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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #1097 - γινώσκω
- to learn to know, come to know, get a knowledge of perceive, feel
- to become known
- to know, understand, perceive, have knowledge of
- to understand
- to know
- Jewish idiom for sexual intercourse between a man and a woman
- to become acquainted with, to know
(= γιγν -: v. previous word G1096. So also vulgar Attic, in Inscr., v. Thumb, MGV, 207),
[in LXX chiefly for H3045;]
to be taking in knowledge, come to know, recognize, perceive, understand; in past tenses to know, realize; pass., to become known: c. acc, Matthew 22:18, Mark 5:43, Colossians 4:8, 1 Thessalonians 3:5, al. Pass., Matthew 10:26, Philippians 4:5, al.; seq. ὅτι , Matthew 21:45, John 4:1, al.; τί Matthew 6:3; ἀπό , Mark 15:45; ὅ , Romans 7:15; τ . λεγόμενα , Luke 18:34; τ . θέλημα , Luke 12:47; τ . καρδίας , Luke 16:15; c. acc pers., of recognition by God, 1 Corinthians 8:3, Galatians 4:9; by Christ, neg., Matthew 7:23; freq. of the knowledge of divine things, of God and Christ; τ . θεόν , Romans 1:21, Galatians 4:9; Τ . πατέρα , John 8:55; τ . κύριον , Hebrews 8:11 (LXX); νοῦν κυρίου , Romans 11:34; Χριστόν , John 17:3, 1 John 3:6; τὰ τοῦ πνεύματος , 1 Corinthians 2:14; τ . πνεύμα , 1 John 4:6; τ . ἀλήθειαν , John 8:32; of Christ's knowledge of the Father (ἐπιγ .), Matthew 11:27 (Dalman, Words, 282 ff.). In Hellenistic writers [LXX for Heb. H3045, Galatians 4:1, al.], of sexual intercourse, to know carnally: Matthew 1:25, Luke 1:34 (Cremer, 153).
SYN.: γ ., to know by observation and experience is thus prop. disting. from οἶδα , to know by reflection (a mental process, based on intuition or information); cf. also ἐφίστημι , συνίημι . (Cf. ἀνα -, δια -, ἐπι -, κατα -, προ -γινώσκω .)
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
For γ . followed by ὅτι , see P Par 47.14 (c. B.C. 153) (= Selections, p. 22) γίνωσ (l. γίνωσκε ) ὅτι πιράσεται ὁ δ ̣ρ ̣απέ [τη ]ς μὴ ἀφῖναι ἡμᾶς ἐ ̣[πὶ τ ]ῶν τόπων ἶναι , ";know that the runaway will try not to allow us to remain on the spot,"; ib. 49.33 (B.C. 164–58) γίνωσκε σαφῶς ὅτι , ἐὰν ἀναβῶ κἀγὼ προσκυνῆσαι , πρός σε οὐ μ [ὴ ] ἐπέλθω . In ib. 32.5 (B.C. 162) γινώσκετε . . . μὴ ἐσχολα [κέν ]αι με , we have the acc. and inf. : so ib. 44.4 (B.C. 153) γίνωσκέ με πεπορεῦσθαι εἰς κτλ . For the common epistolary phrase γινώσκειν σε θέλω ὅτι , see P Oxy IV. 743.27 (B.C. 2) ὥστ᾽ ἂν τοῦτό σε θέλω γεινώσκειν , ὅτι ἐγὼ αὐτῶι διαστολὰς δεδώκειν , BGU III. 846.5 (ii/A.D.) γεινώσκειν σαι θέλω , ὅτι ̣ οὐχ [ἥλπ ]ιζον , ὅτι ἀναβένις εἰς τὴν μητρόπολιν , ";I wish you to know that I had no hope that you would come up to the metropolis,"; ib. I. 27.4 (ii/A.D.) γινώσκειν σε θέλω ὅτει εἰς γῆν ἐλήλυθα τῇ ϛ ̄- τοῦ Ἐπεὶφ μηνός , ";I wish you to know that I arrived at land on the 6th of the month Epeiph,"; P Grenf II. 73.6 (late iii/A.D.), P Lond 417.5 (c. A.D. 346) (= II. p. 299), P Giss I. II.4 (A.D. 118), P Lond 973b.7 (iii/A.D.) (= III. p. 213), al. It will be noticed that the phrase does not come into regular use till early ii/A.D., which accounts for the NT showing a phrase (οὐ θέλω ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν in Paul) with the same meaning but with form not yet crystallized.
