 52:12; 2 Kings 25:9) This was in the beginning of the first year of the 48th olympiad, in the 160th year, running of Nebonasar's account, 424 years, 3 months and 8 days, from the time that Solomon laid the first stone.
  8. On the same 5th month, (Jeremiah 1:3) all the walls of Jerusalem were levelled to the ground. Nebuchadnezzar carried back to Babylon all the remaining people in the city, all those who had formerly fled over to him, all the common people of the city, all the treasure of the king and of his nobles and the furniture of the temple. (Jeremiah 39): 8,9 52:14,23; (2 Kings 25:10,17; 2 Chronicles 36:18-20) Thus, Judah was carried away out of her own land. (Jeremiah 52:27; 2 Kings 25:21) 468 years after David began to reign over it. These events have been recorded from the dividing of the 10 tribes, from the tribe of Judah, 388 years and from the destruction of the kingdom of Israel, 134 years.
  9. Nebuzaradan left the basest sort of the people in the land of Judah to dress the vineyards and to till the ground. The king appointed Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, a man of the same country as governor (Jeremiah 39:10; Jeremiah 42:16; 2 Kings 25:1,22,23) but without any kingly title. The reason for this is, as Severus Supitius, in his sacred History, notes: "To have some preeminence over a few miserable boors or persons, was not reckoned to be any dignity at all."
  10. Nebuzaradan took to Nebuchadnezzar at Riblah, Seraiah the chief priest and Zephaniah the second priest and the three keepers of the gate of the temple, and other principal men. They were put to death there. (Jeremiah 52:24,27); 2Ki 25:18,21Jehozadak, the son of Seraiah and who after him came to be the high priest, was carried away captive to Babylon. (1 Chronicles 6:15)
  11. Jeremiah was bound with chains and was carried with the rest as far as Ramah towards Babylon. There his irons were removed and he was set free. He was given his choice of either going to Babylon and there to be honourably treated or stay in the country with those miserable wretches who were left behind. He decided to stay and was sent back with money in his purse to Gedaliah the governor at Mizpah in the tribe of Benjamin. (Jeremiah 39:11-14; Jeremiah 40:1-6)
  12. The captains and companies, who fled by night when the city was first taken, (2 Kings 25:4; Jeremiah 52:7) were scattered over the country. These with all the Jews who had fled to the Moabites and Ammonites and other nearby nations, after a while returned to Gedaliah in their own country. They were given a good provision of wine and oil and other summer fruits to live on. (Jeremiah 40:7,12; 2 Kings 25:23,24)
  13. Ishmael, the son of Nethaniah, of the family of the kings of Judah was bribed by Baalis king of the Ammonites to kill Gedaliah. He came to him with ten resolute fellows to Mizpah. They were graciously entertained by Gedaliah who gave no credit to those who told him of Ishmael's treachery and died as a result. (Jeremiah 40:13-16)
3417 AM, 4126 JP, 588 BC
  1. In the 7th month, Ishmael with his ten companions murdered Gedaliah as well as any Chaldeans and men of arms they found in Mizpah. (Jeremiah 41:1-3; 2 Kings 25:25) In remembrance of this, the Jews keep a fast to this day, on the 3day of this month Tizri. A day or two later, the same Ishmael slew some more men, who clad in mourning apparel, brought offerings and frankincense from Sichem, Shiloh and Samaria to the house of the Lord that now lay in ruins. These were tricked into going to Mizpah, where they were murdered in the open streets. Their bodies were cast into the well of king Asa. (Jeremiah 41:4-9)
  2. Ishmael returned to the king of Ammon with the king's daughters and the rest of the people who were left at Mizpah as his prisoners. Johanan, the son of Kareah, met him with a band of men and took away all his prisoners and set them free. Ishmael with only eight men in his company fled to the Ammonites. (Jeremiah 41:10,15)
  3. Johanan and all his captains with the rest of the people remained near Bethlehem. For fear of the Chaldeans they intended to flee into Egypt. (Jeremiah 41:16-18) Many of them went to Jeremiah and desired an answer by him from God about this plan. After 10 days, he told them God's message. He exhorted them not to leave their country. He assured them that if they stayed, God would protect them there and that no harm should come to them from the Babylonians. If they went into Egypt, everyone of them would perish by sword, by famine, by other kinds of death. The common people went into Egypt according to their old custom of never obeying good counsel nor God's commands. They took Jeremiah and Baruch the son of Neriah with them to Tahpanhes. Here Jeremiah declared to them in a type, the destruction of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar. (Jeremiah 42:1-43:13) [Severus Sulpicius, Sacred History, l.2.]
  4. In the 12th year of Jeconiah's captivity, on the 5th day of the 10th month, [Wednesday, January 25th] when news came to Ezekiel of the taking of Jerusalem, the prophet foretold of the utter destruction of the remaining Israelites. This was after the others had fled to Egypt. (Ezekiel 32:1-16)
  5. In the same 12th year, in the first day of the 12th month, [Wednesday, March 22nd] Ezekiel prophesied of the grievous plague and affliction which Nebuchadnezzar would bring on the land of Egypt. (Ezekiel 33:1-16)
  6. On the 15th day, the same prophet predicted of Pharaoh and all the people of Egypt that they would be brought down as low as hell with the rest of the uncircumcised nations. (Ezekiel 32:17-32)
  7. Jeremiah prophesied of the destruction which would follow the Israelites at Migdol not far from the Red Sea, (Exodus 14:2) at Tahpanhes, [or Daphne-pelusium], at Noph, at Memphis and in Pathros, a country in Egypt. For a certain sign of their own misery, he gave them Pharaoh, or Apryes, king of Egypt, whom they should see brought low before their eyes. (Jeremiah 44:1-30)
  8. Obadiah the prophet uttered a prophecy against Edom, which shamefully gloated over the calamity of the Jews when Jerusalem was destroyed. Likewise Jeremiah did, (Jeremiah 49:7; Ezekiel 25:12) and the authors of the Psalms, (Psalms 79:1-1-13; Psalms 137:1-9) who wrote about the same time.
3418 AM, 4128 JP, 586 BC
  1. When Cyrus had lived 12 years or more with his father in Persia, his grandfather Astyages sent for him. He and his mother Mandane went to him in Media. [Xenophon, li.1. of the Unstitu. of Cyrus.]
3419 AM, 4129 JP, 585 BC
  1. When Ithobalus was reigning in Tyre, it was besieged 13 years by Nebuchadnezzar. Josephus reports this from Philostratus and other writers of the affairs of Phoenicia. [Antiq. l. 10. c.11. & l.1. cont. Apion.] During these 13 years, it seems that the neighbouring nations, the Moabites, the Ammonites and Edomites, were also subdued by Nebuchadnezzar, according to the predictions of the prophets. (Jeremiah 27:1-22; Jeremiah 48:1-49:39; Ezekiel 25:1-17)
3420 AM, 4130 JP, 584 BC
  1. It was the 23year of Nebuchadnezzar's reign when he lay siege to Tyre, which borders the land of Israel.(Joshua 19:29) Nebuzaradan, captain of his guard, took away 745 remaining Jews and Israelites together to Babylon. (Jeremiah 52:30) This extreme depopulation was foretold by Ezekiel (Ezekiel 4:5,6) in reference to the iniquity of Israel lasting 350 years, which was distinct from Judah's iniquity lasting 40 years until it was ended.
3421 AM, 4131 JP, 583 BC
  1. Cyrus was now almost 16 years of age. Evil-merodach, the king of Assyria's son, was about to marry a wife called Nicotris. He made an inroad, with a great army of cavalry and foot soldiers on the borders of Media. There he took his pleasure in hunting and harrowing the country. Astyages, Cyaxares' son and Cyrus' grandchild had just begun to bear arms. They marched out and met him in a battle with the cavalry and overthrew him, driving him out of his borders. [Xenophon. l.1. of the institution of Cyrus.]
  2. After this Cyrus was called home by his father Cambyses. He had one year left of schooling. Xenophon in the same book tells us this. It is also referenced in Athenaeus', 14th book Dipnosoph out of Dion that Cyrus who served Astyages as the holder of his battle-axe and later as one of his armour bearers returned into Persia. At that same time Angeres who was a musician sang a song while Astyages feasted his friends. He said: "That a fierce wild beast, more fierce than any boar; was let go, and sent into a sunny country and that he should reign over all these provinces and should with a handful of men, maintain war against great armies, &c."
  3. Astyages tried to call back Cyrus again, but could not get him.
3422 AM, 4132 JP, 582 BC
  1. Cyrus spent 17 years among boys and then he spent ten years more among the youths. [Xenophon l.1. of the Instit. of Cyrus.]
3424 AM, 4134 JP, 580 BC
  1. In the 50th Olympiad, Epitelides the Lacedemonian, won the race in running. Certain men from Cnidos, not Rhodes, avoided the hostility of the kings of Asia by agreeing to make a colony elsewhere. They made Pentathlus a Cnidian, who was of the family of Hippotas, the son of Hercules. They moved to Sicily when Egesta and Selinunte were at war with each other. Pentathlus was killed while fighting within the ranks of the Selinuntians. The rest of them made Gorgus, Thestor and Epethirsis their captains. These men were all from the same family as Pentathlus was. They set sail from there and settled in the Isle of Lipara, [Diod. Sic. l.5.]
3429 AM, 4139 JP, 575 BC
  1. Arcesilars reigned 16 years in Cyrenaica and was succeeded by his son Battus who was surnamed Eudaemon. A large multitude of Greeks were advised by the Oracle at Delphi to go to Battus. They ravaged the lands of the bordering Libyans and divided it among themselves. Before this the colony in Cyrene consisted only of those who came from the Isle of Thera whose founder was Battus. [Herod. l.4. c.159.]
3430 AM, 4140 JP, 574 BC
  1. On the 10th day of the first month of the 25th year of the captivity of Jeconiah, [Tuesday, April 30th] Jonathan the Chaldee Paraphrast states that 14 years after the destruction of Jerusalem, Ezekiel had a vision. In this vision the temple, the city and the kingdom of the Israelites was restored. This also foretold the restoration of the church by Christ with its greatness, honour and excellence.(Ezekiel 40:1-48:35)
  2. The Libyans were driven out of their lands and country by the inhabitants of Cyrenaica. They put themselves under the protection of Apryes king of Egypt. He gathered a great army together and sent them against the Cyrenians. The Cyrenians camped at a place called Irasa near the fountain called Thestis. They routed the army of the Egyptians so that only a few of them were left to return again into Egypt. The Egyptians grew angry with Apryes and revolted from him. They thought that he purposely sent them on a suicide mission to be rid of them. They reasoned that he did this so that he might more easily dominate the rest that were left. [Herod. l. 4. c.159, l.2. 161. Diodor. sic. l.1.]
3431 AM, 4141 JP, 573 BC
  1. Amasis, also called Saits, [who was frequently spoken of by Plato in his Timaeus] was sent by his father to stop this rebellion of the people. However, they made him king instead of his father. Apryes sent Paterbanes, a noble person, to call Amasis back. When Paterbanes returned, they cut off his nose and ears, because he did not bring Amasis back with him. After this unworthy act took place, all the people defected from him to Amasis. [Herod. l.2. c.162.]
3432 AM, 4142 JP, 572 BC
  1. Finally, Tyre surrendered to Nebuchadnezzar. It was not taken by force, and was ransacked by the soldiers. (Ezekiel 29:18,19) Therefore he replaced king Ithobains with Gaal, a man of the same country to be a petty king there. He governed them 10 years, as Josephus affirms from the Annals of the Phoenicians. [lib. 1. contra Apion.]
  2. In the 1st day of the 1st month of the 27th year of the captivity of Jeconiah, [Tuesday, April 21st.] God promised to give all Egypt to Nebuchadnezzar for a spoil in recompence for his long labour in defeating Tyre. (Ezekiel 29:17-20)
  3. When Cyrus was 27 years old, he was taken from the rank of striplings, and reckoned among the number of men, according to the discipline and use of the Persians. [Xenophon, l.1. of the institution of Cyrus.]
  4. Taking advantage of the rebellion in Eygpt, Nebuchadnezzar invaded Egypt with his army after he was solicited by Amasis to help him against his father Apryes. After he conquored it from Syene to the ends of it, he made havock of the Egyptians and of the Jews which lived there. Some he killed and he lead away the rest into captivity according to Jeremiah's prophecies. (Jeremiah 43:1-44:30) 46:1-24(Ezekiel 29:1-31:18)
3433 AM, 4143 JP, 571 BC
  1. Pharaohhophra, or Apryes, was forced to retreat into the country of Thebez. It seems Nebuchadnezzar made Amasis his viceroy over all Egypt. Though Herodotus did not know of this for Scaliger observes in his notes, Ad Fragmenta: "The priests of Egypt told him of such things, as he desired to know. They spoke only of things that glorified their nation, but concealed the rest. This showed their cowardice and slavery, and made payment of tribute to the Chaldeans."
