the Week of Proper 21 / Ordinary 26
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #01984 - הָלַל
1) to shine
1a) (Qal) to shine (figuratively of God’s favour)
1b) (Hiphil) to flash forth light
2) to praise, boast, be boastful
2a1) to be boastful
2a2) boastful ones, boasters (participle)
2b1) to praise
2b2) to boast, make a boast
2c1) to be praised, be made praiseworthy, be commended, be worthy of praise
2d) (Hithpael) to boast, glory, make one’s boast
2e) (Poel) to make a fool of, make into a fool
2f) (Hithpoel) to act madly, act like a madman
1104) le (הל HL) AC: Shine CO: Star AB: Distant: The pictograph e is a picture of a man with his arms raised looking at a great sight. The l is a shepherd staff representing the idea of "toward" as the staff is used to move a sheep toward a direction. Combined these letters mean "a looking toward something" such as the looking toward a light in the distance. The stars have always been used to guide the traveler or shepherd to find his home or destination.
Nm) le (הל HL) - I. These:Designating a group that is with the speaker. In the sense of looking toward a sight. [Hebrew and Aramaic; The short form " e " is used as a prefix meaning "look" and translated as "the".] [df: la hla]II. Toward:A moving to or toward something to be with it as the ox moves toward a destination. [df: la] KJV (69): these, those, this, thus, who, so, such, some, same, other, which, another, whom, they, them - Strongs: H411 (אֵל), H412 (אֵל), H413 (אֶל), H428 (אֵלֶּה), H429 (אֵלֶּה)
V) lle (הלל HLL) - Shine: To shine through ones actions or words. KJV (165): (vf: Paal, Hiphil, Hitpael, Pual, Piel, Participle) praise, glory, boast, mad, shine, foolish, commended, rage, celebrate - Strongs: H1984 (הָלַל)
gm) lefa (אוהל AWHL) - Tent: The shining light of the campfire next to the tent in the distance is a guide for those returning home late just as a star is used as a guide. KJV (345): tabernacle, tent, dwelling - Strongs: H168 (אֹהֶל)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Qal only Infinitive suffix בְּהִלּוֺ נֵרוֺ עֲלֵי ראֹשִׁי Job 29:3 when it, namely his lamp, shone upon my head (compare Ew§ 309 c), figurative of God's favour.
Hiph`il Imperfect יָהֵל Job 31:26,3feminine singular תָּהֶל Job 41:10; 3 masculine plural יָהֵ֫לּוּ Isaiah 13:10; — flash forth light, of heavenly bodies, אוֺר = sun Job 31:26 ("" יָרֵחַ יָקָר הֹלֵךְ); followed by accusative of congnate meaning with verb כּוֺכְבֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם וּכְּסִילֵיהֶם לֹא יָהֵלּוּ אוֺרָם Isaiah 13:10 ("" חָשַׁךְ הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ, & יָרֵחַ לֹאיַֿגִּיהַּ אוֺרוֺ); also of crocodile עֲטִישֹׁתָיו תָּ֫הֶל אוֺר Job 41:10 his sneezings flash forth light (shining water-drops).
II. [הָלַל] verb be boastful,
Pi`el praise (Arabic shout, both in joy & (if conjecture of Nö RS be right, see citation below) in terror; especially II. in formula of worship; Syriac Pa`el cecinit, laudavit; compare Late Hebrew הִלּוּל praise, הַלֵּל id., Hallel ( Psalm 113-118); Aramaic הִילּוּלָא marriage-song, &c.; on Assyrian alâ Luke , shout for joy, rejoice see Lyon Sargontexte 66 (Cylinder. 1. 36) also Winckler Sargontexte 134,1. 194; 156. 1. 149 KB44. 1. 36; 80. 1. 194; all variations of cry aloud, compare Nö ZMG 1887,723 RS Semitic 411; perhaps originally break through, or out (in a cry), compare We Skizzen iii. 107 ff., especially 109; compare also (according to Prät BAS i. 369f.) Ethiopic implore (compare Amharic, Tigrinya), & swear) —
Qal Imperfect 2 masculine plural תָּהֹ֑לּוּ Psalm 75:5; Participle הוֺלֲלִים Psalm 5:6 2t.; — be boastful אַלתָּֿהֹ֑לּוּ Psalm 75:5 ("" אַלֿ (תָּרִימוּקָ֑רֶן); Participle boastful ones, boasters Psalm 5:6 ("" מֹּעֲלֵי אָוֶן); Psalm 73:3; Psalm 75:5 (both "" רְשָׁעִים).