On the progressive displacement of the old participial object clause after γινώτκειν and other verbs of ";knowing,"; see Proleg. p. 229. To the instances of γινώσκειν with partic. add P Oxy VIII. 1118.7 (i/ii A.D.) ὅπ ]ως . . . γεινώσκωσι ἐμβαδεύσον [τά μ ]ε εἰς τὰ ὑπ [ο ]τεθειμένα καὶ καθέξον [τα κτλ . (other future participles), ";that they may know that I shall enter on the mortgaged property,"; etc. (Ed.).
Grimm’s ";Hebraistic euphemism"; in Matthew 1:25 is rather surprising when chronicled in the same breath with ";Grk writ. fr. the Alexandrian age down"; : coincidence of idiom between two entirely different languages is common enough. This use is found earliest in Menander : see this and other references in B. D. Durham, Vocabulary of Menander (Princeton, 1913), p. 51.
Some miscellaneous uses may be noted. P Tebt II. 279 (B.C. 231), a contract for the engagement of a nurse, ends ἔγν ̣ωκεν Σποννῆσις Ωρου Φανήσει Νεχθύριος . The editors translate ";made (?) between Sponnesis, daughter of Horus, and Phanesis, son of Nechthuris,"; but regard ἔγνωκεν as ";very difficult."; In the same collection, 289.5 (A.D. 23), we find a strategus, in demanding from a subordinate a supplementary report of tax-payments, writing οὕτως γὰρ γνώσομαι πότερον ἐπὶ τόπων σε ἐάσω πράττοντά τι , ";for I shall thus know whether I shall leave you in employment where you are"; (Edd.). In the passive we may quote P Oxy X. 1252 verso.33 (A.D. 288–95) γνωσθέντα ὀφείλειν λοιπὸν μῆνα τ ̣η ̣̑ς εὐθη [νιαρχείας , ";from whom, it was ascertained, a month more of his superintendence of provision was due"; (Edd.), P Giss I. 48.9 (A.D. 202–3) ἐγνώσθη τὰ κατὰ χρόνους δοθέντα ἐπιθέματα . . . παρεγράφη : we may suppose the writer was meaning to finish with a participle, and so did not insert ὅτι after ἐγνώσθη . The perfect passive appears in the (classical) sense ";determined"; in Syll 929.84 (B.C. 139 ?) ἐγνωσμένων τῶν καθόλου πραγμάτων ὑπὸ Ῥωμαίων .
For the forms of the verb, see Proleg. pp. 55, 193. The older Attic γιγνώσκω occurs fairly often in the new uncial W, and in Atticising documents among papyri and inscrr., as does γίγνομαι . For the aor. subj. γνοῖ , cf. P Oxy VI. 932.8 (late ii/A.D.) ἵνα ἐπιγνοῖς , ib. VII. 1062.13 f. (ii/A.D.) ἵνα αὐτὴν ἀναγνοῖς νήφων καὶ σαυτοῦ καταγνοῖς , P Giss I. 79iii. 8 (c. A.D. 117) ἵν᾽ ἐπ ̣ιγνοῖ σε σπουδά [σαι , and from new literature, P Oxy III. 413.160 (ii/A.D.—a mime) νῦν τοῦ γέροντ (ος ) ἐνκρατὴς θέλω γενέσ (θαι ) πρίν τι τούτ (ων ) ἐπιγνοῖ .
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
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