3434 AM, 4144 JP, 570 BC
  1. When Nebuchadnezzar finished his conquests, he returned to Babylon. When at ease in his own palace, he had that remarkable dream of the great tree whose destiny was to be cut down. This tree represented him. The meaning of it was explained by Daniel when he could not learn it from his wizards of Chaldea. (Daniel 4:1-37)
  2. Nebuchadnezzar now built up Babylon in wonderful magnificence and beauty. He built a whole new city outside the old one and enclosed all of it with a triple wall made of brick. As a favour to his Median wife called Amyrtis, [of whom I spoke in 3374 AM] king Astyages' daughter, he made that famous and so much renowned garden, born on pillars of which Berosus writes: "He built that garden, called the Hanging Garden, because his wife desired the pleasure of the hills since she was brought up in Media."
  3. Q. Curtius said: "It is said that a king of Syria, reigning in Babylon, built this great work at the importunity of his wife, whom he dearly loved. She desired to enjoy the pleasure of hills and woods, in that low country of Babylon and set her husband to the task of imitating the genius or spirit of Nature itself, by the amenity and pleasantness of this work."
  4. Those who would know more of the infinite magnificence and sumptuousness of this work must read the fragments which are left from Berosus and Abydenus. The former blames the Greek writers who attribute this work to Semyramis, where indeed, this and those other vast and magnificent structures were the works of this Nebuchadnezzar. So states Josephus, in his first Book centra Apion. The latter writer says plainly that those vast walls with their brazen gates were reckoned among the wonders of the world and remained to the times of Alexander the Great. Eubebius in his ninth book, De Evangelical Preparat. attributes this to Nebuchadnezzar. Clitarchus and others, who accompanied Alexander in that journey state that the circumfirence of that wall was 365 furlongs, [about 46 miles] according to the number of the days of the year. [Diod. Sic. l.1.] They also state that every furlong's length of it was built and completed in one day. [Q. Curtius, l.5. c.4.]
  5. Twelve whole months were no sooner past, but Nebuchadnezzar, growing proud and boastful of the magnificency of his buildings, lost his mind and was put out of his palace. He spent seven years in the woods and fields among beasts. (Daniel 4:32,33)
  6. Apryes gathered an army of 30,000 mercenaries from Ionia and Caria to help him fight with his son Amasis, at Memphis. The army was routed and he was taken prisoner. He was kept for a while in the city of Sais. Not long after this, he was strangled, according to the prophecy of (Jeremiah 44:30). [Herod. l.2. 163. and 169 and by Diod. Sic. l.1.]
  7. After his death Amasis reigned 44 years, [Herod. l.31. c.10.] and paid tribute all that time to the king of Babylon. The priests did not make that known to Herodotus.
3442 AM, 4151 JP, 563 BC
  1. The 18th year of Jubilee.
  2. At the end of 7 years, Nebuchadnezzar humbly acknowledged the power of God. He was restored both to his right mind and his kingdom. He publicly proclaimed God's great grace and mercy shown toward him and his power over all nations. (Daniel 4:34-37)
  3. Nebuchadnezzar died after he had foretold that Cyrus would capture Babylon. So states Abydenus [quoted by Euseb. l.9. Prapar. Evang. c.ult.] based on the account from the Chaldeans. He departed this life after he had reigned about 20 months as viceroy in the kingdom with his father and 43 years by himself.
  4. After Nebuchadnezzar, his son Evilmerodach reigned. In the 37th year of the captivity of Jehoiachin, or Jeconiah, about the 25th day of the 12th month [Tuesday, April 15th], Evilmerodach ordered Jeconiah to be promoted. (Jeremiah 52:31) Two days later he took him from prison, changed his prison clothes and sat him ahead of all the princes in his court. He counted him among the king's friends and for the rest of his life, Jeconiah ate at the king's table. (2 Kings 25:27-29)
  5. In Lydia after Haylyattes died, his son Cresus reigned for 14 years. [Herod. l.1. c.86]
  6. After king Baal, the king of Babylon governed Tyre by judges. The first one was Ecnibalus the son of Baslacus, whom Scaliger calls. xl[m!b l[b
3443 AM, 4153 JP, 561 BC
  1. Abhar the high priest judged Tyre 3 months. After him, Mitgonus and Gerastratus governed them for 6 years. (Josephus, Apion l.1. <1:783>)
  2. When Croesus was living at Sardis, all the wise and learned men of Greece went to him including Solon the law maker. Solon had that famous discussion with Croesus about of the uncertainty of man's life and of all human happiness in it. [Herod. l.1. c.28-33] There exists at Laertius a short epistle of Solon's to Croesus that Solon wrote near the end of his life. He said that he was sent for by Croesus at the time Pisistratus governed Athens. At the same time, Aesop, a Phrygian who composed those famous fables, was sent for by Croesus to come to him at Sardis. Croesus held Aesop in great esteem. Croesus was upset with Solon and was dismissed in an uncivil manner because Solon spoke quite candidly to him. He sent him a letter stating that kings must have either very few or very pleasing words spoken to them. Solon wrote back that kings must have, either very few or very honest things spoken to them. (*Plutarch, Solon, l.1. c. 28. 1:483,485)
  3. Aesop went from Sardis to Delphi and was there most unjustly sentenced to die. Accordingly he was thrown down the rock there, called Phaedrias, about the 54th olympiad according to Trabe. That is near the end of the 4th year of that olympiad, if the times be correctly calculated. The revenge of this murder was often threatened by the Oracle there. It was later executed by Judmon, grandchild to that Judmon of the Isle of Samos. Aesop sometime had been with this slave and with Rhodope of Thracia, that famous strumpet. [Herod. l.2. ca. 134.]
  4. After Solon left Croesus, he went into Cilicia and there built a city, and called it Solos after himself. He settled certain Athenians there. In process of time, they corrupted the native language and were said to commit solecisms in their speech according to Laertius in his life reports. This place is more properly said of the Solii in Cyprus than of the Solenses in Cilicia. This is shown by Solon in his eulogies written to Philonyprus the king, recorded by Plutarch, in the life of Solon. Here Plutarch also tells us that this petty king of Cyprus made use of Solon's wit and counsel in some of his own affairs. He moved a little town formerly called Epea, into a lower ground more fit and useful for habitation and in honour of Solon, called it Solos.
  5. After Solon departed, Croesus, who deemed himself the happiest man alive, found out by sad experience that all Solon had told him, of the instability of man's life and happiness of it was true. For shortly thereafter he had a dream in which he saw his son Atys thrust through with a spear. This was a portent of the violent death which was soon to happen to him. He sought diligently to prevent this and was prepared to marry him. Adrastus of Phrygia of the king's family there had slain his own brother. He was banished against his will by his father Midas, the son of Gordius, [not that old Midas, the son of Gordias king of Phrygia, whose Epitaph made by Homer and set upon his tomb, Herodutus in the life of Homer recounts]. He came to Sardis and Croesus pardoned him for this accidental death. When Croesus had done this, he committed to him the care and safe keeping of his son Atys. At that time, he was requested by the Mysians to come and help kill a huge boar which destroyed the grain and other crops growing about the hill Olympus. It also often killed many of the farmers. When Adrastus aimed at the boar with the point of his spear, he accidentally gored Atys and killed him. When Croesus had pardoned him for this, he killed himself on the tomb of Atys. When Croesus lost his son, he spent two whole years mourning for him. He broke off his mourning for fear of Cyrus' growing power and by whom he was afterward conquered. [Herod. l.1. c.34-46.] whereof also you may see, what Hen. Valesius states in his collections [Diodo. Sic. p. 238.] and what Val. Max. states [l. 1. c.7.].
3444 AM, 4154 JP, 560 BC
  1. Evilmerodach the king of Babylon, was a wicked man. He had many attempts made on his life and was murdered by Neriglissoros, his sister's husband, when he had reigned little more than two years. [Berosus l.3. of the Chaldean Affairs, cited by Josephus l.1. contra Apion] We read that Jeconiah king of Judah had a daily food allowance made for him for his diet until he died. (Jeremiah 52:34; 2 Kings 25:30) Therefore, it is most probable, that Jeconiah himself died about the same time Evilmerodach died.
  2. After Neriglissoros murdered Evilmerodach, he reigned 4 years. [Berosus l.3. Chalean Affairs]
  3. In the kingdom of Media when Astyages or Assuerus died, /APC (Tobit 14:15) he was succeeded by his son Cyaxares, Cyrus his mother's brother. [Xenophon l.1. of the Institution of Cyrus] This was in the beginning of the first year of the 55th Olympiad, 31 years before the death of Cyrus. Daniel calls Cyaxares, Darius the Mede, the son of Assuerus.
3445 AM, 4155 JP, 559 BC
  1. The king of Babylon conscripted troops from his own subjects and help from Croesus the king of Lydia with the Cappadocians, the Phrygians, Carians Paphlagonians and Cisicians, on the west. On the east he approached the Indians also to join with him in battle against the Medes and Persians. He told them that they were two great nations who were now allied together. If they were not checked, they would eventually overrun and bring into subjection all countries near and far. Cyrus was made general of the Persian army by his father Cambyes and all the counsel of the kingdom. He was sent to Media with 30,000 soldiers and 1000 commanders all of equal authority under his command. [Xenophon, l.1. Institution of Cyrus ] When he came he was made general of the Median forces by his uncle Cyaxares who had sent for him and was placed solely in charge of the war against the Babylonians. From this time are the 30 years of his reign or principality reckoned starting from the end of the 1st year of the 55th Olympiad. [Julius Africanus, l.3. of his Annals, from Diod. Sic.] Thallus, Castor, Polybius, Phlegon, and other chronologers also count this as the beginning of the reign of Cyrus as cited by Eusebius. [l. 10. de Prapara. Evangelica.]
  2. In the spring of that year, at the close of the same year of the same Olympiad, Solon, left Philocyprus the king and the Solii. He thought to return to Athens as we find in his eulogies as mentioned before in Plutarch. However, he suddenly became sick and died in Cyprus at the age of 80 years. Laertius says this happened in the year when Hegestrates was archon or president of Athens and in the second year of Pisistratus ruling there. [Plutarch from Phanias the Ephesian]
3446 AM, 4156 JP, 558 BC
  1. In the 30th year after the desolation of Jerusalem, the unknown author of 2nd Esdras claims to have had that conference with the angel Uriel. This is recorded in /APC (2 Esdras 3:1-4:52) at what time Salathiel was captain of the people, /APC (2 Esdras 5:16) because Jeconiah was dead.
  2. When Croesus was preparing to fight with Cyrus, he sent great presents to Delphi and consulted the oracle there concerning the matter of this war. This was 3 years before Sardis was taken. [Herod. l.1. c.53-55,91.]
3447 AM, 4157 JP, 557 BC
  1. When the king of Armenia saw that the Babylonians were making preparations against Cyraxeres, he would neither send him aid nor pay him tribute any longer in spite of the agreement he had made when Astyages or Cyaxares had overcome and subjected him. Therefore, Cyaxares, under the pretence of a hunting trip, attacked Armenia and defeated both him and his son Tigranes in a battle. He put them under his control again. He also conquered the mountains which lie between Armenia and Chaldea and there built a strong fort. He made peace on certain conditions between the two nations. [Xenoph. l.3. de Instit. Cyri.]
3448 AM, 4158 JP, 556 BC
  1. Cyaxares and Cyrus marched against the Babylonian king, Croesus and the rest of the confederates and gained a major victory over them. The king of Babylon fell in the battle and Croesus with those which were left, broke his camp by night and fled. Cyrus who had made a league with the Hircanians who had defected to him from the Babylonians, used their help and guidance in the way to pursue the fleeing enemy. He overtook them and after another battle he defeated them. After Croesus sent away his women by night because the days were so hot, he left his camp with all his horses. The Hyrcanins fell upon the companies of the Cappadocians and Arabians and slew both their kings. Cyrus spared the lives of such as either were taken by force or had yielded to mercy. He divided the spoil of the battle among his soldiers. [Herod. l.3, (4).]
  2. Laborosoarchodus, son of Neriglissorus, was much more wicked than his father. He reigned after his father for 9 months in Babylon. [Berosus.]
  3. Balatorus reigned in Tyre for one year among other judges. [Phoenici. Annal.]
  4. Gobrias, had an only son who was killed by that new king of Babylon in a hunting match. He and his friends defected to Cyrus. [Xen. l.4.]
  5. Cyrus came to invade the country of Babylon. He stood outside the walls of the city and challenged the new king to a duel. Gadatas, was a noble man of whom this new king was jealous because the king's wife admired him, so he defected to Cyrus. The Babylonians sought revenge for this and spoiled Gadatas' lands. Cyrus pursued them and routed their forces. Unknown to Cyrus, the Cadusii, whom he had appointed as the rear guards of his army, had laid siege to a country near the city. They were cut off by the king of Babylon. When Cyrus first revenged the death of these men, he came to an agreement with the king to allow only the soldiers to fight allowing the peasants on both sides to hold a truce. He passed beyond the city and captured three of their forts. He returned to the confines of Assyria and Media from where he started. He invited his uncle Cyaxares to come him. When he came there, Cyrus honourably received and entertained him in the pavilion of the king of Assyria, Neriglostorus. Since winter was approaching, they consulted together about the things necessary to maintain the siege, should it carry on that long. [Xenophon l.5. & 6.]
