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Bible Lexicons

Gesenius Hebrew Grammer

Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Gesenius
Wilhelm Gesenius

Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Gesenius ( 3 February 1786 - 23 October 1842 ) was a German orientalist and Biblical critic.

He was born at Nordhausen, Germany. In 1803, Gesenius became a student of philosophy and theology at the University of Helmstedt, where Heinrich Henke was his most influential teacher; but the latter part of his university course was taken at the Göngen, where Johann Gottfried Eichhorn and Thomas Christian Tychsen were then at the height of their popularity.

In 1806, shortly after graduation, he became Repetent and Privatdozent at Göngen; and, as he was later proud to say, had August Neander for his first pupil in Hebrew language. In 1810 he became professor extrardinarius in theology, and in 1811 ordinarius, at the University of Halle, where, in spite of many offers of high preferment elsewhere, he spent the rest of his life.

In 1827, after declining an invitation to take Eichhorn's place at Göngen, Gesenius was made a Consistorialrath; but, apart from the violent attacks to which he, along with his friend and colleague Julius Wegsheider, was in 1830 subjected by E. W. Hengstenberg and his party in the Evangelische Kirchenzeitung, on account of his rationalism, his life was uneventful.

Gesenius died at Halle and is buried near the university. According to tradition, theology students in Halle put stones on his grave as a token of respect every year before their examinations.

1. The Semitic Languages in General
2. Sketch of the History of the Hebrew Language
3. Grammatical Treatment of the Hebrew Language
4. Division and Arrangement of the Grammar

First Part
Elementary Principles or the Sounds and Characters

Chapter 1. The Individual Sounds and Characters
5. The Consonants: their Forms and Names
6. Pronunciation and Division of Consonants
7. The Vowels in General, Vowel Letters and Vowel Signs
8. The Vowel Signs in particular
9. Character of the several Vowels
10. The Half Vowels and the Syllable Divider ( Šewâ )
11. Other Signs which affect the Reading
12. Dageš in general, and Dageš forte in particular
13. Dageš lene
14. Mappîq and Rāphè
15. The Accents
16. Of Maqqēph and Mèthĕg
17. Of the Qerê and Kethîbh Masora marginalis and finalis

Chapter 2. Peculiarities and Changes of Letters:
the Syllable and the Tone
18. In General
19. Changes of Consonants
20. The Strengthening ( Sharpening ) of Consonants
21. The Aspiration of the Tenues
22. Peculiarities of the Gutturals
23. The Feebleness of the Gutturals א‎ and ה‎
24. Changes of the Weak Letters ו‎ and י‎
25. Unchangeable Vowels
26. Syllable-formation and its Influence on the Quantity of Vowels
27. The Change of the Vowels, especially as regards Quantity
28. The Rise of New Vowels and Syllables
29. The Tone, its Changes and the Pause

Second Part
Etymology or the Parts of Speech
30. Stems and Roots: Biliteral, Triliteral, and Quadriliteral
31. Grammatical Structure

Chapter 1. The Pronoun
32. The Personal Pronoun The Separate Pronoun
33. Pronominal Suffixes
34. The Demonstrative Pronoun
35. The Article
36. The Relative Pronoun
37. The Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns

Chapter 2. The Verb
38. General View
39. Ground-form and Derived Stems
40. Tenses Moods Flexion
41. Variations from the Ordinary Form of the Strong Verb

1. The Strong Verb
42. In General

A. The Pure Stem, or Qal
43. Its Form and Meaning
44. Flexion of the Perfect of Qal
45. The Infinitive
46. The Imperative
47. The Imperfect and its Inflexion
48. Shortening and Lengthening of the Imperfect and Imperative The Jussive and Cohortative
49. The Perfect and Imperfect with Wāw Consecutive
50. The Participle

B. Verba Derivativa, or Derived Conjugations
51. Niphʿal
52. Piʿēl and Puʿal
53. Hiphʿîl and Hophʿal
54. Hithpaʿēl
55. Less Common Conjugations
56. Quadriliterals

C. Strong Verb with Pronominal Suffixes
57. In general
58. The Pronominal Suffixes of the Verb
59. The Perfect with Pronominal Suffixes
60. Imperfect with Pronominal Suffixes
61. Infinitive, Imperative and Participle with Pronominal Suffixes

Verbs and Gutturals
62. Verbs with Gutturals
63. Verbs First Guttural, eg עָמַד‎ to stand
64. Verbs Middle Guttural, eg שָׁחַט‎ to slaughter
65. Verbs Third Guttural, eg שָׁלַח‎ to send

