Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words
"cessation, refreshment, rest" (ana, "up," pauo, "to make to cease"), the constant word in the Sept. for the Sabbath "rest," is used in Matthew 11:29; here the contrast seems to be to the burdens imposed by the Pharisees. Christ's "rest" is not a "rest" from work, but in work, "not the rest of inactivity but of the harmonious working of all the faculties and affections, of will, heart, imagination, conscience, because each has found in God the ideal sphere for its satisfaction and development" (J. Patrick, in Hastings' Bib. Dic.); it occurs also in Matthew 12:43; Luke 11:24; Revelation 4:8 , RV, "(they have no) rest" [AV, "(they) rest (not)"], where the noun is the object of the verb echo, "to have;" so in 14:11.
in classical Greek, denotes "a causing to cease" or "putting to rest;" in the NT, "rest, repose;" it is used (a) of God's "rest;" Acts 7:49; Hebrews 3:11,18; 4:1,3 (twice), RV (1st part), "that rest" (the AV, "rest," is ambiguous), Hebrews 4:5,11; (b) in a general statement, applicable to God and man, Hebrews 4:10 .
for the significance of which see EASE , B, is translated "rest" in 2 Corinthians 2:13 , AV (RV, "relief"); 7:5 (ditto); in 2 Thessalonians 1:7 , the subject is not the "rest" to be granted to the saints, but the Divine retribution on their persecutors; hence the phrase "and to you that are afflicted rest with us," is an incidental extension of the idea of recompense, and is to be read parenthetically. The time is not that at which the saints will be relieved of persecution, as in 1 Thessalonians 4:15-17 , when the Parousia of Christ begins, but that at which the persecutors will be punished, namely, at the epiphany (or out-shining) of His Parousia (2 Thessalonians 2:8 ). For similar parentheses characteristic of epistolary writings see 1 Thessalonians 4:10; 1:6; 2:15,16 .
"a Sabbath-keeping," is used in Hebrews 4:9 , RV, "a sabbath rest," AV marg., "a keeping of a sabbath" (akin to sabbatizo, "to keep the Sabbath," used, e.g., in Exodus 16:30 , not in the NT); here the sabbath-keeping is the perpetual sabbath "rest" to be enjoyed uninterruptedly by believers in their fellowship with the Father and the Son, in contrast to the weekly Sabbath under the Law. Because this sabbath "rest" is the "rest" of God Himself, Hebrews 4:10 , its full fruition is yet future, though believers now enter into it. In whatever way they enter into Divine "rest," that which they enjoy is involved in an indissoluble relation with God.
"a resting, reclining" (akin to keimai, "to lie"), is used in John 11:13 , of natural sleep, translated "taking rest," RV.Note: In Acts 9:31 , AV, eirene, "peace" (RV), is translated "rest."
akin to A, No. 1, in the Active Voice, signifies "to give intermission from labor, to give rest, to refresh," Matthew 11:28; 1 Corinthians 16:18 , "have refreshed;" Philemon 1:7 , "are refreshed;" in the Middle Voice, "to take or enjoy rest," Matthew 26:45; Mark 6:31; 14:41; Luke 12:19 , "take thine ease;" 1 Peter 4:14; Revelation 6:11; 14:13 . See REFRESH. In the papyri it is found as an agricultural term, e.g., of giving land "rest" by sowing light crops upon it. In inscriptions it is found on gravestones of Christians, followed by the date of death (Moulton and Milligan).
"to spread a tabernacle over" (epi, "upon," skene, "a tent"), is used metaphorically in 2 Corinthians 12:9 , "may rest upon (me)," RV, marg., "cover," "spread a tabernacle over."
"to be still, to rest from labor," is translated "they rested" in Luke 23:56 . See PEACE (hold one's), No. 3.Romans 15:32 , RV, see REFRESH , No. 2.
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Vines, W. E., M. A. Entry for 'Rest'. Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/ved/r/rest.html. 1940.