3449 AM, 4159 JP, 555 BC
  1. After Laborosoarchadus, who was disposed of by his subjects for his acts of villany, Nebuchadnezzar's grandchild by his daughter succeeded him. He was his son by Evilmerodach and called by Berosus, Nabonidus, but by Herodotus, Labynitus, by Abydenus, Mabannidochus and by Daniel, Belshazzar, also Baltazar. He reigned 17 years, according to Berosus in his third book of his Chaldee History and Ptolemy in Can. Reg.
  2. In the first year of this king's reign, Daniel had a vision of 4 beasts which signified the 4 empires of the world. He also saw God overcoming all earthly powers and the sovereignty of the Son of Man in all things. (Daniel 7:1-28)
  3. When Balatorus, the petty king of Tyre died, Merbalus was sent from Babylon to replace him and reigned for 4 years. [Phoenis. Annal.]
3451 AM, 4161 JP, 553 BC
  1. In the 3year of Belshazzar, Daniel had a vision of a ram and a goat, foreshadowed the destruction of the Persian Empire by Alexander and the great misery which Antiochus would bring upon the people of God. Daniel was living at Susa in the province of Elam, upon the bank of the river Ulai. Da 8:1,2This river surrounds the citadel of Susa and parts the provinces of Susa and Elimais. That is the Susachaeans from the Elamites, as the inhabitants of those two provinces are distinguished by (Ezra 4:9) and as Pliny l.6. c.27. From this we know that at this time the province of Susa was not in the hands of the Medes or Persians. It was controlled by the Babylonians, under whom Daniel then lived, as I noted before in 3405 AM.
  2. Berosus tells us [in his third book of his Chaldee History, quoted by Josephus, l.1. cont, Apion.] that those walls about the river of the city of Babylon, [which were started by Nebuchadnezzar] were fully lined with brick laid with a kind of slime, or liquid brimstone. For his mother Nicotris, an astute woman, saw the gathering storm about to break upon Babylon. She had turned the river Euphrates, which normally ran swiftly in a straight course. After drawing it through many winding channels, which she had cut for that purpose, she made it to run more slowly than it did formerly. Then she raised a huge dam on each side of the river. Upstream from the city she constructed a huge lake into which she diverted the river. Thus, she left the channel of the river dry. When this was done, she lined the banks of the river inside the city brick walls. She installed watergates in the walls around the city. She also built a stone bridge in the middle of the city. When this was done, she diverted the river from the lake to its original channel. [Herod. l.1. c.185,186, 188.] The magnificence of this stone bridge which joined the king's houses, that stood on each side of the river, is described by Philostratus, in the life of Apollonius. [lib. 1. c.18] He said that it was built by a queen that came out of Media. Hence we gather that as Nebuchadnezzar married Amyitis, so likewise his son, Evilmerodach married this Nicotris from Media.
3453 AM, 4163 JP, 551 BC
  1. When Merbalus died, the king of Babylon sent Hirom, his brother in his place. He reigned in Tyre for 20 years. [Phoenic. Annal.]
3455 AM, 4165 JP, 549 BC
  1. Darius the son of Hystaspis, was born. He was almost 20 years old shortly before Cyrus died. [Herod. l.1, c.209]
3456 AM, 4166 JP, 548 BC
  1. When Croesus was made general of the army of the Babylonians and others, he crossed over the river Halys which divided the lands of Media and Lydia. Using the skill of Thales the Median philosopher, he crossed the river without a bridge and came into Cappadocia. There he took the city of Pteria and all the surrounding cities. He utterly destroyed the Syrians who had done him no wrong. Herodotus in [lib. 1. c.72.] states that Cappadocians were called Syrians by the Greeks.
  2. After Cyrus had sent to the Ionians to see if they would join him or remain loyal to Croesus, he fought an indecisive battle with Croesus. The next day Croesus returned to Sardis because Cyrus did not attack him again. He intended not to fight that winter but wait for the next spring. to march against the Persians. In the meantime, he sent all his auxiliaries to their homes and sent ambassadors to those who were loyal to him, as were the Lacedemonians. He ordered them all to come to meet at Sardis in five months. When Croesus had disbanded his army, Cyrus attacked him with all his forces. When this surprise attack was made, Croesus, though greatly troubled, still went forth to fight with him with such of his Lydians as he had. He trusted mainly in his cavalry. Cyrus thwarted his design by placing his camels in front of his troops, knowing that horses cannot tolerate the smell of camels. Therefore all the horses of Croesus turned tail and carried their riders away with them. However, the Lydians left their horses and set themselves in battle array. Yet at last, after many were killed on each side they fled. The Persians followed up on this victory and attacked Sardis which they took in 14 days. Croesus was condemned to be burned. When he came to the place of execution, he cried out, "O Solon, Solon", whose wise counsel, concerning the instability of human affairs he had formerly so much despised. When Cyrus heard this he not only spared his life but took him also into his privy counsel. Cyrus arranged the funerals of Abradatos the king of Susa [who defected from the king of Babylon to him and was slain in the battle]. Also he arranged the funeral of Panthea his queen who killed herself when she saw her dead husband. He made a huge and magnificent monument for them. [Herod. l.1. c.75-90 with Xeno. instruc. l.7. The collections out of Diod. Sic. by Hen. Vales. p. 241. Plut. in the life of Solon. Ployan. in his stratag. l.7. in Cyrus and Croesus and Solinus in Polyhist. l.1.] Eusebus in his Chronicles states that Cyrus attacked Sardis, in the 28th Olympiad that is in its 1st year.
  3. When Croesus sent his shackles as a present to Delphi, he complained in vain that he had been misled by the Oracle. [Herod. l.1. c.90,91] When the men of Ionia and Eolia, wanted to submit to Cyrus under the same conditions that they had formerly lived by under Croesus, Cyrus declined. He granted those terms only to the Milesians, who feared what might happen to them and had previously made peace with him. [Herod. l.1. c.141,143, 169] The rest of the Greek city states were fortified. They sent Pithermon of Phocca, with other ambassadors to the Lacedemonians to seek help from them which they refused to do. Yet they sent their ambassador Lachrines to Cyrus to warn him not to touch any of the Greeks in Asia. He sent them word again, that he would shortly make them stop caring for the Ionians and the rest of the Greeks in Asia and attend to their own affairs at home. [Herod. l.1. c.141,152, 153]
3457 AM, 4167 JP, 547 BC
  1. Thales the Milesian advised them to hold a counsel at Treos, which was a city in the centre of Ionia. [Herod. l.1. c.170.] Cyrus remained at Sardis and built battering rams and other equipment purposing to raze the walls of all that stood against him. The Carions sent and asked his help to settle their civilwar. He sent Adusius, a Persian with an army. The Cilicians and Cyprians willingly joined this force. Adusius put an end to their difference, however he left sufficient garrisons of his own in the cities of either party. [Xenoph. l.7. Instit.]
  2. At the end of the first year of the 58th Olympiad, Thales the Milesian philosopher died, [as Laertius states from of Sosicrates]. Anaximander, his countrymen first observed the loxodromy, or motions of the stars in the Zodiac, as Pliny, from other authors states. [lib. 1. c.8.] However Plutarch in his 2nd book, "de Placitis Philosophorum", has more correctly told us that that point of astronomy was known to Thales the Milesian, Anaximander's teacher. He died at the age of 64 in the 2nd year of this Olympiad according to Laertius in his "Chronicle of Appolodorus the Athenian", Further from Phavorinus' "Varia Historia", he tells of his scientific inventions. He was the first to invent the sun dial which he installed in Sparta. He also invented the horoscopes for the finding out the equinoxes and solstices for the dial to determine the hour of the day. The horoscope or instrument is used to observe the equinoxes and the tropics, or the summer and winter solstice is different from this. Pliny attributes the invention of the dial and clock to Anaximenes, his scholar, and fellowcitizen: [lib. 2. ca. 76.] "This rule and reason of shadows, which was also called Gnomonical, or Dial work, was first discovered by Anaximenes, Anaximander's student. He was the first that set up a Sciathericum, which is a dial to show what is the time in Sparta. [See note on 3291 AM]"
  3. Anaximenes the son of Eurystratus succeeded Anaximander in his school at Meletus according to Clemens. [Alexandri. in his 1st book of his Aronsat.] Following the advise of Thales, Pythagoras went into Egypt when both his teachers Anaximander and Anaximenes were dead. Polyerates of Samos sent with him a letter of commendation to Amasis king of Egypt according to Laertius in his life of Pythagorus. It seems this Amasis was surnamed by the Egyptians Somnesartcus. Pliny [in his 36th book, c.9.] shows that in his reign Pythagoras came into Egypt. He stayed there 22 years and conversed with the priests. From them he learned his knowledge in astronomy and geometry. He was initiated into all their rites and ceremonies, according to Jamblichus, [in the life of Pythagorus, c.3. & 4.] Therefore he was circumcised by them and after he was admitted into the secrets of their religion so that he might more freely partake of the mystical philosophy of the Egyptians. In attaining this, he was mainly indebted to Sonchedes, the chief prophet among them. [Clem. Alexan. l.1. Strom.] I think this Sonchedes was from Sais. He talked much with Solon according to Plutarch in his life. They taught Pythagoras about Metempsuchosis, or transmigration of souls out of one body into another, according to Diodr. Sic. He was quite familiar with their books and writings about history. [Valer. Max. l.8. c.7.]
3458 AM, 4168 JP, 546 BC
  1. Hystaspes and Adusius united forces and conquered all Phrygia bordering on the Hellespont. They captured their king and brought him prisoner to Cyrus. [Xenoph. Instit. l.7. ]
  2. Cyrus committed Sardis to the keeping of Tabulus a Persian. He committed the treasure of Croesus and the rest of the Lydians to Pactyas of Lydia. He returned towards Ecbatan and took Croesus along with him. He paid little attention to the affairs of Ionia. No sooner had Cyrus left Sardis, but Pactyas immediately persuaded the Lydians to revolt from Cyrus and his governor, Tabulus. Using the king's treasure he hired soldiers from other parts and drove Tabulus into the citadel and besieged him there. When Cyrus was told this on his way he took the advice of Croesus. He sent back Mazares a Median, with a part of his army. He defeated the Lydians and made them agreeable to the rule of Cyrus. [Herod. l.1. c.153-157] So the nation that was famous for hard work, power and chivalry, grew soft from luxury and lost their courage and virtue. [Justin, from Trogus, l.1. ca. 7.]
3459 AM, 4169 JP, 545 BC
  1. Mazares demanded Pactyas from Cumaeans where he had sought refuge. The Cumaeans consulted the Oracle at Branchis who said that they should deliver him up. Aristodicus the son of Heraclides persuaded them not to give him up to be slain by the Persians. Since they did not want him to stay lest Cyrus come and destroy their city, they sent him away safely to Mitylene. When the Mitylenians were ready to surrender him, the Cumaeans sent a ship to Lesbos and there took him to Chios. There the Chii drew him by force from the temple of Minerva and delivered him to Mazares. The Lesbos were rewarded by having Atarneum a place in Mysia opposite Lesbos given to them. [Herod. l.1. ca. 157-160.] Plutarch seeks to justify both the Mitylenians and the Chii in this matter in his book, of "The malignity of Herodotus", using the more ancient historian, Caron of Lampsacus. He states the matter thus: "Pactyas hearing of the approach of the Persian's army, fled first to Mitylene. and then to Chios and there Cyrus took him.
  2. When Mazares had captured Pactyas, he marched against those who with Pactyas had attacked Tabulus. He conquered the inhabitants of Priene, partly ravaged the country lying on the Maeander River. He gave both it and the city of Magnesia for a reward to his soldiers. [Herod. l.1. ca. 161.]
3461 AM, 4171 JP, 543 BC
  1. Harpagus, who was a chief general under Cyrus, went with his army against Ionia. He fought with them [as Eusebius in his Chron. upon the 2nd year of the 59th Olympiad notes] for Mazares was dying of a disease. Harpagus [whom some erroneously call Harpalus] was made general in the place of Mazares. When Harpagus came into Ionia, he immediately besieged whatever city he came to. He took Phocaea, the capital city of all Ionia. [Herod. l.1. ca. 162]
  2. The Phoeneans abandoned the city when they saw they could not hold it. They escaped by ship with their wives and children to Chios. Seeking revenge for the loss of Phocaea, they killed all the garrison which Harpagus had left there to hold it. From there they sailed to the isles of Oenusae and then to the isle of Cyrnus or Corsica. Here, 20 years before they had made a colony and built a city called Alatia. When they had stayed five years and made all the neighbouring countries weary of them by their robbing and plundering, the Italians and Carthaginians sent a navy of 60 ships. After several naval battles, the Phocaeans won but at the cost of many lives and lost 40 ships. They moved to Rhegium in Italy and there built the city Hyela, later called Velia in the territory of Oenotria. [Herod. l.1. c.164-167] Also Thucides [lib. 7. of his history] confirms that the Phocaeans, which built Marseillus, defeated the Carthaginians at sea. One group built Velia and another Marseilles, in the time of Servins Tullus king of the Romans. This was more than 600 years after the coming of Aeneas into Italy as is testified by Hyginus who is quoted by A. Gellius. [lib. 10. Noct. Attica, c.6.] Concerning this colony of the Marseillius, Isocrates mentions in his Archidamus. See note on 3404 AM.