Pi`el Perfect הִלֵּל Psalm 10:3,1singular suffix הִלַּלְתִּיךָ Psalm 119:164; 3 masculine plural וְהִלֲלן consecutive Isaiah 62:9, suffix הִלֲלוּךָ Isaiah 64:10. etc.; Imperfect יְהַלֶּלֿ Psalm 63:6; Psalm 102:19; suffix יְהַלֶּלְךָ Proverbs 27:2, יְהַלֲלֶ֑ךָּ Isaiah 38:18, וַיְהַלֲלָהּ Proverbs 31:38: 1 singular אֲהַלֵּל Psalm 56:5 2t., cohortative אֲהַלֲלָה Psalm 69:31 2t., etc.; Imperative feminine singular הַלֲלִי Psalm 146:1; Psalm 147:12; masculine plural הַלְלוּ Psalm 104:35 30t. Psalm + Jeremiah 20:13; Jeremiah 31:7; suffix הַלֲלוּ֫הוּ Psalm 22:24 15t. Psalm; Infinitive absolute הַלֵּל 1 Chronicles 16:36; construct הַלֵּל 2 Samuel 14:25 16t. Chronicles; Participle plural מְהַלֲלִים 1 Chronicles 23:5 4t. Chronicles; —
1 praise man or woman, accusative וַיְהַלֲלוּ אֹתָהּ אֶלמַּֿרְעֹה Genesis 12:15 (J) and they praised her to Pharaoh, compare Proverbs 27:2; Proverbs 31:28,31; Song of Solomon 6:9; וְהַמְהַלֲלִים אֶתהַֿמֶּלָךְ 2 Chronicles 23:12 and those praising (shouting acclamations to) the king; see also לְהַלֵּל מְאֹד 2 Samuel 14:25 (of Absalom's beauty); in bas sense עֹזְבֵי תוֺרָה יְהַלֲלוּ רָשָׁע Proverbs 28:4 deserters of law praise a wicked man.
2 usually praiseאֱלֹהִים, ׳י etc.;
a. followed by accusative of heathen god Judges 16:24.
b. object ׳(אֱלֹהִים) י; Psalm 119:164 (עַל on account of), subject heaven, earth, seas, etc., Psalm 69:35; תְּחִי נַפְשִׁי ותְהַלֲלֶךָּ Psalm 119:175; in summons to all creatures to praise Psalm 148:5; Psalm 148:13; Isaiah 38:18 לֹא שְׁאוֺל תּוֺדֶךָּ מָוֶת יְהַלֲלֶ֑ךָּ (compare Psalm 115:17); often of Public worship in sanctuary, Isaiah 62:9 (thanks giving in sanctuary after harvest), compare Isaiah 64:10; Psalm 22:23 ("" אֲסַמְּרָה שִׁמְךָ), Psalm 22:27; Psalm 35:18; Psalm 109:30 (both "" אוֺדְךָ) Psalm 107:32 ("" יְרוֺמֲמוּהוּ) Psalm 84:5, see also Psalm 146:2 ("" ׳אֲזַמְּרָה לֵא) Psalm 149:3 (with בְּ instrumental; "" יְזַמְּרוּ לוֺ); also object ׳שֵׁם י (in some cases of public worship) Psalm 74:21; Psalm 148:5; Joel 2:26 (thanksgiving after harvest); שֵׁםאֱֿלֹהִים בְּשִׁיר Psalm 69:31 ("" וִאֲגַדְּלֶנּוּ בְתוֺדָה), Psalm 145:2 ("" אֲבָֽרֲכֶ֑ךָּ); further, Psalm 56:5 בֵּאלֹהִים אֲהַלֵּל דְּבָרוֺ, also Psalm 56:11 + Psalm 56:11 b ׳ביהוה וגו, but compare Hup Che on 11:b as editorial addition; object not expressed אֶתעַֿמְּךָ׳הַשְׁמִיעוּ הַלֲלוּ וְאִמְרוּ הוֺשַׁע י Jeremiah 31:7, וְשִׂפְתֵירְנָנוֺת יְהַלֶּלמִּֿי Psalm 63:6.
