Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #5437 - סָבַב
1) to turn, turn about or around or aside or back or towards, go about or around, surround, encircle, change direction
1a1) to turn, turn about, be brought round, change
1a2) to march or walk around, go partly around, circle about, skirt, make a round, make a circuit, go about to, surround, encompass
1b1) to turn oneself, close round, turn round
1b2) to be turned over to
1c) (Piel) to turn about, change, transform
1d1) to encompass, surround
1d2) to come about, assemble round
1d3) to march, go about
1d4) to enclose, envelop
1e1) to turn, cause to turn, turn back, reverse, bring over, turn into, bring round
1e2) to cause to go around, surround, encompass
1f1) to be turned
1f2) to be surrounded
1324) bx (סב SB) AC: Turn CO: Dizzy AB: ?: The pictograph x is a picture of a thorn representing a turning, the b is a picture of a tent or what is inside. Combined these mean "turning of the inside". One drunk from strong drink, turns from dizziness. The old, gray headed ones, easily become dizzy.
V) bbx (סבב SBB) - Surround: To be around something. KJV (154): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Hiphil, Hophal, Piel) about, surround, turn, remove, return, round, side, turn, beset, driven - Strongs: H5437 (סָבַב)
Jeff Brenner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
סָבַב pret. fully and defect. סָֽבְבוּ, סַ֫בּוּ, סַבּוֹתֶם, inf. סְבֹב and סֹב, fut. יָסֹב and יִסֹּב
(1) to turn oneself, e.g. Proverbs 26:14, “the door turns itself עַל צִירָהּ on its hinge.” 1 Samuel 15:27, וַיִּסֹּב שְׁמוּאֵל לָלֶכֶת “and Samuel turned himself to go away.” Followed by אֶל Ecclesiastes 1:6 לְ 1 Kings 2:15; Psalms 114:3, Psalms 114:5עַל Habakkuk 2:16; 2 Chronicles 18:31, of a person or place to which we turn, and מִן, מֵעַל, מִפְּנֵי of that from which we turn away, 1 Samuel 17:30, וַיִּסֹּב מֵאֶצְלוּ אֶל מוּל אַחֵר “and he turned himself from him to another.” 1 Samuel 18:11; Genesis 42:24 followed by אֶל אַחֲרֵי to turn oneself back to follow any one, 2 Kings 9:18, 19 2 Kings 9:19 and absol. to turn about, Song of Solomon 2:17 Psal. 71:21. Also, to turn is put absol. for to approach 1 Samuel 22:17, 18 1 Samuel 22:18; 2 Samuel 18:15, 30 2 Samuel 18:30. When used of things, it is i.q. to be brought to, to be be-stowed upon, al. 1 Ki. loc. cit.; Numbers 36:7 Hab. loc. cit.
(2) to go round (which is done by turning one-self continually) in any place; to go over a place, e.g. a city, or cities, followed by בְּ Song of Solomon 3:3, 5:7 2 Chronicles 17:9, 23:2 also, an acc. Isaiah 23:16, סֹבִּי עִיר “go about the city.” 1 Samuel 7:16, “and he went about (the cities) Bethel and Gilgal and Mizpah.” 2 Kings 3:9, “and they went about דֶּרֶךְ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים a way of seven days;” (the words דּ׳ שׁ׳ י׳ are really in this sentence the accusative, depending on the verb; compare Arab. نسرى ليلا let us go by night; Plin. H. xxiii. 1, “si statim bina stadia ambulentur”); also, to go round about a place (umgehen); followed by an acc. Deuteronomy 2:3; Joshua 6:3, Joshua 6:4, Joshua 6:7 in order to avoid it, Numbers 21:4; Judges 11:18.
(3) to surround, to encompass, followed by an acc. Genesis 2:11, 13 1 Kings 7:24; 2 Kings 6:15; Psalms 18:6, 22:17 in a hostile sense Ecclesiastes 9:14 also followed by אֶל 2 Kings 8:21 and עַל Job 16:13; Judges 20:5. Genesis 37:7, וְהִנֵּה תְסֻבֶּינָה אֲלֻמּוֹתֵיכֶם וַתּשְׁתַּחֲוֶיןָ “and lo your sheaves surrounded and did reverence;” i.e. your sheaves standing around mine did reverence to it. Absol. to surround (a table) is i.q. to recline, or sit down at table. 1 Samuel 16:11, לֹא נָסִב “we will not sit down.” Compare מֵסַב. To these are to be added two figurative significations.
(4) to be turned, i.e. to be changed; followed by כְּ to be made like any thing, Zechariah 14:10.