  3. When Harpagus besieged the city of the Teians, they abandoned the city and sailed into Thrace. There they built a city called Abdera. This city was begun earlier and unsuccessfully by Timesius, a man of Clazomenae. See note on 3349 AM. The rest of the Ionians, all except the Milesians who had before hand made a league with Cyrus, were conquered one by one by Harpagus. He allowed them to stay in their own country. They paid what was imposed upon them. [Herod. l.1. c.168,169.] When they were afflicted in this manner, they assembled in their old common council of Ionia, called Panionium. Bias of Priene, chief of all the wise men of Greece, counselled that they should build a common navy and sail to Sardinia. There they should make a common city for all Ionians to live in and be free from this slavery and live happily. [Herod. l.1. c.170]
3464 AM, 4174 JP, 540 BC
  1. When Cyrus had subdued Asia Minor, he immediately made war on the Assyrians. He marched with his army against Labynitus or Nabonidus their king. [Herod. l.1. c.178,188.] The news of this came to Babylon two full years before the city was besieged. (Jeremiah 51:46) When Cyrus was marching toward Babylon, he was delayed at the river Gnides which runs into the Tigris. For want of boats, he could not cross over it. While he stayed there, one of the white horses which were consecrated to the sun, went into the river and drowned in its swift current. Cyrus was furious about this event and stopped his march to Babylon. That summer he had the river divided into 360 channels. He intended to make it so that a woman may pass through it and not get her knees wet. [Herod. l.1. c.189,190, 202. l.5. c.52.]
3465 AM, 4175 JP, 539 BC
  1. The next year Cyrus marched to Babylon. Here Cyrus defeated, Belshazzar, or Nabonidus. The Chaldeans retreated into the city and resolved to endure a siege [Herod. l.1. c.190.] (Jeremiah 51): 27,28,30 which they took lightly for two reasons. First, they had more than 20 years of provisions in Babylon. Secondly, they thought there were many in Cyrus' army who favoured the Chaldeans more than the Persians. [Herod. ib. Xenophon. Instru. l.7.]
  2. Cyrus made a vast trench around the wall of the city. He cast up the earth towards his own army and made bulwarks along it. He placed guards on these and divided his whole army into 12 parts. He ordered that each part would in turn stand watch for a month. [Xenophon. ib.]
3466 AM, 4176 JP, 538 BC
  1. When Cyrus had spent much time in this work with little to show for it, at last he made a ditch from the river to that vast lake which was 300 or 400 furlongs wide [40 to 50 miles wide]. Belshazzar's mother, Nicotris, had dug this lake. Then he opened the mouths of this and that other ditch which he had newly built about the city and let the river flow into them. Hence he made the channel which was not more than two furlongs wide [1/4 mile] passable for his men. [Herod. l.1. c.190,191. Xenophon Institut. l.7.] (Jeremiah 51:32,36)
  2. Cyrus with his army went through the water gates in the wall and got into the city on a festival day while all the men were at banquets. [Herod. l.1. c.190,191. Xenophon Institut. l. 7.] (Jeremiah 51:39,57) So vast was that city that as the inhabitants reported, when the outskirts of it were surprised and taken by the enemy, they who dwelt in the heart of the city, never heard of it. [Herod. l.1. c.191] (Jeremiah 51:31) alludes to this when it says: "that post upon post and messenger upon messenger shall run to tell the king of Babylon, that all the outskirts of the city were possessed by the enemies."
  3. When Belshazzar and all his nobles were feasting, he ordered his servants to bring all the vessels of the house of the Lord, which Nebuchadnezzar his father, or grandfather [for he was his son's son (Jeremiah 27:7)] had brought away from Jerusalem. As they glorified his idols and reproached the true God, God sent a hand to write on the wall of the room, where Belshazzar sat drinking. It wrote the number of years which the Babylonian Empire was to last and that it had been now weighed in the balance and was found wanting. Therefore it was to be transferred to the Medes. It also declared what was to happen to Belshazzar. When his wizards of Chaldea, could not read the writing, his queen advised him to send for Daniel. When he came, he read the writing and interpreted it for him. For his efforts, he was publicly proclaimed the third man in the kingdom.Da 5:1-31Since the king's wives are said to have been present at the banquet, (Daniel 5:2,3) and the queen to have come in afterward, (Daniel 5:10) this is to be understood of the queen mother, Nicotris. She was the mother of this last king of Babylon, as we have already shown out of Herodotus.
  4. In the same night of this banquet, Belshazzar the king of the Chaldeans was slain (Daniel 5:30) by the soldiers of Gobryas and Gadneas. [Xen. l.7. Instr.] So the Babylonian kingdom came to an end, as had been predicted, (Isaiah 13:1-14:32) 21:1-17 34:1-17 46:1-13Hab 2:1-20 (Jeremiah 25:1-38) 50:1-51:64 and the empire transferred to the Medes and Persians. (Daniel 5:21; Daniel 6:8,12,15)
  5. Darius the Mede, son of Assuccus or Cyaxares, the son of Astyages, took over the kingdom as given to him by Cyrus the conqueror. (Daniel 5:31; Daniel 9:1) Cyrus had set apart the king's house and all his palaces in Babylon so that if he should come to Babylon, he would have a palace of his own to stay in. [Xenophon, Instit. l.8.] The angel, in this first year of his reign, is said to have confirmed and strengthened him in his kingdom. (Daniel 11:1) After this he is said to have reigned for 2 years.
  6. When Cyrus had set all things in order at Babylon, he returned through Media into Persia, to his father Cambyses and Mandana his mother who were yet living. From there he returned again into Media and married the only daughter and heir of Cyaxares. For a dowry he had the whole kingdom of Media given to him. After the marriage, he left for Babylon taking her with him. At Babylon he sent governors into all his dominions. Megabyxos went into Arabia. Artacaman went into Phtygia the Greater. Chrysantas went into Lydia and Ionia. Adusius went into Carin. Pharmichas went into Phrygia Hellespontiaca, or the Less. In Cilicia and Cyprus and Paphlagonia he sent no Persian governors because they submitted to him and of their own accord helped him against the king of Babylon. However, he made them pay tribute. [Xen. Instis. l.8]
  7. All the countries which Cyrus subdued as general of the forces of Media, he added to the dominions of Cyaxares. [Xen. l.5.] Therefore it is most likely that at the former meeting in council, he made that distribution of the governments by Cyaxares' advise. Xenophon [lib. 8.] states about Cyrus, "It seemed good unto him, to set governors over all the nations which he had subdued:"
  8. Daniel, who, as it seems went at this time with Cyrus from Babylon to Media, said of Cyaxares: "It seems good to Darius, to set over the kingdoms,120 governors, that they should be over all the kingdoms." (Daniel 6:1)
  9. Over all the governors he made three overseers, the principal one was Daniel. As a result the rest were envious of him and had the king make a decree that: "for 30 days time, no petition should be made to any god or man, but to himself only"
  10. When Daniel had broken this decree by praying to God, he was cast into the lion's den. He was delivered from the den with no harm done to him. Then Darius cast those plotters against Daniel into the same lion's den and published that famous decree through all his dominions, that every man should reverence and fear Daniel's God. (Daniel 6:1-28)
3467 AM, 4176 JP, 538 BC
  1. From the year of the Babylonian captivity of the Jews that started when Jehoiakim was defeated in the first year of Nebuchadnezzar, until the end of the first year of the reign of Darius the Mede, was almost 70 years. According to (Jeremiah 29:10) the captivity was almost over: "Thus saith the Lord, when the 70 years shall begin to be finished with Babylon, then will I visit you and perform my good word unto you and will bring you again to this place and when you shall call upon me to depart from thence and when you shall pray unto me, then will I hear you."
  2. Knowing the time of the captivity was almost up, Daniel prayed fervently for the remission of his own sins and of his people's and for the release from captivity. The angel Gabriel brought him an answer not only for this but also concerning the spiritual deliverance of the church to be effected at last by the death of the Messiah. He gave that famous prophecy of the 70 weeks. (Daniel 9:12-27)
  3. When Cyrus had spent one whole year with his wife in Babylon, he assembled his whole army. It is said to have 120,000 calvary, 2,000 iron chariots, and 600,000 foot soldiers. When he outfitted his troops he undertook that campaign whereby he is said to have subdued all nations from Syria to the Red Sea. [Xenophon, Instit. l.8.]
3468 AM, 4177 JP, 537 BC
  1. After Cyrus' father Cambyses died in Persia, Cyaxares in Media held all the empire of the east. From this year, both Xenophon, [8. Inst.] reckons the 7 years of his reign, but the Holy Scripture from the records of the Medes and Persians, reckons this the first year. It states that in this year came that famous edict of his. Thus said Cyrus king of Persia: "Into my hand hath God given all the kingdoms of the earth."
  2. In this year, the 70 years of the Babylonian captivity ended as foretold by Jeremiah and according to the prophecy of Isaiah who mentioned Cyrus by name. (Isaiah 44:28; Isaiah 45:1-3) He gave permission to all the Jews dwelling anywhere in his empire to return into their own country. Those who returned he ordered to rebuild the temple of God. They could build it as large as they wished. (Haggai 2:3) They could use the resources from the king's treasury. Cyrus restored all the vessels of the house of God which Nebuchadnezzar had brought from there. (2 Chronicles 36:22,23) Ezr 1:1,2,7 5:13,14 6:2,5
  3. Cyrus made Sheshbazzar the captain of the Jews who returned to Jerusalem. According to Cyrus' orders, Sheshbazzar received from Methridates the treasurer all the vessels belonging to the temple. These were to be returned to Jerusalem. (Ezra 1:7,11; Ezra 5:14,15) Sheshbazzar was his Chaldean name but his Hebrew name was Zerubbabel. (Ezra 3:8,10; Ezra 5:16)
  4. The Jews prepared to return to their country. The poor were given an allowance to help with the costs. (Ezra 1:5,6) There were 42,360 of the children of the province or poor people of the Hebrews born in Chaldea who returned. Their captain was Zerubbabel, the son of Shealtiel or Salathiel and their high priest, Jehu, or Jeshua, the son of Jozadak. In addition there were 7,337 proselytes, man servants and maid servants who also returned. (Ezra 7:1; Nehemiah 7:67; Nehemiah 12:1-9) However the total sum given in Ezra is only 29,818. In Nehemiah, the sum (Isaiah 31,031). Neither of these tally to 42,360 but at the end of each list the total of 42,360 was said to be the number of the whole congregation. (Ezra 2:64; Nehemiah 7:66) To tally to 42,360 the Hebrews in their great Chronicle [cap. 29] tell us that we must include in this number, those of the other tribes of Israel, who came up out of the captivity with the Jews. For even at the end of the Jewish state, there was a remnant of the other ten tribes, (Acts 26:7) not only of the dispersion, (James 1:1) and at Jerusalem, (2 Chronicles 9:3; Luke 2:36) and other cities of Judah (2 Chronicles 11:16; 2 Chronicles 31:6) but also of those who still lived on their lands. Shalmaneser did not take everyone away from the tribes, [see note on 3227 AM concerning the history of Josiah] but he left a remnant of them, in their own country, who were later, together with the Jews and Benjamites and Levites, carried away by Nebuchadnezzar to Babylon and were now set at liberty and sent back again by Cyrus. After this first year of Cyrus, all the Israelites, are said to have dwelt in their own cities. (Ezra 2:70) In the 6th year of Darius, they are said to have been present at the dedication of the Temple and to have offered there 12 he goats for the sin of all Israel. (Ezra 6:16,17) When Christ preached the gospel in Galilee, (Matthew 14:14) he fulfilled the prophesy of Isaiah that the people of Zabulon and Naphtali would see a great light. Isa 9:1,2The chief men of their father's families came to Jerusalem and offered according to their ability toward the rebuilding of the temple, 61,000 drachmas of gold, 5,000 pounds of silver and 100 priests robes. Both the priests and Levites and the rest of the people, lived in their own cities. (Ezra 2:68-70)
3469 AM, 4178 JP, 536 BC
  1. On the first day of the seventh month in the feast of trumpets, the Israelites all came from their cities to Jerusalem and there built the altar. Every morning and every evening they offered the daily sacrifice to God and on the 15th day of the same month, they kept the feast of tabernacles. In addition, they provided materials and workmen for the building of the temple, as Cyrus had given them permission to do. (Ezra 3:1-7)
  2. In the second year, the second month, Jair, after their return from Babylon, they appointed Levites to oversee the work of the house of God. When they laid the foundation of the temple, the old men cried who 53 years earlier had seen the old temple standing. The young men greatly rejoiced to see the new temple going up. (Ezra 3:8-13)
  3. The Cuthaeans, the old enemies of the Jews, who had previously been settled in Samaria by Esarhaddon, cunningly offered to join them in building the temple. When the Jews refused their help, they hindered the Jews all they could in the work and discouraged the people from completing the task. (Ezra 4:1-4)
3470 AM, 4179 JP, 535 BC
  1. This was the first sabbatical year kept by the Jews, after their return from the captivity of Babylon.
  2. The Samaritans by bribing certain courtiers of Cyrus, disrupted the Jews in their work of building the temple. (Ezra 4:5) From this was the reason for the 3 weeks of mourning by the prophet Daniel. He continued his fast which was begun about the 3rd day of the 1st month in the 3year of Cyrus through all the time of the feast of Passover. (Daniel 10:1,4) After this on the 24th day of the 1st month, while he stood upon the bank of Hiddekel, or the River Tigris, he had the vision of the kings of Persia, of Alexander the great and his successors and their kingdoms. This is recorded in (Daniel 10:1-12:13) and was the last vision that he had shortly before his death.