c. use of Imperative deserves special notice: הַלֲלוּהוּ Psalm 22:24 ("" כַּבְּדוּהוּ; of temple-worship compare Psalm 22:23; Psalm 22:25); also in summons to angles, sun, moon, etc. (all created things) to praise ׳י Psalm 148:2 (twice in verse); Psalm 148:3 (twice in verse); Psalm 148:4; Psalm 150:1; of temple-worship Psalm 150:2 (בְּ on account of) Psalm 150:2 (כְּ), Psalm 150:3; Psalm 150:3; Psalm 150:4; Psalm 150:4; Psalm 150:5; Psalm 150:5 (all with בְּ instrumental); further Jeremiah 20:13 ("" ׳שִׁירוּ לי), ׳הַלֲלוּ אֶתיֿ Psalm 117:1 (addressed to nations, "" שַׁבְּחוּהוּ), Psalm 148:7 (created things), חַלֲלִי אֱלֹהַיִךְ צִיּוֺן Psalm 147:12 ("" שַׁבְּחִי יְרוּשָׁלַםִ׳אֶתיֿ).
d. note especially: praise ye yah! הַלֲלויָֿהּ Psalm 135:3, liturgical ("" זַמְּרוּ לִשְׁמוֺ); elsewhere always one word see Baer Psalm p.115, & always at beginning or end of Psalm (chiefly late), apparently liturgical; הַלֲלוּיָהֿ֑ Psalm 104:35 ("" ׳בָּֽרְכִי נַפְשִׁי אֶתיֿ), elsewhere ׃הַלֲלוּיָהּ (I) at beginning Psalm 106:1; Psalm 111:1 (both "" הודה) Psalm 112:1; Psalm 113:1 ("" הַלֲלוּ & ׳אֶתשֵֿׁם י׳ה), Psalm 135:1 ("" id.), Psalm 146:1 ("" ׳הַלֲלִי נַפְשִׁי אֶתיֿ), Psalm 147:1 (followed by זַמְּרָה in clause with כִּי), Psalm 148:1 ("" ׳הַלֲלוּ אֶתיֿ, הַלֲלוּהוּ), Psalm 149:1 ("" ׳שִׁירוּ לי), Psalm 150:1 ("" הַלֲלוּאֵֿל, הַלֲלוּהוּ); (2) at end Psalm 104:35 (above), Psalm 105:45; Psalm 106:48; Psalm 113:9; Psalm 115:18 ("" נְבָרֵךְ יָהּ), Psalm 116:19; Psalm 117:2; Psalm 135:21 ("" ׳בָּרוּךְ י) Psalm 146:10; Psalm 147:20; Psalm 148:14; Psalm 149:9; Psalm 150:6 ("" כֹּל הַנְּשָׁמָה תְּהַלֵּל יָהּ); add to these (not liturgical) יְהַלֶּליָֿהּ Psalm 102:19, כֹּל נְשָׁמָה תְּהַלֵּל יָהּ Psalm 150:6, לֹא הַמֵּתִים יְהַלֲלויָֿהּ Psalm 115:17.