(5) to be the cause of any thing [to bring it about] (comp. Arab. سَبَبُ cause, سَبَّبَ to be the cause, to effect; Talm. סִבָּח cause, pr. a thing or occasion on which something else depends; German Umftand, circonstance, from the signification of surrounding; compare אוֹדוֹת), 1 Samuel 22:22, אָנֹכִי סַבֹּתִי בְּכָל־נֶפֶשׁ בֵּית אָבִיךָ “I am the cause (sc. of the death) of all the persons of thy father’s house.” Vulg. ego sum reus omnium animarum.
Niphal נָסַב and נָסֵב Ezekiel 26:2 fem. נָֽסְבָה for נָסַבָּה (see Lehrg. p. 372; Gramm. ed. x. § 66 note 11); fut. יִסַּב, יִסַּבּוּ
(1) i.q. Kal No. 1, to turn oneself, Ezekiel 1:9, 12 Ezekiel 1:12, 17 Ezekiel 1:17, 10:11, 16 Ezekiel 10:16 often used of a boundary, Numbers 34:4, Numbers 34:5 i.q. to be transferred to any one, followed by לְ. Joshua 15:3 Jerem. 6:12, נָסַבּוּ בָּתֵּיהֶם לַאֲחֵרִים “their houses shall be transferred to others;” comp. in Kal, Numbers 36:7.
(2) i.q. Kal No. 2, to surround, Judges 19:22 followed by עַל in a hostile sense, Genesis 19:4; Joshua 7:9.
Piel סִבֵּב i.q. Kal No. 4, to turn about, i.e. to change, 2 Samuel 14:20.
(1) i.q. Kal No. 2, to go about in a place, followed by בְּ Song of Solomon 3:2. Followed by an acc., to go over a place (im Orte umhergehn), Psalms 59:7, 15 Psalms 59:15 to go round a place (einen Ort umgehn), Psalms 26:6. Followed by עַל in a hostile sense, Psalms 55:11.
(2) i.q. Kal No. 3, to surround, Jonah 2:4, Jonah 2:6; Psalms 7:8 followed by two acc. (any one with any thing), 32:7, 10 Psalms 32:10 especially to watch and defend, Deuteronomy 32:10 (compare Hom. Il. i. 37). Jeremiah 31:22, נְקֵבָהּ תְּסוֹבֵב גֶּבֶר “a woman protects a man.” [Qu. as to the application and rendering of this passage.]
Hiphil הֵסֵב fut. יַסֵּב
(1) causat. of Kal No. 1, to cause to turn, Exodus 13:18 trans. to turn. 1 Kings 8:14, וַיַּסֵּב הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־פָּנָיו “and the king turned his face,” etc.; 21:4 2 Kings 20:2. הֵסֵב עֵינָיו מִן to turn away the eyes from, Song of Solomon 6:5. Figuratively, הֵסֵב לֵּב פּ׳ עַל to turn or direct any one’s heart to some person or thing, Ezra 6:22 compare 1 Kings 18:37 and without לֵב. 2 Samuel 3:12, לְהָסֵב אֵלֶיךָ אֶת־בָּל־יִשַׂרָאֵל “to turn all Israel to thee.” From the idea of turning round, it is to transfer, followed by לְ of pers., to any one. 1 Chronicles 10:14, וַיַּסֵּב אֶת־הַמְּלוּכָה לְדָוִיד “and turned the kingdom to David;” followed by אֶל of place (into any place), 1 Samuel 5:8, 1 Samuel 5:9, 10 1 Samuel 5:10 acc. of place, 2 Samuel 20:12.
(2) causat. of Kal No. 2, to cause to go round, or about, i.e. to lead round, e.g. a person, Ezekiel 47:2 a host, Exodus 13:18 to surround with walls, 2 Chronicles 14:6.
(3) causat. of Kal No. 4, to turn, to change. 2 Kings 23:34, וַיַּסֵּב אֶת־שְׁמוֹ יְהוֹיָקִים “and he changed his name into Jehoiakim;” 24:17.
(a) i.q. Kal No.1, to turn oneself, 2 Samuel 5:23.
(b) i.q. Kal No. 2, to go round a place, with an acc., Joshua 6:11.
(c) i.q. Kal No. 3, to surround, Psalms 140:10.
Hophal הוּסַב fut. יוּסַּב
(1) to turn oneself, to turn, as a door, Ezekiel 41:24 the roller of a threshing wain, Isaiah 28:27.
(2) to be surrounded, inclosed, Exodus 28:11, 39:6, 13 Exodus 39:13.
(3) to be turned, changed, Numbers 32:38.
Derived nouns, סִבָּה, נְסִבָּה, סָבִיב, מוּסַב, מֵסַב.
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