3473 AM, 4183 JP, 531 BC
  1. Amasis, as it seems, defected from Cyrus. The people of Egypt who were carried away formerly by Nebuchadnezzar, after 40 years in exile they were now sent back again by Cyrus into their own country. They returned to their old kingdom toward the end of the life of Amasis. Egypt was again a kingdom, very old and ancient indeed, but the basest of all others and of no longer much use to any other country. (Ezekiel 29:11-16; Jeremiah 46:26) Xenophon, [8. Instit. Cyr.] and also in the prologue to his whole work, states that Cyrus had Egypt in his possession. All authors agree that it was later subdued by his son Cambyses. Hence, we gather, that in the intermediate time, they enjoyed their freedom.
  2. It may be that when Amasis revolted from Cyrus, that when Hirom had been king of Tyrus for a full 20 years, [who was the last king mentioned by Josephus, in his catalogue of them] he was overthrown. In his place, they had governors set over them by other nations instead of being governed by men of their own country. For the very Punic names of those kings, show that they were all of the same country as Tyre. This situation was like the Egyptians who had been ruled by Amasis.
3475 AM, 4185 JP, 529 BC
  1. Cyrus died at the age of 70 years. He was first made general of the Median and Persian armies a full 30 years earlier. He took Babylon 9 years before his death and reigned for 7 years and a month or so.
  2. Authors differ as to how he died. Herodotus [lib. 1. c.214], Justin from Trogus [lib. 1. c.8] and Valer. Max. [lib. 9. c.10.] say that he was slain in a fight against the Maslagetae or Scythians. He was decapitated by Tomyris their Queen and she threw him into a tub full of blood. She told him to satiate himself with blood with which he had so much thirsted after in his lifetime. Diod. Sic. [lib. 2.] states that when she had taken him prisoner, she crucified him. Ctesias [lib. 11] states that in a battle against the Derbicans, the nation bordering on Hyrcania, after he was wounded in the thigh by a certain Indian, he slew Amorraeus their king and his two sons. Three days later, he died. Johannes Malela of Antioch, from a forged book, attributed to Pythagoras of Samos, states that he was slain in a sea battle against the Samiaens. Xeno. [instit. l.8.] reports that he died a natural death in his own country of Persia. He ordered his sons that they should wrap his body neither in gold nor silver, but in plain cloth, and bury him in an out of the way place. They were to call all his friends, Persians and others to his grave and having there presented them with whatever was fit to be given them at the funeral of a fortunate man, they should be dismissed. His tomb was made at Pasarges. This is stated by those who wrote the nobel acts of Alexander the Great, as Curtius, Plutarch, Arrian. According to Strabo [lib. 5 of his Geography], Aristobulus was sent by Alexander to see the tomb. He recites also this inscription found on his tomb. "O man, I am Cyrus, who founded the Persian monarchy and was king of Asia; and therefore envy me not that I have a monument."
  3. Strabo, from Onesicritus cites a Greek epitaph written for him, [if any man will believe it], in Persian letters. It was: "Here Cyrus I do lie, who king of kings was high"
  4. It is of the same character with that one cited by Lucian, from the same Onesicritus in his discourse "De Longavis", of long lived men, that Cyrus missing at last those friends of his which his son Cambyse had taken away, he died for grief at the age of 100.
  5. Cyrus left his kingdom to his eldest son Cambyses and to his younger son, Tanaoxaras, or Tanyoxareas, whom Herodotus calls Smerdis. Justin from Trogus calls him Mergis. Ctesias states he left the seigneuries or commanders, of Bactria, Choromnea, Parthia and Caramania. However, Xenophon, [Instit. l.8.] states it was of the Medes, Armenians and Cadusians.
  6. In the start of the kingdom of Ahasuerus [for by that name is Cambyses known in the language of the Scriptures] the Samaritans, who had before fought secretly to undermine the Israelites, now openly sent a letter to the king against the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem. (Ezra 4:6) They knew very well, what difference there was between the father and the son's nature and disposition. Cyrus was naturally kind and loving to those who were under him and the other furious by nature and sudden in his resolutions. This is noted of him in Diod. Sic. in his Excerptu, published by Henr. Valesius, [p. 238,249] with Herodotus [l. 3. c.89.]
3477 AM, 4186 JP, 528 BC
  1. This was the 2Sabbatical year held by the Jews after their return from Babylon.
3478 AM, 4188 JP, 526 BC
  1. As Cambapheus an eunuch controlled the king of Egypt, likewise his first cousin, Isabat an Eunuch controlled Cambyses king of Persia. Cambapheus betrayed the bridges, passages and other things to the Persians when they promised him the government of Egypt for his trouble. [Ctes. Persicor l.3.]
  2. Following up on this information, Cambyses gathered an army and a navy. His army consisted of various other nations in his empire and of Greeks from Ionia and Eolia in Asia. His naval forces came mainly from the Sidonians and Cyprians. Polycrates, the king or tyrant of Samos, furnished him with 40 warships and he used as sailors all such as he suspected for enemies at home. He hoped they would die in Cambyses' service and never return home to bother him again. [Herod. l.3. c.1,19, 44.]
  3. Phanes of Halicarnaslus was a chief man among the aides of Egypt and well versed in their affairs. He hated Amasis and when he saw that Cambyses was preparing to fight against Egypt, he defected to him. He told Cambyses many secrets of the land of Egypt. When Cambyses was greatly perplexed as to how to cross the desert without proper water supplies, he advised him to send to the king of Arabia, to obtain permission to pass through his country for [Herod. lib 3. c.4,7.] without his consent, no one could get to Egypt. [Herod. l.3. c.88]
3479 AM, 4189 JP, 525 BC
  1. The king of Arabia made a league with Cambyses through the messengers that were sent to him. He sent all his camels laden with leather bags full of water to the places where Cambyses with his army was to pass. [Herod. lib 3. c.9.]
  2. When Cambyses came with his army into Egypt, he found Amasis had died recently after he had reigned 44 years. [Herod. lib 3. c.9. & 10.] Diod. Sic. [l. 1. Biblioth.] states that he died when Cambyses began his war in Egypt in the later end of the 3year of the 63Olympiad. His son Psammenitus, [whom Ctesias calls Amyrteus] reigned 6 months. [Herod. l.3. c.14.] In this time it rained at Thebes, in the upper Egypt. This is taken for a good luck., [Herod. l.3. c. 10.]
  3. When the Persians passed those sandy dry deserts of Arabia, they came to the edge of Egypt, [Herod. l.3. c.11.]
  4. When Cambyses came to besiege Pelusium, he placed cats and dogs and sheep, and birds called Ibides and all kinds of living creatures, which the Egyptians worship for gods, in front of his army. The Egyptians did not shoot at the enemy lest they hurt their own gods. Hence Cambyses took Pelusium, got an toe hold on Egypt, [Polyenus in the 7th book of Stratag.]
  5. The Greeks and Carians mercenaries who came to help the Egyptians hated Phanes who was instrumental in bringing this foreign army to Egypt. They slew his sons before his eyes and after drinking their blood started fighting with him. [Herod. l.3. c.11.]
  6. After a sharp encounter, many were slain on both sides and the Egyptians were routed. [Herod. l.3. c.11]
  7. Cambyses sent a Persian herald up the river in a ship of Mitylene to Memphis, where the Egyptians had fled in great disorder and confusion.
  8. The herald exhorted them to surrender but the men of the city sallied out against the ship, captured and destroyed it. They tore everyone on board limb from limb. They retired into the city and later endured the siege for a short time, [Herod. l.3. c.13.]
  9. Arcesilaus, son of Battus the lame and of Pheretima his wife, surrendered Cyrene to Cambyses and agreed to pay him tribute. [Herod. l.4. c.165.] The inhabitants of Cyrene, the Barcei and the Libyans who bordered on Egypt were terrified with his success against their Egyptian neighbours. They submitted to him and sent their presents to Cambyses. Cambyses took what came from the Libyans graciously. The Cyrenians were so small and sent him only 500 minae of silver. He took it and threw it among the soldiers. [Herod. l.3. c.13. & 91.]
  10. Ten days after Cambyses had taken Memphis, he tried to humiliate Psammenites. He had imprisoned him with other Egyptians in the suburbs of the city. In contempt of Psammenites, he sent his daughter with other maidens of the Egyptian nobility with pitchers to fetch him water from the river. He sent the young son of Psammenties with 2,000 more of the same age and all principal noble men's sons with ropes about their necks and bridles in their mouths to be shamefully put to death. He did this in revenge of those men of Memphis who destroyed the ship and murdered the Mitylenians he had sent to them. He ordered that for every Mitylenian who was killed, ten of the chief of the Egyptians should be put to death. The first to die was the son of Psammenites. Cambyses would have spared him but acted too late to do so. However, Psammenites lived peacefully later with Cambyses. At last when Psammenites was convicted of stirring up the people to a new rebellion, he drank bull's blood and died. [Herod. l.3. c.14,15.] Cresias states however that he was sent away prisoner to live in Susa.
  11. Cambyses marched from Memphis and came with his army to the city Sais. When he came to the palace of Amasis, against whom he undertook this war, he had his body to be hauled from its vault and to be brought before him. He had its carcase whipped with scourges and all kind of reproach,and contumely done to it. Then he had it consumed with fire. [Herod. l.3. c.16 . and Diod. Sic, in his Excerpta; published by Hen. Valesius, p. 249.]
  12. Cambyses conquered Egypt, in the 5th year of his reign. He ruled there for 3 years. [Jul. African. and Euseb. in Chronic. Grec. p. 17.] He killed 50,000 Egyptians in battle and sent away 7,000 as prisoners to Susa. [Ctesias]
  13. Jamblicus reports that Pythagoras was among the rest taken to Babylon where he conversed with their wisemen. [Jambli. in his Life] Another writer of his life, namely Malchus, or Paphyrius, says, that at Babylon, he not only conversed with the other Chaldeans, but applied himself also to Zabratus who purified and cleansed him from the sins of his former life. This Zabratus is thought by some, to have been that Nazaratus of Assyria, whom Alexander, [Polyhistor I think] in his book of Pythagorical Opinions, infers that he was the teacher of Pythagoras. Some others mistaking the matter, judge him to have been the prophet Ezekiel, as Clement of Alexandra, [l. 1. Strom.] states. All this shows is that he did converse with the wise men of the Jews in Babylon. He later made use of many of their opinions in the writing of his Philosophy. These writers are of that opinion, Hermippus, in his first book of Pythagoras, quoted by Josephus [l. 1. cont. Apion.] and in his first book, of Law Makers, cited by Origen, [l. (1). cont. Celsum.] Aristobulus the Jew, a Peripatetic Phylosopher, in his first book to Phylometor, Clemens of [Alex. l.1. Strom.]. Eusebius [l. 13. Prepar. Evangel.] believes that the books of Moses were translated into Greek, before the Persian empire began. However it is far more likely that he got that part of his learning by talking with the Jews in Babylon. Pythagoras was familiar with Jewish writings according to Pyrphier in his Life, from Diogenes, "of the incredible relation made of Thule".
3480 AM, 4190 JP, 524 BC
  1. Cambyses wanted to prepare a navy to go against the Carthaginians but gave it up. The Sidonians, upon whom he relied for naval service, refused to go against their own colony and kindred. Meanwhile, he sent for some of the Itchthyophgaies, from the city Elephantina. These were well versed in the Ethiopian language. He sent them as spies to the Ethiopians called Macrogis. These are generally a very long lived people and live in the parts of Africa south of Egypt, bordering the India Ocean and Red Sea. The spies went under the pretense of bearing gifts for their king and wishing to see The Table of the Sun. The king of Ethiopia in the presence of them, took his bow, and bent it and then unbent it again. He gave it them to carry to Cambyses, and asked them tell him that when his Persians should be able to easily bend such bows as those he should, then and not before, gather a huge army and fight with the long lived Ethiopians. [Herod. l.3. c.17.-25.]