e. also followed by ליהוה, in Chronicles, of technical Levitical function (compare Lag Or.ii.16 ff., who limits this technical הלל to priests, using חֲצֹצְרוֺת, for a signal to the people; see e.g. Nehemiah 12:24 compare Nehemiah 12:27), 1 Chronicles 16:4 (with instrumental music, compare בִּכְלֵי כְבָלִים וּבְכִנֹּרוֺת & בַּמְצִלְתַּיִ ם, all 1 Chronicles 16:5, and Nehemiah 12:27) 1 Chronicles 23:30; 1 Chronicles 25:3 (all "" הוֺדוֺת); exercised (apparently) by both priests and Levites Ezra 3:11 ("" הֹדוֺת) compare Ezra 3:11; by Levites 2 Chronicles 20:19 (בְּקֹל גָּדוֺל), 2 Chronicles 29:30 (בְּדִבְרֵי דָוִיד) in which the people also joined 1 Chronicles 16:36; also 2 Chronicles 5:13 (בַּחֲצֹצְרוֺת וּבִמְצִלְתַּיִם וּבִכְלֵי הַשִּׁיר compare also 2 Chronicles 5:12; "" הֹדוֺת, 2 Chronicles 5:13 apparently of Levites & priests), בַּכֵּלִים׳מְהַלֲלִים לי 1 Chronicles 23:5 (Levites) compare 2 Chronicles 30:21 (Levites & priests ׳בִּכְלֵי עֹז לי); followed by לְשֵׁם תִּפְאַרְתֶּ֑ךָ 1 Chronicles 29:13 ("" מוֺדִים; David speaks in name of people); followed by לְהַדְרַתקֹֿ֑דֶשׁ 2 Chronicles 20:11 (before the army; "" ׳מְשֹׁרֲרִים לי; probably of Levites, compare 2 Chronicles 20:19).
f. followed by accusative ׳י Ezra 3:10 (priests & Levites: עַליְֿדֵידָּוִיד), Nehemiah 5:13 (people).
g. other forms, with like technical sense, but absolute: לְהַלֵּל לְהוֺדוֺתבְּמִצְוַת דָּוִיד Nehemiah 12:24 (Levites) compare 1 Chronicles 23:5; 2 Chronicles 8:14; 29:30 (עַדלְֿשִׂמְחָה) 2 Chronicles 31:2 (apparently priests & Levites; ׳בְּשַׁעֲדֵי מַחֲנוֺת י; "" לְשָׁרֵת וּלְהֹוֺדוֺת); see also מוֺדִיעִים לְהַלֵּל 2 Chronicles 23:13 ("" מְשׁוֺרֲרִים בִּכְלֵי הַשִּׁירבְּהַלֵּל דָּוִיד בְּיָדָם ). 2 Chronicles 7:6 ("" הֹדוֺת ליהוּה)
3 apparently boast, male one's boast compare Qal 2 (followed by בְּ in, of), בֵּאלֹהִים Psalm 44:9 ("" שִׁמְךָ לְעוֺלָם נוֺדֶה); so according to most, in bad sense, רָשָׁע עַלתַּֿאֲוַת נַפְשׁוֺ׳ה Psalm 10:3 a wicked man boasteth of the desire of his soul, but Che praiseth (׳י) for (i.e. in a mercenary spirit).
Pu`al Perfect 3 plural הוּלָּ֑לוּ Psalm 78:63; Imperfect יְהֻלַּלֿ Proverbs 12:8; Participle מְהֻלָּל 2 Samuel 22:4 6t.; feminine הַהֻלָּ֑לָה Ezekiel 26:17 (compare Ol§ 250 c Sta§ 220,617 b; ᵑ0, however, accents as Perfect, regarding הַ as = relative, see sta:§ 176 c Ges§ 52. 2, R. 6); — be praised,
1 human subject be praised, commended Proverbs 12:18 (opposed to יִהְיֶה לָבוּז); of maidens, praised, celebrated (in song) Psalm 78:63; participle (see above) of city, renowned Ezekiel 26:17.
2 of ׳י only participle = gerundive, to be praised, worthy of praise 2 Samuel 22:4 = Psalm 18:4; מְאֹד׳וּמְה ׳גָּדוֺל י Psalm 48:2; Psalm 96:4 = 1 Chronicles 16:25; Psalm 145:3; so ׳שֵׁם י׳מְה Psalm 113:3.
