Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #5647 - עָבַד
1) to work, serve
1a1) to labour, work, do work
1a2) to work for another, serve another by labour
1a3) to serve as subjects
1a4) to serve (God)
1a5) to serve (with Levitical service)
1b1) to be worked, be tilled (of land)
1b2) to make oneself a servant
1c) (Pual) to be worked
1d1) to compel to labour or work, cause to labour, cause to serve
1d2) to cause to serve as subjects
1e) (Hophal) to be led or enticed to serve
V) dbo (אהבד AhBD) - I. Serve:To provide a service to another or to work at a profession. [Hebrew and Aramaic] II. Do:[Aramaic only] KJV (318): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Hiphil, Hophal, Pual) serve, do, till, servant, work, worshipper, service, dress, labour, ear, make, go, keep, move, wrought - Strongs: H5647 (עָבַד), H5648 (עֲבַד)
Jeff Brenner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
עָבַד fut. יַעֲבֹד
(1) to labour, to work (ar=beiten), to do work. (Aram. ܥܒܕܰ, עֲבַד to do, i.q. Heb. עָשָׂה; Arab. عبد to worship God, see No. 2, b; Conj. II. to reduce to servitude, see No. 3,) Constr. absol. Exodus 20:9, שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד “six days shalt thou labour” (opp. to שָׁבַת). Deuteronomy 5:13; Ecclesiastes 5:11. Followed by an acc. of the thing, to bestow labour on any thing (etwas be arbeiten), to till a field, Genesis 2:5, 3:23 4:2 a vineyard, Deuteronomy 28:39 a garden, Genesis 2:15 used of artisans, Isaiah 19:9, עֹבְדֵי פִשְׁתִּים “those who work in flax.” Ezekiel 48:18, עֹבדֵי־הָעִיר “those who work (in building) the city.” Without the acc. Deuteronomy 15:19, “thou shalt not till (the ground) (i.e. thou shalt not plough) with the firstling of thy ox.”
(2) to serve, to work for another, Genesis 29:20 commonly followed by an acc. of pers. to serve any one (Germ. jemanden bedienen), Genesis 27:40, 29:15 30:26 followed by לְ 1 Samuel 4:9 עִם with some one, Genesis 29:25, 30 Genesis 29:30; Leviticus 25:40 and לִפְנֵי 2 Samuel 16:19 (used of the king’s minister, comp. עָמַד לִפְנֵי). Followed by two acc. Genesis 30:29, יָדַעְתָּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר עֲבַדְתִּיךָ “thou knowest how I have served thee.” Specially to serve is used
(a) of a people to a people, Genesis 14:4, 15:14 25:23 Isaiah 19:23. Here belongs Genesis 15:13, וַעֲבָדוּם וְעִנּוּ אֹתָם “and they (the Israelites) shall serve them (the Egyptians), and they (the Egyptians) shall evil intreat them.”
(b) to serve God or idols; i.e. to worship God or idols, followed by an acc. Exodus 3:12, 9:1, 13 Deuteronomy 4:19, 8:19 30:17 followed by לְ Jeremiah 44:3; Judges 2:13. Absol. used of the worship of Jehovah, Job 36:11, “if they obey and serve (Jehovah).” Isaiah 19:23, “and the Egyptians shall serve (Jehovah) with the Assyrians;” (see above as to the Arabic usage).-It is also said
(c) with two accus. to serve Jehovah with anything, i.e. to offer sacrifice, Exodus 10:26 and without the name of God, עָבַד זֶבַח וּמִנְחָה to offer sacrifice and bloodless oblation, Isaiah 19:21, prop. to serve or worship (God) with offering sacrifices, etc.
(3) עָבַד בְּ causat. i.q. הֱעֶבִיד (comp. בְּ letter B, 4) to impose labour or servitude upon any one. Leviticus 25:39, לֹא תַעֲבֹד בּוֹ עֲבֹדַת עָֽבֶד “thou shalt not impose upon him servile work;” verse 46 Leviticus 25:46; Exodus 1:14; Jeremiah 22:13, 25:14 30:8.
(a) to be tilled as a field, Deuteronomy 21:4; Ezekiel 36:9, 34 Ezekiel 36:34.
(b) to be served, as a king by his subjects, Ecclesiastes 5:8.
(1) i.q. Niph., Deuteronomy 21:3 comp. 15:19.
(2) pass. of Kal No. 3. Isaiah 14:3, “the hard bondage אֲשֶׁר עֻבַּד בָּךְ which was laid upon thee.” For עֻבַּד one would expect עֻבְּדָה, but see Hebr. Gramm. § 138, 1, b.
(1) causat. of Kal No. 1, to cause to labour, to compel to do work, followed by an acc., Exodus 1:13, 6:5 hence to cause weariness by hard labour, to fatigue. Isaiah 43:24, “I have not wearied thee with (offering) sacrifices … 24, אַךְ הֱעֶבַדְתַּנִי בְּחַטֹּאותֶיךָ but thou hast wearied me with thy sins.”
(2) causat. of No. 2, to make to serve, Ezekiel 29:18 to bring (a people) into bondage, Jeremiah 17:4.
(3) causat. of No. 2, b, 2 Chronicles 34:33.
Hophal, הָעֳבַד to be made to serve, or to worship, Exodus 20:5 לֹא תָעָבְדֵם “thou shalt not be made to worship them (false Gods);” 23:24 Deuteronomy 5:9 hence to serve at the persuasion, incitement of others, 13:3.
Hence are derived the nouns which immediately follow, עֶבֶד-עֹבַדְיָה, and also מַעֲבָד.
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