  2. Cambyses' full brother, Smerdis, or Tanyoxarces tried to bend this bow and came within two fingers breadth of the notch. None of the other Persians came that close. Out of envy Cambyses dismissed him and sent him to Persia. [Herod. l.3. c.30.]
  3. In a rage, Cambyses ordered an expedition against Ethiopia without any provisions made for grain or food. Like a mad man, as soon as he had heard what his Ichthyophagites had said, he immediately marched away with all his own foot soldiers and ordered the Greeks to stay behind. [Herod. l.3. c.24.]
  4. When he came as far as Thebez in Egypt, he culled out about 50,000 of his army and sent them first to rob the land, then to burn the Temple of Jupiter Ammon and to make slaves of all the inhabitants of the place. He marched on towards Ethiopia, [Id. ib. Diodor. Sic. in his Excerpta, published by Hen. Vales. p. 249.]
  5. On that journey Cambyses subdued the Ethiopians who bordered on the lower parts of Egypt and lived in the city of Nisa. They kept the holy days to Bacchus. [Herod. l.3. c.97.] To Saba the chief house or palace of the king of the Ethiopians and the island where it stood, he called "Meroes" in memory of Meroe, who was his wife and his sister. [Strabo. l.17. of his Geogr. Josephus. l.2. Antiq. c.10.] She had accompanied him into Egypt and died there. No other king of Persia before him had married their sister. Shortly after this, he married his older sister Atossa. [Herod. l.3. c.31.] After his death, she married Magus and after him, she married Darius Hystasphis. [Herod. l.3. c.68,88.]
  6. The army which went from Thebez against the Ammonians, travelled seven days over the sands and came to the city, Oasis. [This city was inhabited by those Samians, which were of the Eserionian tribe.] From there they came to a country called "the isle of the happy ones".
  7. As they marched from there over the sandy plains and midway between Oasis, and Ammonia, it is said, that there arose a mighty strong wind out of the South while they were eating. It brought those shifting sands upon them and overwhelmed them all. [Herod. l.3. c.26. Just. l.1. c.9.] Plutarch in the Life of Alexander, says, that there were 50,000 men lost in that land being buried by the sand storm.
  8. The army which with him against the Ethiopians, ran out of provisions after five days. When they had lost hope of any food, they cast lots and started to eat one another. When Cambyses saw this, he returned to Thebez, having lost much of his army. [Herod. l.3. c.25. Seneca, l.2. c.30.] Lucan in his "Of His Natural Questions", says, And mad Cambyses, marching toward the east, Came to the long-liv'd Ethiopians: And wanting food, his own men up did eat; And yet the head of Nile never found.
  9. Cambyses returned to Memphis discharged his Greeks and shipped them home. [Herod. l. 3. c.25.] He saw the Egyptians keeping an holy day because their god Apis had appeared to them. He thought they had done it for joy of his disastrous journey. He sent for Apis and killed it with his sword. He commanded all his priests to be scourged with whips and the rest of the Egyptians who were found keeping the holy day, were to be slain by his soldiers. Apis was wounded by him and died in the temple. The priests took the body of the beast and secretly buried it. [Herod. l.3. c.27-29.] Apis was a sacred bull worshipped in the temple of Ptah in Memphis.
  10. The Egyptians say that Cambyses who was mentally unstable, now went stark mad. This first manifested itself when he killed his own brother. After he sent him to Persia, [as was said before] Cambyses dreamed that a messenger came to him from there who told him that Smerdis, his brother was sitting on the regal throne and touched the heavens with his head. He was astonished by this dream and immediately sent Prexaspes, his most trusted friend, to kill his brother Smerdis. When he came to Susa he had him murdered. Some say he took him on a hunting match; others report that he lured him along as far as the Red Sea and drowned him in it. [Herod. c.23. c.30,36.] Justin based on Trogus, [l. 1. c.9.] states that this charge was committed to Cometes, one of the Magi and that he did not murder Smerdes or Merges until after Cambyses was dead. Ctesias, disagrees with Herodotus. He says that Spendahates, one of the Magi, was scourged by Tanyaxares, that is, by this Smerdis' commander. He accused him to Cambyses of seeking to make himself king. By the advise of Spendahates, he was sent for from Bactria to Egypt. He was forced to drink bull's blood and died from it. Spendahates was sent back into Bactria. Because he looked like Tanyoxarces or Smerdis he ruled there in his place.
3481 AM, 4191 JP, 523 BC
  1. After Harpagus, Oroetes, a Persian, was made governor of Sardis and of all the provinces of Lydia, Ionia and Phrygia by Cyrus. He is said to have sent a messenger to Polycrates of Samos to ask him about a certain matter. When the messenger came, Polycrates was lying on his bed in his chamber with Anacreon the Teian sitting by him. He was that excellent lyrical poet of Ionia and who, as Clem. Alexand. says, was the first inventor of love songs. Polycrates totally ignored the messenger. Oroetes resolved revenge for this insult. He sent Myrtus, a Lydian the son of Gyges, with another message to Polycrates that for fear of Cambyses, he would defect to him with all his treasure. Polycrates heeded the message and quickly went to Oroetes in person with Democedes, a noted physician of Crotona in Italy. When he came as far as Magnesia, Oroetes took him and crucified him. He let the Samians who came with him go free. The rest of them including Democedes were made his slaves. [Herod. l.3. c.120-127.] Valer. Max.. [lib. 6. c.ult.] relates that he was crucified by Orontes [for so he calls him, with Tully, l.3. de Finibius] who was governor under king Darius on the top of the mount Mycale. That is in that foreland of Ionia, which looks toward Samos. Darius at that time was one of the bodyguards to Cambyses and held no high office in the Persian empire. Herodotus states [Herod. l.3. c.139,140.] that in Cambyses' expedition into Egypt, Syloson the brother of Polycrates, presented him with a most rich robe publicly at Memphis. Hence the saying: "Syloson's robe". He also says, that Polycrates came to a foul end. This happened when Cambyses was in Egypt, [Herod. l.3. c.120.] and Pliny assents also [Pliny l.33. c.1.] where he says that this happened in the 230th year after the building of Rome, which according to Varro was on the 64th Olympiad.
  2. When Cambyses saw his wife Meroe grieving for her brother Smerdis, he killed her too. [Herod. l.3. c.31. 32.]
  3. In the 7th year of Cambyses, the 225th year of Nabonasser's calendar, upon the 17th day of the Egyptian month Phamenoth, [July 16th.] one hour before midnight, the moon was eclipsed at Babylon. [Ptol. in his, Mag. Syntax. l.5. c.14.]
  4. Cambyses shot Prexaspes' son, who was his cup bearer with an arrow. The next day he had 12 principal men of the Persians who had done him no harm, buried alive with their heads downward. He ordered that Croesus, who had been for some time king of Lydia to be executed because had in a fair and friendly manner admonished him not to do such things. He changed his mind before the execution but killed those whom he appointed to kill Croesus. Many similar mad pranks he played on Persians and his friends while he stayed at Memphis. He opened many of their sepulchres to see the bodies of those who lay buried there. He went into the temple of Vulcan where he laughed exceedingly and mocked his image. Another time he went into the temple of the Cabirie, where only the priests were to go. After jeering their images, he had them all burned. [Herod. l.3. from c.34-38.] The rest of their temples, he either burnt down, pulled down, defaced, or destroyed. He did the same to their obelisks. [Strabo. l.17.]
3482 AM, 4192 JP, 522 BC
  1. Patizithes one of the magi, who Cambyses had left to oversee his private estate at home, found out about the death of Smerdis. This was a closely guarded secret known only to a few Persians. He set on the throne his own brother, who was also called Smerdis and very similar in features to the dead man. He immediately sent messengers to all parts of the empire and to the rest of the army in Egypt, that from now on they should obey only Smerdes the son of Cyrus and not Cambyses. [Herod. l.3. c.61.] Justin [Trogus, l.1. c.9.] states that Cometes one of the magi who killed Merges or Smerdes, [to whom the kingdom rightfully belonged after Cambyses] set up his own brother Oropastes who also closely resembled Smerdes. However, Ctesias writes, that Bagabates the eunuch and Artasyras an Hyrcanian, who were with Cambyses in Egypt and of great authority under him took counsel while Cambyses was still living. They planned to set up as king Spendadates, one of the magi who also looked very much like Smerdes, when Cambyses died.
  2. Cambyses sent to the Oracle of Butis. It answered that he should die at Ecbatane. Cambyses took this to be the Ecbatane in Media where all his treasure was.
  3. As he stayed at Ecbatane in Syria, a messenger brought him word what the commandment of Patizithes was. When he heard of the conspiracy against him, he leaped on his horse, intending to march quickly with his army to Susa against the conspirators. As he was leaping, his sword fell out of its scabbard and ran into his thigh. On the 20th day after the accident, he sent for the nobles of Persia to come to him. He told them of the death of his brother and the treason of the magi against himself. He charged them that by no means were to allow the kingdom to return to the Medes for Magus was a Median. [Herod. l.3. c.73,126.] Soon after this, his wound festered and he died when he had reigned only 7 years and 5 months. [Herod. l. 3. c.62-66.] Josephus tells us that on his return from Egypt, he died at Damascus, [Antiq. l.11. c.3.] thus putting Damascus for Ecbatane in Syria as Herodotus had. Ctesias states that he came as far as Babylon and that there he was wounded and died. He wrote of his death and the signs leading up to it: "When Cambyses was offering sacrifices, the beasts throats were cut and no blood came out. He was much amazed. Roxane bore to him a boy without a head and that amazed him more. The Magi told him that this portended that he should leave no successor of his own. His mother also appeared to him in a dream and seemed to threaten him with destruction, for his brother's death. This troubled him yet more than all the other signs. When he came to Babylon, he sat there whittling a little stick with a knife to pass the time. By chance he hurt a muscle in his thigh and died 11 days later. [Ctesias.] When he left Egypt, he left Aryander to govern it in his place."
  4. After Cambyses died, the Persians did not know that they had Magus for their king. They thought Cambyses' brother had indeed succeeded him in the kingdom. Perxaspes vouched for this and said that he never killed him nor was it in truth safe for him now to confess that he had killed a son of Cyrus. [Herod. l.3. c.66.] The ruse was easy to conceal for among the Persians it was proper that the king be rarely seen in public. [Justin. l.1. c.9.] So it came to pass, that this Magus or Smerdes, who impersonated Smerdes the son Cyrus, peacefully held the kingdom for 7 whole months, thus making up the 8th year of Cambyses' reign. During that time he spared no cost, to show all kinds of bounty and good will toward the subjects in all the empire. After he died Asia and all other nations except the Persians, mourned for him. He sent couriers throughout the empire and proclaimed three year's freedom from paying taxes and military service. He did this as soon as he took the title of king. [Herod. l.3. c.67.] He also took Atossa the daughter of Cyrus and all the rest of the wives of Cambyses. [Herod. l.3. c.68. 88.]
  5. Ammianus Marcellinus, [l. 23.] out of ancient books reports that after Cambyses' death, 7 Magi took over the management of the kingdom of Persia. Valer. Max. in his [9th book, c.2. ] agrees with this also. Of them two were chief, named by Herodotus, [l. 3. c.61. 78.] Patizithes, whom Trogus calls Cometes and his brother. He was king in name only by impersonating the son of Cyrus. He was called by Herodotus, Smerdis, by Eschylus, Mardus, by Ctesias, Spendahates, by Trous, Oropastes and in the scripture, Artaxerxes.
  6. The Samaritans sent letters to this Artaxerxes asking him to forbid the further building of Jerusalem. They said it was a rebellious and wicked place and if it was rebuilt, it would never pay tribute to the kings of Persia. (Ezekiel 4:7-16)
3483 AM, 4192 JP, 522 BC
  1. Artaxerxes sent a letter forbidding the rebuilding of Jerusalem until he should so order. The Samaritans encouraged by this reply, came swiftly to Jerusalem and forced the Jews to stop building both the city and the temple, although Cyrus expressly ordered them to finish the temple. They stopped all work until the 2nd year of the reign of Darius. (Ezekiel 4:17-24)
  2. While Artaxerxes held the kingdom, Oroetes the Persian, ruled at Sardis. He reproached Mitrobates, governor of Dascylium, in the continent of Asia for not having taken the Isle of Samos and annexing it to his government. In the lifetime of Polycrates, he took Mitrobates and his son Cranapes, both men of good esteem among the Persians and slew them. He committed other outrages also. He murdered a messenger sent from Darius because he told him something displeasing. [Herod. l.3. c.126.]