Hithpa. Imperfect יִתְהַלֵּל 1 Kings 20:11 5t.; יִתְהַלָּ֑ל Proverbs 20:14; 3 feminine singular תִּתְּהַלֵּל Psalm 34:3, תִּתְּהַלָּ֑ל Proverbs 31:30; 2 masculine singular תִּתְהַלֵּל Psalm 52:3; Proverbs 27:1; תִּתְהַלָּ֑ל Isaiah 41:16; 2 feminine singular תִּתְהַלֲלִי Jeremiah 49:4; 3 masculine plural יִתְהַלֲלוּ Psalm 64:11; Isaiah 45:25; יִתְהַלָּ֑לוּ Isaiah 49:7; Jeremiah 4:2; Imperative masculine plural הִתְהַלֲלוּ 1 Chronicles 16:10; Psalm 105:3; Infinitive לְהִתְהַלֵּל Psalm 106:5; Participle מִתְהַלֵּל Proverbs 25:14; Jeremiah 9:23; plural מִתְהַלֲלִים Psalm 97:7; — glory, boast, make one's boast: —
1 of self-confident boasting, absolute 1 Kings 20:11 compare Proverbs 20:14; followed by בְּ of ground of boast Jeremiah 9:22 (3t. in verse); Jeremiah 49:4; Psalm 49:7; Psalm 52:3; Proverbs 25:14, אַלתִּֿתְהַלֵּלבְּיוֺם מָחָר Proverbs 27:1; of glorying in idols הַמִּתְהַלֲלִיםבָּאֱלִלִים Psalm 97:7.
2 of glorying, making one's boast in (בְּ, on the ground of) ׳תִּתְהַלֵּל ׃י׳בי נַפְשִׁי Psalm 34:3, compare Isaiah 45:25; Jeremiah 4:2 ("" וְהִתְבָּֽרְכוּ בוֺ); followed by בִּקְדוֺשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל Isaiah 41:16; see also Psalm 105:3 = 1 Chronicles 16:10 followed by ) בְּשֵׁם קָדְשׁוֺ "" ׳(יִשְׂמַה לֵב מְבַקְשֵׁי י, compare further Jeremiah 9:23; less often absolute Jeremiah 9:23; Psalm 63:12; Psalm 64:11 & 106:5 followed by עִםנַֿחֲלָתֶ֑ךָ together with thine heritage ("" לִשְׂמֹהַ בְּשִׂמְהַת גּוֶֺ י֑ךָ).
3 once, late = passive be praised, commended, of God-fearing woman Proverbs 31:30.
Po`el Imperfect יְהוֺלֵל Isaiah 44:25 2t.; — make into a fool, make fool of, object שֹׁפְטִים Job 12:17 (subject ׳י; "" מוֺלִיךְ יוֺעֲצִים שׁוֺלָ֑ל); object קֹסְמִים Isaiah 44:25 (subject ׳י "" מֵפֵר אֹתוֺת בַּדִּים; object הָכָם Ecclesiastes 7:7 (subject הָעשֶׁק; "" וִיאַבֵּד אֶתלֵֿב מַתָּנָה).
Po`al Participle לִשְׂהוֺק אָמַרְתִּי מְהוֺלָ֑ל Ecclesiastes 2:2 of laughter I said, It is mad (folly); מְהוֺלָלַי Psalm 102:9 those mad against me ("" אוֺיְבָ֑י).
Hithpo`el Imperfect וַיִּתְהֹלֵל 1 Samuel 21:14; 3 masculine plural יִתְהֹלֲלוּ Jeremiah 51:7, יִתְהוֺלֲלוּ Nahum 2:5, יִתְהֹלֶ֑לוּ Jeremiah 50:38; Imperative masculine plural הִתְהֹלֲלוּ Jeremiah 49:9, הִתְהֹלָ֑לוּ Jeremiah 25:16; — act madly, or like a madman, וַיִּתְהֹלֵלבְּיָדָם 1 Samuel 21:14 (of David) and he acted like a madman in their hands; of idolatrous worship by Chaldeans ׳וּבָאֵימִים יִתְה Jeremiah 50:38; of nations, as drunken men, figurative of terror at Yahweh's judgements, Jeremiah 25:16 ("" הִתְגֹּעֲשׁוּ) Jeremiah 51:7; also of madly driving & jolting chariots Nahum 2:5; Jeremiah 46:9.
(1) to be clear, to be brilliant, hell fehn, pr. used of a clear, sharp tone or sound. [“In Ethiopia the women on occasions of public rejoicing are accustomed to repeat the sounds ellellell-ellellell; whence to make ellell, is i.q. to rejoice; see Isenberg Amhar. Lex. p. 112.” Ges. add.] Comp. hallen, and the kindred roots gellen, צָלַל, fchallen. See Piel. It is applied
(2) to brightness of light, Arab. هَلَّ (like the Germ. helle Farben). See Hiphil, and the noun הֵילֵל. Hence
(3) to make a show, used both of external appearance, and of grandiloquent words, glänzen wollen, prahlen, Psalms 75:5. Part. הוֹלְלִים the proud, the insolent, Psalms 5:6, 73:3 75:5. Hence
(4) to be foolish. See Poel. In the sacred writers, the more any one boasts, the more is he regarded as being foolish; just as, on the other hand, a modest person is looked upon as wise and pious. Comp. נָבָל.