1. The Weak Verb
66. Verbs Primae Radicalis Nûn ( פ״ן‎ ) , eg נָגַשׁ‎ to approach
67. Verbs ע״ע‎, eg סָבַב‎ to surround

2. The Weakest Verbs ( Verba Quiescentia )
68. Verbs פ״א‎ eg אָכַל‎ to eat
69. Verbs פ״י‎ First Class, or Verbs originally פ״ו‎, eg יָשַׁב‎ to dwell
70. Verbs פ״י‎ Second Class, or Verbs properly פ״י‎, eg יָטַב‎ to be good Paradigm L
71. Verbs פ״י‎ Third Class, or Verbs with Yôdh assimilated
72. Verbs ע״וּ‎ ( vulgo ע״ו‎ ) , eg קוּם‎ to rise up Paradigm M
73. Verbs middle i ( vulgo ע״י‎ ) , eg בִּין‎ to discern Paradigm N
74. Verbs ל״א‎, eg מָצָא‎ to find Paradigm O
75. Verbs ל״ה‎, eg גָּלָה‎ to reveal Paradigm P
76. Verbs Doubly Weak
77. Relation of the Weak Verbs to one another

Chapter 3. The Noun
78. Verba Defectiva
79. General View
80. The Indication of Gender in Nouns
81. Derivation of Nouns
82. Primitive Nouns
83. Verbal Nouns in General
84a Nouns derived from the Simple Stem
85. Nouns with Preformatives and Afformatives
86. Denominative Nouns
87. Of the Plural
88. Of the Dual
89. The Genitive and the Construct State
90. Real and Supposed Remains of Early Case-endings ־ָה‎ local, וּ‎ in compound proper names, ־ִי‎ and וֹ‎ in the Construct State
91. The Noun with Pronominal Suffixes
92. Vowel Changes in the Noun
93. Paradigms of Masculine Nouns
94. Formation of Feminine Nouns
95. Paradigms of Feminine Nouns
96. Nouns of Peculiar Formation
97. Numerals ( a ) Cardinal Numbers
98. Numerals ( b ) Ordinal Numbers

Chapter 4. The Particles
99. General View
100. Adverbs
101. Prepositions
102. Prefixed Prepositions
103. Prepositions with Pronominal Suffixes and in the Plural Form
104. Conjunctions
105. Interjections


Chapter 2. The Parts of Speech
1. Syntax of the Verb.
A. Use of the Tenses and Moods.
106. Use of the Perfect
107. Use of the Imperfect
108. Use of the Cohortative
109. Use of the Jussive
110. The Imperative
111. The Imperfect with Wāw Consecutive
112. The Perfect with Wāw Consecutive

B. The Infinitive and Participle
113. The Infinitive Absolute
114. The Infinitive Construct
115. Construction of the Infinitive Construct with Subject and Object
116. The Participles

C. The Government of the Verb
117. The Direct Subordination of the Noun to the Verb as Accusative of the Object The Double Accusative
118. The Looser Subordination of the Accusative to the Verb
119. The Subordination of Nouns to the Verb by means of Prepositions
120. Verbal Ideas under the Government of a Verb Co-ordination of Complementary Verbal Ideas
121. Construction of Passive Verbs

2. Syntax of the Noun
122. Indication of the Gender of the Noun
123. The Representation of Plural Ideas by Means of Collectives, and by the Repetition of Words
124. The Various Uses of the Plural-form
125. Determination of Nouns in general Determination of Proper Names
126. Determination by Means of the Article
127. The Noun determined by a following Determinate Genitive
128. The Indication of the Genitive Relation by means of the Construct State
129. Expression of the Genitive by Circumlocution
130. Wider Use of the Construct State
131. Apposition
132. Connexion of the Substantive with the Adjective
133. The Comparison of Adjectives ( Periphrastic Expression of the Comparative and Superlative )
134. Syntax of the Numerals

3. Syntax of the Pronoun
135. The Personal Pronoun
136. The Demonstrative Pronoun
137. The Interrogative Pronouns
138. The Relative Pronoun
139. Expression of Pronominal Ideas by means of Substantives

Chapter 2. The Sentence
1. The Sentence in General
140. Noun-clauses, Verbal-clauses, and the Compound Sentence
141. The Noun-clause
142. The Verbal-clause
143. The Compound Sentence
144. Peculiarities in the Representation of the Subject ( especially in the Verbal-clause )
145. Agreement between the Members of a Sentence, especially between Subject and Predicate, in respect of Gender and Number
146. Construction of Compound Subjects
147. Incomplete Sentences

2. Special Kinds of Sentences
148. Exclamations
149. Sentences which express an Oath or Asseveration
150. Interrogative Sentences
151. Desiderative Sentences
152. Negative Sentences
153. Restrictive and Intensive Clauses
154. Sentences connected by Wāw
155. Relative Clauses
156. Circumstantial Clauses
157. Object-Clauses ( Oratio Obliqua )
158. Causal Clauses
159. Conditional Sentences
160. Concessive Clauses
161. Comparative Clauses
162. Disjunctive Sentences
163. Adversative and Exceptive Clauses
164. Temporal Clauses
165. Final Clauses
166. Consecutive Clauses
167. Aposiopesis, Anacoluthon, Involved Series of Sentences

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