  3. Ctesias tells us that Isabates the eunuch, who had the charge of carrying the body of Cambyses into Persia told the plot of the Magi to the army. When he was pursued by them, he fled for safety into a temple. There they decapitated him. However, Herodotus says, that 8 months after Cambyses' death, the matter was brought first to light by the cunning of Otanes the son of Pharnaspes and later more fully explained by Prexaspes. When Prexaspes was in a certain tower, he called the people to him and from there declared to them that Cambyses ordered him to murder his brother Smerdes, the son of Cyrus and that they were being ruled by the Magi. When he had said this, he threw himself down headlong among them. [Herod. l.3. c.68,75.] Justin from Herodotus and Trogus Pompeius, records Otanes discovery and the distruction of the Magi as follows: "Ostanes [who is that Otanes] sent a messenger to his daughter, who was one of the concubines of the king and inquired whether it was a son of Cyrus who was king. She replied that she did not know nor could she ask the other concubines because they were kept in seclusion from each other. Then he advised her that when her turn came to lie with him, she was to feel his head as he lay asleep. For Cambyses, or [as Herodotus has it] Cyrus had Magus' ears cut off. Later she assured him that the king had no ears. He told the princes of Persia and swearing an oath with them, they conspired against the imposter king. There were seven of them involved in this. Lest the matter be discovered, they hid a dagger in their coats and immediately went to the place where the king was. They killed those who stood in their way. At last they came where the Magi were assembled. The Magi slew two of the conspirators. Herodotus states they were only wounded. They were all laid hold of by the Magi who outnumbered them. Gobryas held one of them about the middle. His fellows could not get near to Magus to kill him for fear of hurting Gobryas. He bade them kill the Magus through his body. Fortunately, they killed the Magus, and did not harm Gobryas. [Justin. l.1. c.9.]"
  4. According to Ctesias, the names of these 7 Persians [whom Jerome on (Daniel 11:2) calls the Magi] were these, Onophas, Iderues, Naradobates, Mardonisu, Barises, Artaphernes and Darius, the son of Bystaspes. Herodotus, calls them, Otanes, Hydarves, Megabyzus, Gobryas, Aspathines, Intaphernes and Darius. Darius had recently arrived there from Susa, where his father Hystaspes, was governor. Ctesias and Herodotus tell us that the Persians always kept a yearly festival upon the day when the Magi were overthrown.
  5. Six days after the Magi were overthrown, those 7 Persians met to decide what form of government suited Persia best. Otanes advised an aristocracy, Megabyzus, an oligarchy but Darius persuaded them to adopt a monarchy. Darius' opinion prevailed and was carried by majority vote. Otanes resigned all his rights to the other six on the condition that neither himself, nor any of his descendants should ever be subject to any of them or their posterity. Only his family among the Persians were left free and not subject to the king's command provided that they broke no law of the Persians. Since he was the first to act and organised the conspiracy, they thought it fit to heap all kinds of magnificence and honour upon him and his posterity. Each year he was presented with a Median Robe. For the election of a new king, they came to this agreement. Every one of them should get on horseback a little before sunrise and whoever's horse happened to neigh first after the sun was up would be king in Cambyses' place. The horse of Darius the son of Hystaspes, by the craft and subtilty of Oebaris, neighed first. All the rest leaped off their horses and adored Darius, crying, "God save the king." [Herod. l.3. c.80-88.]
  6. Each of the seven had the following privileges. First, they should come to court whenever they pleased and have free access to the king, [unless he was in bed with the queen] without any notice. [Herod. l.3. c.84,118.] Secondly, that they might each wear his turban differently from all other men. The king only and his heir wore their turbans upright. [Seneca l.6. de Beneficiis c.31., Plutarch in the lives of Theistocles and Artaxerxes] and the rest of the nobility wore them hanging backward. It was granted to them and their posterity that they should wear them pointing forward because when they went to kill the Magi, they used this as a sign between themselves. [Plutarch in his Precepts of Government.] For Darius had given this as a sign for each to know one another by in the dark. They were to turn the buckle that fastened their turbans at the back and wear it on the front. [Polya. l.Stratag. 7. ]
  7. The greatest privilege granted them was that although the king had a perpetual dictatorship over them, yet each man in turn would have a kind of tribunal power with him. I deduce this from the following. First, these conspirators foresaw that they would prove burdensome [and how I ask more than in this way?] to Darius, so they bond him with an oath which was most religiously observed among the Persians. Darius swore that he would never put any of them to death, either by poison, or sword, or by any violent way, or by starving them. [Valer. Max. l.9. c.2.] Secondly, for that Eschylus, who was in the fight against the Persians at Marathon names two kings successively between the slaughter of the Magi and the reign of Darius, Maraphis and Artaphrenes. The first seems to be the one who Ctesias calls Mardonius and the other Artapherne. Lastly, for that in Ezra, in the edict of Darius, in the second year of his reign, for the rebuilding of the temple, we find Artaxerxes, also called by the name of "king of Persia", (Ezra 6:14) to have given his consent to it in his 2nd year of his reign for the rebuilding of the temple. It is hard to understand this to mean any other than Artaphernes.
  8. In the beginning of his reign, Darius took Atossa the daughter of Cyrus, who had formerly been married to his own brother Cambyses and afterward to the Magus and made her his wife. He purposed to better establish his kingdom by marrying into royalty so that the kingdom might not seem to move to another family but rather remain in the family of Cyrus. [Herod. l.3. c.88. l.7. c.2. & Justin from Trogus l.1. c.10.] And he was first called Ochus, [Valer. Max. l.9. c. 2.] yet later when he took over the kingdom of Cambyses, he took his surname also. So I conceive, that both he was that Achash-veroth, or Ahasuerus, which in the story of Esther, is said to have reigned from India to Ethiopia, over 127 provinces. His chief wife Atossa, was none other than Vashti as mentioned in the book of Esther.
  9. Ochus still continued governor at Sardis and kept a thousand Persians for guards about him. When Darius sent his royal letters by Bagaeus the son of Arton to the soldiers there, they killed him. His goods were confiscated and brought to Susa. Democedes, whom he had made his slave, a physician of Crotona, [Herod. l.3. c.127-129.] was also taken to Susa.
  10. It happened later that when Darius was hunting he fell from his horse and wrenched his foot badly. The Egyptian surgeons sought to straighten it. Their methods were so violent that he could not sleep for seven days. On the 8th day, Democedes was brought in shackles to him, in a poor and ragged condition. He used such Greek somentations, that the king quickly went to sleep again and in a short time recovered. He was rewarded with rich gifts by the king and his wives, dwelt in a good house in Susa and sat at the table with the king. He had everything that his heart could wish except he was forbidden to go to Greece again. When Darius would have hung his Egyptian physicians because a Greek could do more in his cure than they all, Democedes obtained their pardon from the king. There was a certain fortune teller of Elis, who came in the company with him and had followed Polycrates to Magnesia and was brought to Susa among the rest of Oroetes' slaves. Democedes obtained his freedom. [Herod. l.3. c.129,130, 132.]
  11. It happened later that Atossa, the daughter to Cyrus and wife of Darius had an ulcer in her breast. After it was lanced, it spread further and further. When Democedes had cured her of that sore, he prevailed upon her, to have the king to make war on Greece. Darius presently called 15 choice men, all Persians. He commanded them to follow Democedes and by his directions to spy out all the maritime places of Greece and bring him back again with them to him. They went into Phoenicia and from there to Sidon. There they outfitted themselves with ships and other provisions and sailed to Greece. They viewed all the seacoasts of Greece and drew maps of it. They were the first Persian spies that ever came to Greece. When they had viewed the most famous cities and places in the heart of Greece, they passed from there to Tarentum in Italy. From here Democedes stole away to Crotona where his own home was and there marrying the daughter of Milo Crotoniates, that famous wrestler. He did not return any more to Darius. [Herod. l.3. c.133-138., Athanaus, l.12. Deipnosoph. and Aelian. Var. Histor. l.8. c.17.]
3484 AM, 4193 JP, 521 BC
  1. This was the third sabbatical year held by the Jews after their return from Babylon.
  2. Mordecai the Jew, is said to have had a dream in the Greek additions of /APC (Esther 11:1-12) on the 1st day of the month Nisan, in the 2nd year of the reign of Artaxerxes the Great [for Ahasuerus or Darius the son of Hystaspes] concerning a river signifying Esther and two dragons portending himself and Haman, /APC (Esther 10:4-13)
  3. In the second year of king Darius, which was in the 65th Olympiad, Haggai the prophet reproved the idleness of the Jews for not rebuilding of the temple. For not doing this was the cause of crop failures and other plagues which continually happened to them between the first and third Sabbatical years. He earnestly persuaded them to change there ways. Then, Zerubbabel, the governor of the Jews and Joshua the high priest and all the people earnestly started to rebuild the temple on the 24th day of the same month. (Haggai 1:1-15)
3485 AM, 4194 JP, 520 BC
  1. On the 21st day of the 7th month in the same year Haggai encouraged the Jews to go on with the work with a promise of God's presence and blessing on them in it. Although the beginnings of this present structure did not compare with its glory 69 years earlier, he told them the Messiah, who was born 516 years later, would be first shown in the temple and of the peace which would flow to all nations. If they consider that fact, then they must acknowledge that the glory of this temple will excel the beauty of the former. (Haggai 2:1-9)
  2. In the 8th month of the 2nd year of Darius, Zechariah the son of Barachiah exhorted the people to repentance. (Zechariah 1:1-6)
  3. On the 24th day of the 9th month of the same 2nd year, about halfway between seedtime, [which immediately followed the end of the sabbatical year,] and the harvest, the temple began to be built on its old foundation by Zerubbabel and Joshua the high priest, with the assistance of Haggai and Zechariah the prophets. (Ezra 5:1,2) Hag 2:10,18,19
  4. On the same 24th day, the two last prophecies of Haggai, were revealed to him. One vision concerned the end of those plagues. The other was about the overthrow of various kingdoms and the exaltation of Zerubbabel. (Haggai 2:10-23)
  5. Tatnai, governor of the countries of this side the river, Shetharboznai, and the Apharsachites their associates came to Jerusalem to hinder the work of the temple. They asked the chief of the Jews by whose command they did it. They answered that they did it by the authority of the edict of Cyrus, and went on with their work. (Ezra 5:3-5,13,16) The laws of the Medes and Persians were perpetual and unalterable. (Daniel 6:8,12; Esther 1:19; Esther 8:8) Therefore it was lawful for the Jews to proceed in the work without expecting any new order about it.
  6. Their enemies sent a letter containing the Jew's answer to Darius and desired that search might be made in the records at Babylon. They wanted to see if there were any such grant made by Cyrus or not and desired to know the king's further pleasure concerning this.(Ezra 5:5-17)
  7. The work was thus interrupted and the famine continued in Judah because the grain was not yet ripe. On the 24th day of the 11th month Sebat, in the 2nd year of Darius, the prophet Zechariah had a vision of horsemen galloping up and down over the face of the whole earth which was at rest and quiet. When the prophet asked what it meant, God made a gracious answer with many comforting words to the angel who entreated God to cease his anger and fury against the Jews, Jerusalem and cities of Judah. These 70 years are to be reckoned, from the coming of the Assyrians and the last siege laid to Jerusalem. [See note on 3415 AM] (Jeremiah 34:1; Ezekiel 5:12,13) Zec 1:1-3:10 This exhortation which is read in, (Zechariah 2:6,7) was sent to the Jews still remaining in Babylon. They were told to get out as fast as possible to avoid that calamity, which a while later Darius brought upon Babylon when he took it.
  8. The edict of Cyrus for the rebuilding of the temple was found at Achmetha, or Ecbatan, in the province of the Medes. Darius sent this and a second command in favour of the Jews to Tatnai and his fellows. They were ordered not to hinder the work of the Lord's house but help it along. The costs of the project were to be taken from the king's tribute. They were to pay the costs for the daily sacrifices that were to be offered by the priests at Jerusalem. With this new command and the encouragement of Haggai and Zechariah, they enthusiastically completed the work. (Ezra 6:1-14)
  9. I think that at this time, Artaxerxes, who (Ezra 6:14) signed with Darius in this edict and shared power with him in ruling the kingdom was one of the 7 princes of Persia who slew Magus. That is he who Eschilus, [in Persis] calls Artaphrenes Hellanicus, [as his Scholiast terms him], Daphernes. According to Ctesias, Artaphernes and Herodotus, he is Intaphernes. Therefore, according to the privilege granted by Darius of seeing him without notice, he was detained by the doorkeepers of the bedchamber who told him that the king was asleep with the queen. He thought they lied to him and drew his scimitar and cut off both their ears and noses, tied the reigns of a horse about both their necks and sent them running. When they came to the king they showed him what they had suffered and why. The king sent for the rest of the seven princes individually, fearing that this might have been done by the common consent of them all. When he found this not to be the case, he executed Intaphernes and all his sons except the eldest whom he spared at his mother's petition. Herodotus relates this matter [Herod. l.3. c.118,119.] as a thing that happened shortly after the execution of the Magi. However, Valer. Max. following other authors, [l. 9. c.2.] tells us, that finding himself checked by these princes, put them all to death by a newly devised kind of punishment. He says that he made a lower room and filled it with cinders and supported the room over it with only one post. When he had feasted and filled them with food and drink, he put them all into that upper room. When they were all fast asleep, he had the post that supported the room removed and they all fell into the cinders in the lower room and died.
  10. Now though it be not very likely that they perished in this manner, yet is it very credible that he put them out of the government of the kingdom, and hence eased himself of their heavy yoke.