Piel, pr. to sing (see Kal No. 1), especially any one’s praises; hence, to praise, to celebrate, especially God, with an acc. הַלְלוּ־יָהּ “praise ye Jehovah.” Psal. 117:1 145:2 in the later writers with לְ (properly to sing to God), 1 Chronicles 16:36, 25:3 2 Chronicles 20:21, 30:21 Ezra 3:11 with בְּ Psal. 44:9. Also simply to praise, Proverbs 27:2, 28:4 followed by אֶל to praise some one to another, to commend, Genesis 12:15.
(2) intrans. to glory. Psal. 56:5, בֵּאלֹהִים אֲהַלֵּל “in God I will glory.” Comp. Psalms 10:3.
Pual, to be praised, celebrated, Ezekiel 26:17. Part. מְהֻלָּל worthy to be praised (God), Psal. 18:4 96:4 145:3. Psalms 78:63, וּבְתוּלֹתָיו לֹא הוּלָּלוּ according to the present vocalization, “and their virgins were not celebrated” (had no nuptial song); comp. Ch. הִלּוּלָא epithalamium. But this does not accord sufficiently with verse 64, and I prefer reading הוֹלִלוּ, for הֵילִלוּ lamented.
Poel הוֹלֵל fut. יְהוֹלֵל causat. of Kal No. 4, to make foolish, Ecclesiastes 7:7 also to shew to be foolish, to make ashamed. Job 12:17; Isaiah 44:25, קֹסְמִים יְהוֹלֵל “he shews the diviners to be fools.”
Poal part. מְהוֹלָל mad, pr. smitten with fury. Psalms 102:9, מְהוֹלָלַי “those who are mad against me” (like קָמַי). Ecclesiastes 2:2.
(1) causat. of Kal No. 1, to make bright or shining, Isaiah 13:10; Job 41:10. I would with Ewald (Hebr. Gramm. p. 471), place here [in Thes. put under Kal 2], Job 29:3, בְּהִלּוֹ נֵרוֹ for בַּהֲהִלּוֹ נֵרוֹ (by the omission of ה preformative), “when God made his light to shine.” Those who do not thus admit the syncope of the letter ה, take הִלּוֹ to be inf. Kal of the form שַׁךְ, with a pleonastic suffix; so that it should be rendered, “when it shined,” sc. his light; compare Job 33:20; Ezekiel 10:3.
(2) to shine, to give light, i.q. הֵאִיר No. 2, Licht verbreiten, leuchten, Job 31:26.
(1) pass. of Piel 1, to be praised, Proverbs 31:30.
(2) to glory, to boast oneself. 1 Kings 20:11; Proverbs 20:14, אֹזֵל לוֹ אָז יִהְהַלָּל “he goeth away, and then he boasteth (of his bargain).” With בְּ of that in which one glories, Proverbs 25:14, 27:1 especially used of God, Psalms 34:3, 64:11 105:3. Once with עִם Psalms 106:5.
(1) to be mad, to be foolish. Jeremiah 25:16, 51:7 Nahum 2:5, יִתְהוֹלְלוּ הָרֶכֶב “the chariots are mad,” they are driven impetuously; Jeremiah 50:38, בָּאֵימִים יִתְהוֹלָלוּ used in a pregnant sense, “they madly confide in idols.”
(2) to feign madness, 1 Samuel 21:14.
Derivatives, הִלּוּל, הֵילֵל, הוֹלֵלָה, הוֹלֵלוּת, מַהֲלָל, תְּהִלָּה, תָּהֳלָה, pr.n. יְהַלֶּלְאֵל, מַהֲלַלְאֵל and
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
Copyright 1999-2023. All Rights Reserved, Jeff Garrison, Gdansk, Poland.