  11. And from that time on, Darius was an absolute monarch. He is called Ahsuerus in the Scriptures. Therefore Ahsuerus, made a feast in the 3year, reckoned from the beginning of his reign in his palace at Susa. He wanted to show the glory of his kingdom and magnificence of his state. He invited all the governors and great men of his dominions. The feast lasted 180 days. Es 1:2-4Pliny [l. 6. c.27.] states that Susa was built by this Darius. This is also called Elian, [Pliny l.13. de Anima l.c.59.] and was embellished with magnificent palaces by him. Herodotus. [l. 5. c.49.] tells us, that he made this his home and kept all his treasure there.
3486 AM, 4196 JP, 518 BC
  1. After this half year banquet was over, there followed another one lasting seven days. Everyone in Susa was invited. The men were sitting with the king in the court of the garden of the king's house and the women were within the palace itself with Vashti the queen, [who is Atossa, the daughter of Cyrus.] (Esther 1:5-9)
  2. On the last day of this feast, the king being somewhat drunk, wanted to show off the beauty of his queen to the men and sent for her to come to him. She refused and by the advise of Memucan had her divorced. He was one of the seven wise men of the Medes and Persians who knew the laws and statutes of those countries. For these were the king's judges, which judged in all causes arising among the Persians and revealed all cases in point of law. [Herod. l.3. c.14, (31). Plutarch in the "Life of Artaxerxes"] They made a law that every man after this should be master in his own house. (Esther 1:10-22)
  3. After this a search was made for all the fair damsels that were to be found in the empire to find a new queen for the king to replace Vashti. Among the ones selected, was Hadassah, a damsel of the Jews, who was also called Esther; the daughter of Abichajile, a woman of Benjamin. (Esther 2:1-8)
3487 AM, 4196 JP, 518 BC
  1. In the 4th year of Darius, the 4th day of the 9th month, called Chisleu, the Jews through Sharezer and Regemmelech consulted with the priests and prophets concerning the appointed fast to be held on the day of the destruction of the city and temple of Jerusalem. God answered them that those fasts of the 5th and 7th months which they had observed for 70 years displeased him and reminded him of their obstancy and sins which caused that terrible desolation in the first place. (Zechariah 7:1-14) From the destruction and the death of Gedaliah two months later [which was the reason for the fast in the 7th month], to the very time of this prophecy, we, in our Chronology, count 70 years.
  2. In (Zechariah 8:1-23), God tells them that he would restore Jerusalem and put an end to all their former miseries and that he would change their fasts into mirth and gladness. These fasts were: (1). 4month, 9th day when the city was taken (2). 5th month, 10th day when the temple was burnt (3). 7th month when Gedaliah was murdered and they were scattered among the nations (4). 10th month, 10th day when Nebuchadnezzar besieged the city under Zedekiah.
3489 AM, 4199 JP, 515 BC
  1. Toward the latter end of the 6th year of Darius on the 3day of the 12th month, called Adar, the temple was finished. At the dedication, the Israelites who returned from the captivity, celebrated with great joy and many sacrifices. The priests and Levites performed their offices and duties in the temple. (Ezra 6:15-18)
  2. On the 14th day of the 1st month, they joyfully celebrated the first passover in the second temple and kept the feast of unleavened bread for seven days. For God had turned the heart of Darius, king of Assyria toward them. (Ezra 6:19,22) After a 20 month seige, he took Babylon, by the help of Zopyrus. He could now rightly be called king of the Assyrians as well as the Persians. [Herod. l.3. in fin. & Justin at the end of his book.]
3490 AM, 4200 JP, 514 BC
  1. When Esther's turn came to be brought to the king Ahasuerus, she was brought from the Seraiglia to the king's chamber by Hegai the eunuch. (Esther 2:12-15) "The women in Persia, come round in their turns, to their husband's beds." [Herod. l.3. c.69]
  2. In the 7th year of Ahasuerus' reign, in the 10th month called Tebeth, when Esther came to the king, she found grace and favour in his eyes above all the other damsels. He put the crown of the kingdom upon her head and made her queen in the place of Vashti. (Esther 2:16,17) From this I gather that as Vashti was Atossa, so Esther was the one Herodotus called the virgin Artystone. He said that Darius loved with her more than all his wives and he made a solid gold statue of. [Herod. l.3. c.88. l.7. c.69.] Hadassah, which was another name given to Esther sounds much like Atossa. Herodotus makes Artystone to have been Cyrus' daughter and Atossa's sister. We do not know whether Herodotus was not so well skilled in the Persian genealogies or that the Persians themselves for very envy concealed the name of Esther.
  3. In honour of his new marriage, Ahasuerus made a most sumptuous feast for all his princes and servants and called it Esther's feast. He eased the provinces of many taxes and gave gifts according to the wealth of so great a king. (Esther 2:18)
  4. The 19th Jubilee.
3491 AM, 4200 JP, 514 BC
  1. Haman, the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, of the tribe of the Amalekites, hated the Jew Mordecai because he would not fall down and adore him as others did. He resolved for his sake to be revenged of all the Jewish nation [which was always at odds with his (Deuteronomy 25:19)] and to destroy it. To find a good time to do this, he cast pur, that is, lots before him on the first month Nisan, in the 12th year of king Ahasuerus. The lot fell on the 12th month Adar. (Esther 3:1-7)
  2. For vacuous reasons he offered Ahasuerus 10,000 talents of silver, [which the king would not accept] and obtained a grant from him to destroy the Jews. (Esther 3:7-11)
  3. On the 13th day of the first month, the king's edict was proclaimed in Susa and copies of it were dispatched by carriers into all the provinces of the empire. All Jews without respect to sex or age on the 13th day of the 12th month Adar were to be killed. (Esther 3:12-15) When this happened, Mordecai, Esther and all the Jews, humbled themselves before the Lord, by fasting and prayer. (Esther 4:1-17) In memory of this their posterity to this day observe a solemn fast, upon the 13th day of the month Adar, which they call Esther's fast.
  4. Esther went to the king in gorgeous apparel and was graciously received by him. She invited the king to a banquet. Meanwhile, Haman was busy having a gallows made for Mordecai. (Esther 5:1-14)
  5. One night when Ahasuerus could not sleep, he had the records read to him. It was found that two of his servants, Bigthan and Teresh his doorkeepers, had plotted his death and that Mordecai had revealed this conspiracy to him. Thereupon he ordered that Mordecai should be highly honoured publicly by none other than Haman himself. (Esther 6:1-14)
  6. Shortly after this, Haman was hung on the gallows he made for Mordecai. (Esther 7:1-10) Haman's house was given to the queen. Mordecai, her uncle who had raised her, had daily honours bestowed upon him. (Esther 8:1,2,15-17)
  7. On the 23day of the month Sivan, there was an edict proclaimed at Susa and copies of it sent away speedily by carriers into the 127 provinces. It stated that the Jews on the 13th day of the month Adar, which was the day appointed for their massacre, could defend themselves and to kill any who attacked them. They could keep the spoil of any man killed. In Susa and in all the provinces there was great rejoicing among the Jews. People in various countries became Jews. (Esther 8:9-17)
3494 AM, 4204 JP, 510 BC
  1. Happias [twenty years before the fight at Marathon, in which he served on the Persian side] was now an old man. He was expelled from Athens by the Lacedemonians and the faction of the Alemaeonidae. He left the Athenians, and went first to Sigeum and from there sailed to Lampsucus, to his son-in-law Aeanpias' father and from there went to Darius. [Thucid. l.6.] Now Pisistratus, the son of Hippias, had committed Segeum in Troas to Hegesistratus' base son. This was a place for Hippias and later for others of the family of Pisistratus to escape to when in trouble. [Herod. l.5. c.65,91, 94]
3495 AM, 4205 JP, 509 BC
  1. Upon the 13th day of the 12th month Adar, the Jews killed all those who intended to kill them by Haman's decree. In Susa and the palace, they killed 500 men together with Haman's ten sons. In the rest of the provinces, they killed 75,000 men but touched not one penny of their goods. (Esther 9:1-16)
  2. On the 14th of the same month, the Jews in the provinces stopped killing their enemies and had a feast. They at Susa were granted one more day of vengeance by the king. They slew 300 more of their enemies; and hung the carcasses of Haman's ten sons on the gallows. (Esther 9:13-19)
  3. On the 15th day, Jews who lived in Susa made merry and feasted. (Esther 9:18)
  4. Mordecai began the custom of keeping a holiday in remembrance of Purim on the 14th and 15th days of the month Adar. This was established by Esther. (Esther 9:23-30) This is the Jew's Shrovetide, when they read the history of Esther. As often as the name of Haman is read, they rap and make a noise with their hands or mallets upon the desk in their synagogues.
3500 AM, 4210 JP, 504 BC
  1. In the isle of Naxos, some of the rich were expelled by the poor. They resorted to Aristagoras, son of Molpagoras and son-in-law and first cousin by the mother's side, to Histiaeus, Tyrant of Meletus. Histiaeus had left Aristagoras governor there in his place when Darius had honoured him by taking him to Susa. Aristagoras told the matter to Artaphernes, son of Hystaspes and brother to Darius, governor of Ionia, who lived at Sardis. He persuaded him to take over for the king, Naxos, Paros and Andros and the rest of the Cyclades, all dependents of Naxos. Darius at Susa liked the idea and next spring he furnished 200 ships for that war. [Herod. l.5. c.30-32.]
3501 AM, 4211 JP, 503 BC
  1. Artaphernes, made Megabates a Persian and a close cousin to him and Darius, commander-in-chief of the Persian army. He ordered him to go to Miletus with his fleet of 200 ships. He was to join forces with Aristagoras and the Ionian army, which he did. They sailed from there to Chios. A disagreement occurred between Aristagoras and Artaphernes, when they had spent four months in the siege of Naxos. Nothing came of the seige and each returned home again, accomplishing nothing. [Herod. l.5. c.32-34.]
3502 AM, 4212 JP, 502 BC
  1. The 70 years had elapsed from the taking of Tyre by Nebuchadnezzar. This was the number of years of the bondage of that city as stated in. (Isaiah 23:15,17) After this time, it seems they lived in freedom from any foreign subjection, until the time it was again taken by Alexander the Great.
  2. Aristagoras feared what might happen to him because he had not been able to take Naxos. He had no money to pay his army. He began to think of revolting from the Persians. It happened that exactly at that time, a messenger came from Histiaeus in Babylon. His message was written in letters made with hot irons upon the flesh of his head and now overgrown with hair. He advised Aristagoras to defect from Darius and cause all Ionia to revolt, if he could. [Herod. l.5. c.35. Polya. Stratag. l.1.]
  3. Aristagoras told this to his friends and persuaded them to side with him. Hecataeus the historian tried in vain to prevent them from rebelling against the king of Persia. The conspirators sent Iarrogaras to Myletus to the army, which upon their return from Naxos, remained there and by a stratagem, won over all the principal commanders of their fleet.
  4. Aristagoras, now publicly revolted from Darius. He made a fair show of a kind of liberty to the Milesians. He took away the rulers that were in some cities of Ionia. He then went to the Lacedemonians to ask for their help but they flatly refused. [Herod. l.3. c.36-38,49-51.]
3503 AM, 4212 JP, 502 BC
  1. In the 20th year of the reign of Darius, 245 of Nabonassar's era, on the 28th day of the month Epiphus, according to the Egyptian calendar, [November, 29] there was an eclipse of the moon at Babylon ending about midnight. [Ptol. Mag. Syntax. l.4. c.9.]
  2. The Lacedemonians sent to Sigeum for Hippias the son of Pisistratus. He went to Athens on the hope they gave to him that he may be restored to power. This was all in vain and returned to Asia. He accused the Athenians of many things to Artaphernes, hoping to bring Athens under the subjection of Darius, [Herod. l.5. c.91,96.]
  3. When the Athenians understood that Hippias had defamed them to Artaphernes, they sent their messengers to Sardis to persuade the Persians not to give credit to those outlaws of the Athenians. However, Artaphernes advised them that if they loved themselves and their own safety, they should call home again and receive Hippias. They refused any such conditions. It happened that Aristagoras the Melesian returned empty handed from Sparta he came to Athens and there obtained 20 ships to aid the Ionians in their war against the Persians. They made Melantho an eminent man in Athens commander. [Herod. l.3. c.96,97.] This fleet, as Herodotus [Herod. l.3. c.98. ib.] has well noted, was the beginning of all the trouble between the Greeks and Persians. This was the beginning of all the wars which occurred between the Greeks and the Persians and which ended in the ruin of the Persian Empire.
  4. When Aristagoras returned to Miletus, he persuaded the Paeones to return to their own country. Megabuzus the governor of Thracia had carried them away from their own country on the banks of the River Strymon into Phrygia and by the authority of Darius settled them there. They took with them their wives and children and went away to the seaside. Some settled there for fear of going any farther. The rest went to Chios, from there sailed to Lesbos and to Doriscus. From there, they went by land into their own country. [Herod. l.5. c.98.]